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OpenGL Save openGL objects to file

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Hi guys,
I am making an L-sytem tree application. I require a way to save the generated models into a text file(.obj seems the best as it saves the vertices). Check this site for the L-system framework
I know how read and write to a text with plain C++ but the withOpenGL it is not straight forward.
Can someone please provide me with any help on this matter.?
Preferablly an example like saving the openGL cube or teapot veryices into a text file. Thanks

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There is no such concept as an OpenGL cube or teapot, you supply the geometry to the API and it is your responsibility to serialize/deserialize geometry and other assets yourself.

What specifically are you trying to do? Save a mesh you've generated yourself to disk? If so, you will need to write the geometry in the file format of your choice or use a library like the dubiously titled AssImp.

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Thanks GeneralQuery yes saving the mesh is what i am trying to do.
I will check out AssImp but if you know a way of writing the geometry
in .OBJ format i will really appreciate it.

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AssImp, AFAIK, can export meshes to a number of formats, including OBJ. You could implement your own OBJ exporter as it's simple enough but IMO you may as well use an existing solution unless you wish to do this as an academic exercise. It's a fairly boring process to DIY and you'll get far more flexibility and less headaches from using something like AssImp. You can reverse engineer the OBJ format easily enough or check out one of the many tutorials on the topic, or even lift the code from AssImp if you so desire.

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Why do you need to save the generated vertices?

I mean, it's a well defined, recursion driven system - You can simply save the proper function, and then run the generation algorithm whenever the object is actually needed.

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[color=#ff0000]lol i didnt read about writing it as text file well it is more complicated than this (loading)

well if you want to save vertices only just do sth like this

struct THeader{
int vertlen; //amount of vertices you want to save
};

struct t3dpoint {
float x;
float y;
float z;
};
FILE* f = fopen(filename,"wb+");

fwrite(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);

now you can save them
//through all vertices in array
for (j=0; j < header.vertlen ; j++) fwrite(&verts[j],sizeof(verts[j]),1,f); //or sizeof t3dpoint (whatever)
fclose(f);




and you want to load them





int length;
int j;
FILE* f = fopen(filename,"rb");

memset(&header,0,sizeof(THeader)); //do this if header consist more than one var if not ther is no need even to make a struct from header
fread(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);

int j;

set the length of verts - array in excample it can be simple pointer (t3dpoint * verts;)
verts = new t3dpoint[header.vertlen];
for (j=0; j < header.vertlen ; j++) {
t3dpoint imo;
fread(&imo,sizeof(imo),1,f);
verts[j] = imo; //something like this i use static arrays so i just assign it like thus if this does not work you will need to write (*verts) = imo; but have no idea if it will work anyway :P
}

fclose(f);
}



Congrats! you have your own file type Edited by ___

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Thanks for the replies people.
This question is addressed to ____ ,
I have tried using your sample code to save the vertices of an opengl cube to file but
i keep getting errors can you please provide a way foward. Thanks

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pls tell me what sort of errors, where compiler sees the error? or the progarm breaks when loading saving, pls also give code what you use, cheers
and almost forgot add #include "iostream.h" Edited by ___

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Hi _____,
Iam using the first part of your code the error is on this line
fwrite(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);


My full code is below, iam just trying to save the cube vertices into memory
please give me any ideas you might have. Thanks
[source lang="cpp"]

#include <GL/freeglut.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <stdio.h>
bool fullscreen = false;
bool mouseDown = false;

float xrot = 0.0f;
float yrot = 0.0f;

float xdiff = 0.0f;
float ydiff = 0.0f;

void drawBox()
{
glColor3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
glutSolidCube(2);
}

bool init()
{
glClearColor(0.93f, 0.93f, 0.93f, 0.0f);

glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL);
glClearDepth(1.0f);

return true;
}

void display()
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
glLoadIdentity();

gluLookAt(
0.0f, 0.0f, 3.0f,
0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);

glRotatef(xrot, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef(yrot, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);


drawBox();

glFlush();
glutSwapBuffers();
}

void resize(int w, int h)
{
glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity();

glViewport(0, 0, w, h);

gluPerspective(45.0f, 1.0f * w / h, 1.0f, 100.0f);

glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity();
}

void idle()
{
if (!mouseDown)
{
xrot += 0.3f;
yrot += 0.4f;
}

glutPostRedisplay();
}

void keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
{
switch(key)
{
case 27 :
exit(1); break;
}
}




//*
///save vertices
struct THeader{
int vertlen; //amount of vertices you want to save
THeader();
};

struct t3dpoint {
float x;
float y;
float z;
};
FILE* f = fopen("vertices.txt","wb+");

fwrite(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);

//now you can save them
//through all vertices in array
for (j=0; j < header.vertlen ; j++) fwrite(&verts[j],sizeof(verts[j]),1,f); //or sizeof t3dpoint (whatever)
fclose(f);
///

/*///Load
int length;
int j;
FILE* f = fopen(filename,"rb");

memset(&header,0,sizeof(THeader)); //do this if header consist more than one var if not ther is no need even to make a struct from header
fread(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);

int j;

//set the length of verts - array in excample it can be simple pointer (t3dpoint * verts;)
verts = new t3dpoint[header.vertlen];
for (j=0; j < header.vertlen ; j++) {
t3dpoint imo;
fread(&imo,sizeof(imo),1,f);
verts[j] = imo; //something like this i use static arrays so i just assign it like thus if this does not work you will need to write (*verts) = imo; but have no idea if it will work anyway tongue.png
}

fclose(f);
}
//*/
//*/
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
glutInit(&argc, argv);

glutInitWindowPosition(50, 50);
glutInitWindowSize(500, 500);

glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DOUBLE);

glutCreateWindow("13 - Solid Shapes");

glutDisplayFunc(display);
glutKeyboardFunc(keyboard);

glutReshapeFunc(resize);
glutIdleFunc(idle);

if (!init())
return 1;

glutMainLoop();

return 0;
}

[/source] Edited by wabbz111

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first thing do not use constructor in structure you want to save(ermove it) sec problem is you are not saving any vertices at all you haven't defined them glutSolidCube(2); will not define the vertices you want to save , last thing you are not saving verts in a function!!!! dude create a function that save verts, place structures in a header so it should be like this:

void saveverts()
{

FILE* f = fopen("vertices.txt","wb+");

fwrite(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);
rest of code

}
i am not a fairy please write an error you get
and you have
#include
#include
#include incldue what????


maybe you should start learn how to write programs, as far i can see you have no idea what you are doing Edited by ___

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Sorry about not reporting the errors.
About the missing #includes that is a problem when pasting
but the three libraries iam using are:
#include <GL/freeglut.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <stdio>
Here is the full error list i will try implement your suggestions. Cheers

[source lang="cpp"]shapes.cpp:168: error: expected constructor, destructor, or type conversion before '*' token

shapes.cpp:168: error: expected `,' or `;' before '*' token
shapes.cpp:170: error: expected constructor, destructor, or type conversion before '(' token
shapes.cpp:170: error: expected `,' or `;' before '(' token
shapes.cpp:174: error: expected unqualified-id before "for"
shapes.cpp:174: error: expected `,' or `;' before "for"
shapes.cpp:174: error: expected constructor, destructor, or type conversion before '<' token
shapes.cpp:174: error: expected `,' or `;' before '<' token
shapes.cpp:174: error: expected constructor, destructor, or type conversion before '++' token
shapes.cpp:174: error: expected `,' or `;' before '++' token
shapes.cpp:175: error: expected constructor, destructor, or type conversion before '(' token
shapes.cpp:175: error: expected `,' or `;' before '(' token

make.exe: *** [shapes.o] Error 1

Execution terminated[/source]

Here is the source code cube with vertices defined(without the changes reccomended)

[source lang="cpp"]

#include <GL/freeglut.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <stdio>

bool fullscreen = false;
bool mouseDown = false;

float xrot = 0.0f;
float yrot = 0.0f;

float xdiff = 0.0f;
float ydiff = 0.0f;

void drawBox()
{
glBegin(GL_QUADS);

glColor3f(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
// FRONT
glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
// BACK
glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);

glColor3f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
// LEFT
glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
// RIGHT
glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);

glColor3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
// TOP
glVertex3f(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
// BOTTOM
glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
glEnd();
}

bool init()
{
glClearColor(0.93f, 0.93f, 0.93f, 0.0f);

glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL);
glClearDepth(1.0f);

return true;
}

void display()
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
glLoadIdentity();

gluLookAt(
0.0f, 0.0f, 3.0f,
0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);

glRotatef(xrot, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef(yrot, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);

drawBox();

glFlush();
glutSwapBuffers();
}

void resize(int w, int h)
{
glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity();

glViewport(0, 0, w, h);

gluPerspective(45.0f, 1.0f * w / h, 1.0f, 100.0f);

glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity();
}

void idle()
{
if (!mouseDown)
{
xrot += 0.3f;
yrot += 0.4f;
}

glutPostRedisplay();
}

void keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
{
switch(key)
{
case 27 :
exit(1); break;
}
}

void specialKeyboard(int key, int x, int y)
{
if (key == GLUT_KEY_F1)
{
fullscreen = !fullscreen;

if (fullscreen)
glutFullScreen();
else
{
glutReshapeWindow(500, 500);
glutPositionWindow(50, 50);
}
}
}

void mouse(int button, int state, int x, int y)
{
if (button == GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON && state == GLUT_DOWN)
{
mouseDown = true;

xdiff = x - yrot;
ydiff = -y + xrot;
}
else
mouseDown = false;
}

void mouseMotion(int x, int y)
{
if (mouseDown)
{
yrot = x - xdiff;
xrot = y + ydiff;

glutPostRedisplay();
}
}

//*
///save vertices
struct THeader{
int vertlen; //amount of vertices you want to save
};

struct t3dpoint {
float x;
float y;
float z;
};
FILE* f = fopen(filename,"wb+");

fwrite(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);

//now you can save them
//through all vertices in array
for (j=0; j < header.vertlen ; j++) fwrite(&verts[j],sizeof(verts[j]),1,f); //or sizeof t3dpoint (whatever)
fclose(f);
//*/

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
glutInit(&argc, argv);

glutInitWindowPosition(50, 50);
glutInitWindowSize(500, 500);

glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DOUBLE);

glutCreateWindow("13 - Solid Shapes");

glutDisplayFunc(display);
glutKeyboardFunc(keyboard);
glutSpecialFunc(specialKeyboard);
glutMouseFunc(mouse);
glutMotionFunc(mouseMotion);
glutReshapeFunc(resize);
glutIdleFunc(idle);

if (!init())
return 1;

glutMainLoop();

return 0;
}

[/source] Edited by wabbz111

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pls tell me what sort of errors, where compiler sees the error? or the progarm breaks when loading saving, pls also give code what you use, cheers
and almost forgot add #include "iostream.h"

'iostream.h' is an extremely old and deprecated header which might not even be there depending on the compiler. You should never ever use it. The header in the C++ standard library is called 'iostream' without any .h.

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first thing do not use constructor in structure you want to save(ermove it)

That is plain wrong. A constructor is fine since it does not change the memory layout. A virtual function does though. That said, the point is moot anyway because in general it is not a good idea to serialize whole structures (padding happens and will not always be the same between compilers or platforms). A better habit is to serialize the individual members.

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wabbz111, are the error lines actually correct? I cannot make immediate sense of the error message in line 168.

That aside, why did you change your initial plan to output as a readable text format? Writing to a text file will be much easier to debug and a simple Wavefront obj file (containing only vertices and indices, maybe normals) is not that difficult to achieve (the corresponding Wikipedia entry contains all relevant information for that task).
Being able to check the validity of a file using a verified 3rd party program is priceless during development. If something does not work you know your writer is at fault instead of having to develop a reader as well and then trying to figure out which is wrong when it does not work (it never works the first time).

A very simple Wavefront obj exporter would be:

#include <vector>
#include <string>
#include <fstream>

void writeObject(const std::string& fileName, const std::vector<point>& points, const std::vector<int>& indices)
{
std::ofstream os(fileName.c_str());
for (std::size_t i = 0; i < points.size(); ++i)
os << "v " << points.x << " " points.y << " " << points.z << "\n";
for (std::size_t i = 0; i < indices.size(); i += 3)
os << "f " << (indices + 1) << " " << (indices[i + 1] + 1) << " " << (indices[i + 2] + 1) << "\n";
}

Not tested, but should work out of the box or with minimal cleanup. The only important caveat is that Wavefront obj files use one-based indices. If you account for that, writing or reading them is pretty straight forward. Of course, if you want reading non-trivial obj files or even different file formats I would still suggest using a library like Assimp.

Edit: <fstream> is needed, not <iostream>. Sorry for the inconvenience. Edited by BitMaster

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The first important step is verifying the writer works. Being able to do that with an external, already verified tool, will (as I already said) save a lot of headache.

Once that is done, reading the same Wavefronts as generated again is pretty trivial using iostreams (I would not implement a full loader, that is what Assimp and co is for). String splitting via streams is pretty trivial.

Third, nothing in the OPs post says he has to implement a loader as well. And if he does, here is one that can loads the files generated by the writer above:

#include <vector>
#include <string>
#include <sstream>
#include <fstream>

void readObject(const std::string& fileName, std::vector<point>& points, std::vector<int>& indices)
{
points.clear();
indices.clear();

std::string line;
std::ifstream is(fileName.c_str());
while (std::getline(is, line))
{
std::string prefix;
std::istringstream iss(line);
iss >> prefix;
if (prefix == "v")
{
point pt;
iss >> pt.x >> pt.y >> pt.z;
points.push_back(pt);
}
if (prefix == "f")
{
int idx[3];
iss >> idx[0] >> idx[1] >> idx[2];
indices.push_back(idx[0] - 1);
indices.push_back(idx[1] - 1);
indices.push_back(idx[2] - 1);
}
}
}

It's not pretty and really does not work with more complicated Wavefronts or faulty files (production code must be able to deal with invalid files) but it gets the job done for the moment. Again, for loading I would strongly advise using a full fledged loader library since developing a full and error prone loader is a rather tedious and boring exercise.

Edit: <fstream> is needed, not <iostream>. Sorry for the inconvenience.
Edit2: istrstream was the old deprecated string stream. istringstream is what should be used. Edited by BitMaster

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I have changed your code :


I have changed your code :


#include "iostream.h" //sometimes need '#include "#stdio.h" ' or stdlib ;]

struct THeader{
int vertlen; //amount of vertices you want to save
};
struct t3dpoint {
float x;
float y;
float z;
};

THeader header;
t3dpoint * verts;


bool fullscreen = false;
bool mouseDown = false;
float xrot = 0.0f;
float yrot = 0.0f;
float xdiff = 0.0f;
float ydiff = 0.0f;
t3dpoint vertin(float x, float y, float z)
{
t3dpoint k;
k.x = x;
k.y = y;
k.z = z;
return k;
}
void CreateModelArray()
{
verts = new t3dpoint[24];

header.vertlen = 24;
verts[0] = vertin(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[1] = vertin( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[2] = vertin( 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[3] = vertin(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
// BACK
verts[4] = vertin(-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[5] = vertin(-0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[6] = vertin( 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[7] = vertin( 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);

// LEFT
verts[8] = vertin(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[9] = vertin(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[10] = vertin(-0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[11] = vertin(-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
// RIGHT
verts[12] = vertin( 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[13] = vertin( 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[14] = vertin( 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[15] = vertin( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);

// TOP
verts[16] = vertin(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[17] = vertin( 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[18] = vertin( 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[19] = vertin(-0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f);
// BOTTOM
verts[20] = vertin(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
verts[21] = vertin(-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[22] = vertin( 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f);
verts[23] = vertin( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f);
}
void drawBox()
{
int i;
glColor3f(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glBegin(GL_QUADS);
for (i=0; i<24;i++)
glVertex3f(verts.x,verts.y,verts.z);


glEnd();
}
bool init()
{
glClearColor(0.93f, 0.93f, 0.93f, 0.0f);
glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL);
glClearDepth(1.0f);
return true;
}
void display()
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
glLoadIdentity();
gluLookAt(
0.0f, 0.0f, 3.0f,
0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,
0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef(xrot, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
glRotatef(yrot, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
drawBox();
glFlush();
glutSwapBuffers();
}
void resize(int w, int h)
{
glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity();
glViewport(0, 0, w, h);
gluPerspective(45.0f, 1.0f * w / h, 1.0f, 100.0f);
glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity();
}
void idle()
{
if (!mouseDown)
{
xrot += 0.3f;
yrot += 0.4f;
}
glutPostRedisplay();
}
void keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
{
switch(key)
{
case 27 :
exit(1); break;
}
}
void specialKeyboard(int key, int x, int y)
{
if (key == GLUT_KEY_F1)
{
fullscreen = !fullscreen;
if (fullscreen)
glutFullScreen();
else
{
glutReshapeWindow(500, 500);
glutPositionWindow(50, 50);
}
}
}
void mouse(int button, int state, int x, int y)
{
if (button == GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON && state == GLUT_DOWN)
{
mouseDown = true;
xdiff = x - yrot;
ydiff = -y + xrot;
}
else
mouseDown = false;
}
void mouseMotion(int x, int y)
{
if (mouseDown)
{
yrot = x - xdiff;
xrot = y + ydiff;
glutPostRedisplay();
}
}

void savemodel(char *filename)
{
FILE* f = fopen(filename,"wb+");
fwrite(&header,sizeof(THeader),1,f);

for (j=0; j < header.vertlen ; j++) fwrite(&verts[j],sizeof(verts[j]),1,f);
fclose(f);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
glutInit(&argc, argv);
glutInitWindowPosition(50, 50);
glutInitWindowSize(500, 500);
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DOUBLE);

glutCreateWindow("13 - Solid Shapes");
glutDisplayFunc(display);
glutKeyboardFunc(keyboard);
glutSpecialFunc(specialKeyboard);
glutMouseFunc(mouse);
glutMotionFunc(mouseMotion);
glutReshapeFunc(resize);
glutIdleFunc(idle);
CreateModelArray();
if (!init())
return 1;
glutMainLoop();
return 0;
}
Edited by ___

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Again, 'iostream.h' is an old and deprecated header. The header you are looking for is 'iostream'. And if you need the C header 'stdio.h' then you should include 'cstdio' (note the missing .h and leading c). Same goes for 'stdlib.h'. That is a C header and when using it in C++ you should include 'cstdlib' instead.

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Okay, let me sum this up. First, you present the OP with a solution that does not do what he wants (he wants to write text files, you offer him binary files). Then you make several mistakes (like using headers that don't exist) and when corrected (repeatedly) you go on an indiscriminate crusade of downvoting? Was anything I said actually factually incorrect (if so, I'm happy to be corrected) or are you just petty?

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tell me where the mistakes are and why did you and your stupid friends downvoted me. headers that do not exist yea right, read


hanks for the replies people.
This question is addressed to ____ ,
I have tried using your sample code to save the vertices of an opengl cube to file but
i keep getting errors can you please provide a way foward. Thanks[/quote]


and what is it?

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I have clearly commented every instance where I downvoted you in my posts including exactly which information is wrong.

On a sidenote: I did not call in any 'friends' to downvote you or upvote me again. I downvoted you exactly thrice, each time I added a post where I explained my reasoning as well what exactly I believe to be wrong.

For the record: 'iostream.h' does not exist in my default configuration of MSVC 2008. It was an old header way back from VC6, from before C++ was standardized. No compiler is guaranteed to ship with one (I believe MSVC 2005 still had it) but there is absolutely no point in using it nowadays. In fact, it's extremely counterproductive since most compilers won't even have it and it is not even standard compliant. Edited by BitMaster

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and this is your holly reason to give me negative score because 'i don't have it', POOR CHILD!!!!!!!
so i have changed his code, because i wanted to help him and then you downvoted it because you don't have that header mr i know everything, please stfu and leave.

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    • By DiligentDev
      This article uses material originally posted on Diligent Graphics web site.
      Introduction
      Graphics APIs have come a long way from small set of basic commands allowing limited control of configurable stages of early 3D accelerators to very low-level programming interfaces exposing almost every aspect of the underlying graphics hardware. Next-generation APIs, Direct3D12 by Microsoft and Vulkan by Khronos are relatively new and have only started getting widespread adoption and support from hardware vendors, while Direct3D11 and OpenGL are still considered industry standard. New APIs can provide substantial performance and functional improvements, but may not be supported by older hardware. An application targeting wide range of platforms needs to support Direct3D11 and OpenGL. New APIs will not give any advantage when used with old paradigms. It is totally possible to add Direct3D12 support to an existing renderer by implementing Direct3D11 interface through Direct3D12, but this will give zero benefits. Instead, new approaches and rendering architectures that leverage flexibility provided by the next-generation APIs are expected to be developed.
      There are at least four APIs (Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES, Vulkan, plus Apple's Metal for iOS and osX platforms) that a cross-platform 3D application may need to support. Writing separate code paths for all APIs is clearly not an option for any real-world application and the need for a cross-platform graphics abstraction layer is evident. The following is the list of requirements that I believe such layer needs to satisfy:
      Lightweight abstractions: the API should be as close to the underlying native APIs as possible to allow an application leverage all available low-level functionality. In many cases this requirement is difficult to achieve because specific features exposed by different APIs may vary considerably. Low performance overhead: the abstraction layer needs to be efficient from performance point of view. If it introduces considerable amount of overhead, there is no point in using it. Convenience: the API needs to be convenient to use. It needs to assist developers in achieving their goals not limiting their control of the graphics hardware. Multithreading: ability to efficiently parallelize work is in the core of Direct3D12 and Vulkan and one of the main selling points of the new APIs. Support for multithreading in a cross-platform layer is a must. Extensibility: no matter how well the API is designed, it still introduces some level of abstraction. In some cases the most efficient way to implement certain functionality is to directly use native API. The abstraction layer needs to provide seamless interoperability with the underlying native APIs to provide a way for the app to add features that may be missing. Diligent Engine is designed to solve these problems. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common C++ front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native APIs. It also supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. Full source code is available for download at GitHub and is free to use.
      Overview
      Diligent Engine API takes some features from Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 as well as introduces new concepts to hide certain platform-specific details and make the system easy to use. It contains the following main components:
      Render device (IRenderDevice  interface) is responsible for creating all other objects (textures, buffers, shaders, pipeline states, etc.).
      Device context (IDeviceContext interface) is the main interface for recording rendering commands. Similar to Direct3D11, there are immediate context and deferred contexts (which in Direct3D11 implementation map directly to the corresponding context types). Immediate context combines command queue and command list recording functionality. It records commands and submits the command list for execution when it contains sufficient number of commands. Deferred contexts are designed to only record command lists that can be submitted for execution through the immediate context.
      An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
      The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
      In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
      Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
      Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
      Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
      Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
      Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
      Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
      API Basics
      Creating Resources
      Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
      BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
      TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
      Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

       
      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
    • By reenigne
      For those that don't know me. I am the individual who's two videos are listed here under setup for https://wiki.libsdl.org/Tutorials
      I also run grhmedia.com where I host the projects and code for the tutorials I have online.
      Recently, I received a notice from youtube they will be implementing their new policy in protecting video content as of which I won't be monetized till I meat there required number of viewers and views each month.

      Frankly, I'm pretty sick of youtube. I put up a video and someone else learns from it and puts up another video and because of the way youtube does their placement they end up with more views.
      Even guys that clearly post false information such as one individual who said GLEW 2.0 was broken because he didn't know how to compile it. He in short didn't know how to modify the script he used because he didn't understand make files and how the requirements of the compiler and library changes needed some different flags.

      At the end of the month when they implement this I will take down the content and host on my own server purely and it will be a paid system and or patreon. 

      I get my videos may be a bit dry, I generally figure people are there to learn how to do something and I rather not waste their time. 
      I used to also help people for free even those coming from the other videos. That won't be the case any more. I used to just take anyone emails and work with them my email is posted on the site.

      I don't expect to get the required number of subscribers in that time or increased views. Even if I did well it wouldn't take care of each reoccurring month.
      I figure this is simpler and I don't plan on putting some sort of exorbitant fee for a monthly subscription or the like.
      I was thinking on the lines of a few dollars 1,2, and 3 and the larger subscription gets you assistance with the content in the tutorials if needed that month.
      Maybe another fee if it is related but not directly in the content. 
      The fees would serve to cut down on the number of people who ask for help and maybe encourage some of the people to actually pay attention to what is said rather than do their own thing. That actually turns out to be 90% of the issues. I spent 6 hours helping one individual last week I must have asked him 20 times did you do exactly like I said in the video even pointed directly to the section. When he finally sent me a copy of the what he entered I knew then and there he had not. I circled it and I pointed out that wasn't what I said to do in the video. I didn't tell him what was wrong and how I knew that way he would go back and actually follow what it said to do. He then reported it worked. Yea, no kidding following directions works. But hey isn't alone and well its part of the learning process.

      So the point of this isn't to be a gripe session. I'm just looking for a bit of feed back. Do you think the fees are unreasonable?
      Should I keep the youtube channel and do just the fees with patreon or do you think locking the content to my site and require a subscription is an idea.

      I'm just looking at the fact it is unrealistic to think youtube/google will actually get stuff right or that youtube viewers will actually bother to start looking for more accurate videos. 
    • By Balma Alparisi
      i got error 1282 in my code.
      sf::ContextSettings settings; settings.majorVersion = 4; settings.minorVersion = 5; settings.attributeFlags = settings.Core; sf::Window window; window.create(sf::VideoMode(1600, 900), "Texture Unit Rectangle", sf::Style::Close, settings); window.setActive(true); window.setVerticalSyncEnabled(true); glewInit(); GLuint shaderProgram = createShaderProgram("FX/Rectangle.vss", "FX/Rectangle.fss"); float vertex[] = { -0.5f,0.5f,0.0f, 0.0f,0.0f, -0.5f,-0.5f,0.0f, 0.0f,1.0f, 0.5f,0.5f,0.0f, 1.0f,0.0f, 0.5,-0.5f,0.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, }; GLuint indices[] = { 0,1,2, 1,2,3, }; GLuint vao; glGenVertexArrays(1, &vao); glBindVertexArray(vao); GLuint vbo; glGenBuffers(1, &vbo); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vbo); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertex), vertex, GL_STATIC_DRAW); GLuint ebo; glGenBuffers(1, &ebo); glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, ebo); glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices,GL_STATIC_DRAW); glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, false, sizeof(float) * 5, (void*)0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); glVertexAttribPointer(1, 2, GL_FLOAT, false, sizeof(float) * 5, (void*)(sizeof(float) * 3)); glEnableVertexAttribArray(1); GLuint texture[2]; glGenTextures(2, texture); glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); sf::Image* imageOne = new sf::Image; bool isImageOneLoaded = imageOne->loadFromFile("Texture/container.jpg"); if (isImageOneLoaded) { glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, imageOne->getSize().x, imageOne->getSize().y, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, imageOne->getPixelsPtr()); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } delete imageOne; glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); sf::Image* imageTwo = new sf::Image; bool isImageTwoLoaded = imageTwo->loadFromFile("Texture/awesomeface.png"); if (isImageTwoLoaded) { glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, imageTwo->getSize().x, imageTwo->getSize().y, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, imageTwo->getPixelsPtr()); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } delete imageTwo; glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "inTextureOne"), 0); glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "inTextureTwo"), 1); GLenum error = glGetError(); std::cout << error << std::endl; sf::Event event; bool isRunning = true; while (isRunning) { while (window.pollEvent(event)) { if (event.type == event.Closed) { isRunning = false; } } glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); if (isImageOneLoaded && isImageTwoLoaded) { glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]); glUseProgram(shaderProgram); } glBindVertexArray(vao); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, nullptr); glBindVertexArray(0); window.display(); } glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &vao); glDeleteBuffers(1, &vbo); glDeleteBuffers(1, &ebo); glDeleteProgram(shaderProgram); glDeleteTextures(2,texture); return 0; } and this is the vertex shader
      #version 450 core layout(location=0) in vec3 inPos; layout(location=1) in vec2 inTexCoord; out vec2 TexCoord; void main() { gl_Position=vec4(inPos,1.0); TexCoord=inTexCoord; } and the fragment shader
      #version 450 core in vec2 TexCoord; uniform sampler2D inTextureOne; uniform sampler2D inTextureTwo; out vec4 FragmentColor; void main() { FragmentColor=mix(texture(inTextureOne,TexCoord),texture(inTextureTwo,TexCoord),0.2); } I was expecting awesomeface.png on top of container.jpg

    • By khawk
      We've just released all of the source code for the NeHe OpenGL lessons on our Github page at https://github.com/gamedev-net/nehe-opengl. code - 43 total platforms, configurations, and languages are included.
      Now operated by GameDev.net, NeHe is located at http://nehe.gamedev.net where it has been a valuable resource for developers wanting to learn OpenGL and graphics programming.

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    • By TheChubu
      The Khronos™ Group, an open consortium of leading hardware and software companies, announces from the SIGGRAPH 2017 Conference the immediate public availability of the OpenGL® 4.6 specification. OpenGL 4.6 integrates the functionality of numerous ARB and EXT extensions created by Khronos members AMD, Intel, and NVIDIA into core, including the capability to ingest SPIR-V™ shaders.
      SPIR-V is a Khronos-defined standard intermediate language for parallel compute and graphics, which enables content creators to simplify their shader authoring and management pipelines while providing significant source shading language flexibility. OpenGL 4.6 adds support for ingesting SPIR-V shaders to the core specification, guaranteeing that SPIR-V shaders will be widely supported by OpenGL implementations.
      OpenGL 4.6 adds the functionality of these ARB extensions to OpenGL’s core specification:
      GL_ARB_gl_spirv and GL_ARB_spirv_extensions to standardize SPIR-V support for OpenGL GL_ARB_indirect_parameters and GL_ARB_shader_draw_parameters for reducing the CPU overhead associated with rendering batches of geometry GL_ARB_pipeline_statistics_query and GL_ARB_transform_feedback_overflow_querystandardize OpenGL support for features available in Direct3D GL_ARB_texture_filter_anisotropic (based on GL_EXT_texture_filter_anisotropic) brings previously IP encumbered functionality into OpenGL to improve the visual quality of textured scenes GL_ARB_polygon_offset_clamp (based on GL_EXT_polygon_offset_clamp) suppresses a common visual artifact known as a “light leak” associated with rendering shadows GL_ARB_shader_atomic_counter_ops and GL_ARB_shader_group_vote add shader intrinsics supported by all desktop vendors to improve functionality and performance GL_KHR_no_error reduces driver overhead by allowing the application to indicate that it expects error-free operation so errors need not be generated In addition to the above features being added to OpenGL 4.6, the following are being released as extensions:
      GL_KHR_parallel_shader_compile allows applications to launch multiple shader compile threads to improve shader compile throughput WGL_ARB_create_context_no_error and GXL_ARB_create_context_no_error allow no error contexts to be created with WGL or GLX that support the GL_KHR_no_error extension “I’m proud to announce OpenGL 4.6 as the most feature-rich version of OpenGL yet. We've brought together the most popular, widely-supported extensions into a new core specification to give OpenGL developers and end users an improved baseline feature set. This includes resolving previous intellectual property roadblocks to bringing anisotropic texture filtering and polygon offset clamping into the core specification to enable widespread implementation and usage,” said Piers Daniell, chair of the OpenGL Working Group at Khronos. “The OpenGL working group will continue to respond to market needs and work with GPU vendors to ensure OpenGL remains a viable and evolving graphics API for all its customers and users across many vital industries.“
      The OpenGL 4.6 specification can be found at https://khronos.org/registry/OpenGL/index_gl.php. The GLSL to SPIR-V compiler glslang has been updated with GLSL 4.60 support, and can be found at https://github.com/KhronosGroup/glslang.
      Sophisticated graphics applications will also benefit from a set of newly released extensions for both OpenGL and OpenGL ES to enable interoperability with Vulkan and Direct3D. These extensions are named:
      GL_EXT_memory_object GL_EXT_memory_object_fd GL_EXT_memory_object_win32 GL_EXT_semaphore GL_EXT_semaphore_fd GL_EXT_semaphore_win32 GL_EXT_win32_keyed_mutex They can be found at: https://khronos.org/registry/OpenGL/index_gl.php
      Industry Support for OpenGL 4.6
      “With OpenGL 4.6 our customers have an improved set of core features available on our full range of OpenGL 4.x capable GPUs. These features provide improved rendering quality, performance and functionality. As the graphics industry’s most popular API, we fully support OpenGL and will continue to work closely with the Khronos Group on the development of new OpenGL specifications and extensions for our customers. NVIDIA has released beta OpenGL 4.6 drivers today at https://developer.nvidia.com/opengl-driver so developers can use these new features right away,” said Bob Pette, vice president, Professional Graphics at NVIDIA.
      "OpenGL 4.6 will be the first OpenGL release where conformant open source implementations based on the Mesa project will be deliverable in a reasonable timeframe after release. The open sourcing of the OpenGL conformance test suite and ongoing work between Khronos and X.org will also allow for non-vendor led open source implementations to achieve conformance in the near future," said David Airlie, senior principal engineer at Red Hat, and developer on Mesa/X.org projects.

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