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OpenGL Time to write rendering engine from scratch

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I have a new assignment where my boss wants me to write the complete source code for a simple rendering engine that can load and render standard file formats like OBJ (at least one format) but it needs to be written from scratch.

It's been a while since I wrote one from the ground up (15 years or so), in fact it seems hardly anything in graphics is written from scratch these days. The pay is great so I don't have a problem doing it, but am at a loss for an estimate and wanted to get a consensus from those with experience.

How long would you estimate it would take to write an OpenGL program that can load say OBJ files and render models without fancy shaders?

Also, what file format is most straightforward to load and render?

Thanks in advance. Edited by bigneil

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I agree, it will take time to learn all the stuff necessary to write a serious and correct viewer that works according to the endless amount of specifications you'll need to know.
But, feel free to ask anything in here if you run into any problems..
I would start with GLFW for the openGL window, and go from there, as it is multiplatform (win, linux, mac), and handles the window, inputs and swapping (including vsync) for you.
Unless you also have to do that by hand :)

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I'd be extremely careful as the goal is not clearly defined. I use AssImp for the loading yet I'd find hard to take less than 5 working days. But perhaps my definition of "without fancy shaders" is different from yours. Edited by Krohm

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As L. Spiro say, it´s personal. And if you dont have any experiance in coding with either Dx or GL it will probably take a while to figure out how things work.

Use Assimp, it´s easy, it´s good, it´s fast and honestly saved me alot of work and time. it allso supports a ton of formats.
estimate to one month. thats a good start amount, you have room to develop, and to fix bugs, and to correct or rewrite stuff if you are forced to.

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Generally unsure of myself? 15 years rusty?

And it would take Spiro 2 days and it would take me 2 months?

Who is Spiro trying to impress? A group of anonymous computer nerds?

FYI I've programmed OpenGL every day for the past 15 years, and patented my own rendering system in the process. My own product already served as a rapid prototyping tool and I solved their actual problem in my first few hours.

It just happens they want the source code (a license of which I sell for $250K).

I'm just pointing out that people don't usually write rendering engines from scratch anymore (the one I wrote in 1997 is still working fine thank you), and if someone tells you they can write a rendering engine from scratch in 2 days they are lying.

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I'm just pointing out that people don't usually write rendering engines from scratch anymore (the one I wrote in 1997 is still working fine thank you), and if someone tells you they can write a rendering engine from scratch in 2 days they are lying.

Your stated requirements were vague, basically "parse an OBJ model and display it to the screen with a basic shader". This as stated can be done very quickly, in a matter of days if you work hard at it. Of course, adding requirements and features will increase the time accordingly, but you did not mention these in your question, they were therefore not mentioned in the answer. mellow.png

Your two posts are somewhat inconsistent with each other, is there something you're not telling us? Edited by Bacterius

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Generally unsure of myself? 15 years rusty?

And it would take Spiro 2 days and it would take me 2 months?

Who is Spiro trying to impress? A group of anonymous computer nerds?

FYI I've programmed OpenGL every day for the past 15 years, and patented my own rendering system in the process. My own product already served as a rapid prototyping tool and I solved their actual problem in my first few hours.

It just happens they want the source code (a license of which I sell for $250K).

I'm just pointing out that people don't usually write rendering engines from scratch anymore (the one I wrote in 1997 is still working fine thank you), and if someone tells you they can write a rendering engine from scratch in 2 days they are lying.


So by reading your first post, this is my toutghs :
- "It's been a while since I wrote one from the ground up (15 years or so), in fact it seems hardly anything in graphics is written from scratch these days. The pay is great so I don't have a problem doing it, but am at a loss for an estimate and wanted to get a consensus from those with experience."

Here you state it was a long time you wrote it from the ground and up. (by just sligtly reading, this is easy read as "i havent done it in 15 years" )
And to add the title states, "Time to write rendering engine from the scratch", this adds more to the idea that you havent done it in a while.

- "How long would you estimate it would take to write an OpenGL program that can load say OBJ files and render models without fancy shaders?"
This gets me to think, you are asking for advice out from experienced developers to get some estimate on how long this task would take, because you sound like a rookie on the sentence befor. ( you might not be a rookie )


- "Who is Spiro trying to impress? A group of anonymous computer nerds?"
I belive none, in fact, i think you got this on the wrong hand. as we got your "Question" on the wrong hand aswell.
If you have been writing OpenGL for 15 years, the you would be pretty sure of how long it would take you to develop that stuff, due to the fact that you know the problems, the issues, and the solutions for it. and you would allso give an planned approach and estimate upon that. Edited by Tordin

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it would take Spiro 2 days and it would take me 2 months?

I don’t know. How long would it take you?
That is what we are trying to determine.



I wwebsite as on the internet

You obviously know more about yourself than any of us, but put that aside for a moment and read your post and then my reply.

If you can’t handle the answer, don’t ask the question. If you do ask the question, you should provide all of the necessary information. When estimating how long it would take you to complete a task in OpenGL, it would be a good idea to mention any experience you have in OpenGL up-front.

It’s generally assumed that if you come here to ask a question, you want to find people who are more experienced than yourself so you can get help from them.
If this wasn’t your thinking, then what was? Did you hope to find a bunch of people saying, “It would take me 3 weeks,” so that you could say to yourself, “What a loser, I am so much better than him or her”?


It sounds as though you already know the answer, so good luck with your project.


L. Spiro Edited by L. Spiro

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Just to elaborate on L Spiro's first answer (which is quite correct, by the way), your first task is to create a window, get a basic message loop running, and write a basic render function that just clears the screen and does a swap buffers.

Depending on how familiar you are with that process, depending on how many platforms you want to support, depending on whether you need to write platform-native code or are allowed to (or are allowing yourself to) use any helper frameworks, depending on whether you need to learn a new platform from scratch, this could take anything from minutes to weeks or even longer.

It really is that open-ended and you've supplied insufficient info in your original question to allow anyone to correctly gauge your level of knowledge or ability here. 15 years experience in OpenGL means squat when it comes to having to learn the intricacies and pitfalls of a new platform from scratch - even someone like John Carmack still makes basic mistakes on the platform he's most familiar with, so please don't try to imagine that you won't.

From there you need to load and parse a model format. Go back and re-read your opening question again; does it read like the kind of question asked by someone who is familiar with a good variety model formats? Now, .obj is a plain text format so you've got some nasty parsing and conversion ahead of you; have you given any indication that you're aware of this? Do you see now why your open-ended question could elicit an open-ended response?

Back to .obj; like I said, there is some nasty parsing and conversion to be done, but for the most part this is already a solved problem. But you say "from scratch", so for you you may first need to learn the format, then write a loader, then decide how you're going to draw it (as this will greatly influence your loader). Are you going to use immediate mode? Vertex arrays? VBOs? How much experience do you have in these? It's possible to spend 15 years doing OpenGL without ever having gotten within spitting distance of a VBO (especially if the codebase you're most familiar with dates back to 1997) so do you need to learn VBOs from scratch too? You may need to if "it must run fast" is part of your specification (which you haven't clarified).

Again, do you see how open-ended this is?

From there, and since you mention that you're not using shaders (or are you just not using fancy shaders?) I'm going to assume that you're back in familiar territory and can form your own estimate - you're the person in the best position to do that. But do note that I said "assume" here. And also note that I left out anything relating to whether or not the model needs to animate.

As for the simplest model format to load, that would be a proprietary format that you design yourself and that is set up so that you can just read the data directly into the most appropriate in-memory format for rendering from. It could be as basic as a single fread followed by a single glBufferData call - can't get much simpler than that. As a general rule, the more open a model format is the more complex it is as it needs to be able to support the needs of multiple programs doing different types of rendering, but it can virtually always be guaranteed to take the flexibility side of the tradeoff.

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I'm not sure how "It's been a while since I wrote (a rendering engine) from the ground up" was interpreted as "it's been a while since I programmed graphics (in any capacity)", or who wouldn't take "you sound rusty and unsure of yourself" as less than insulting, but I appreciate the advice. Thanks everyone.

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Because I was just tasked with writing a rendering engine from scratch I wanted to get a consensus on what people who have written rendering engines more recently thought.

In the end I decided to whittle down my own code since it works perfectly (and recompiles in 6 seconds to all you A-holes who write programs that take 2 hours to compile (see Electronic Arts).

But man, I forgot what a bunch of d*uche b*gs are on this site. Members here (what an appropriate term) pride themselves on their blog rating here and you'll never find a site more likely to neg you for one post that doesn't stroke their ego. Try saying you don't like Goto for example - they'll neg you all the way to negative 1000.

But try asking an advanced question about parametric surfaces and you'll get crickets.

Most of the people here with high ratings don't actually have computer science jobs (or formal experience) which is why they have so much time (and why they are so bitter).

Worse, they provide best-case scenario estimates - an enormous disservice to themselves, coworkers and the industry. A wise man once said "The more I know the less I understand" - and members here understand everything.

If you've worked in the industry you know you'll never find smarter people who are willing to do exactly what they are told (by their boss, the FDA and the TSA) - Developers in a crisis will (according to Meyer Briggs) "go with what the group does".

Oh well, I'd rather be making $90 an hour programming OpenGL for my own business than to have a high db rating, but if you make less be sure to neg me.

Anytime you do something worthwhile you're going to offend someone.

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Whoa whoa whoa

If...
If...
If...
If you are generally unsure of yourself (and it sounds as though you are), I would say you should give yourself no less than a month, maybe up to 2.

Because of the wide range of skills and experiences, I am not sure how helpful any of our answers would be.

1) I don't believe LS was tearing you down or diminishing your character. And I'm pretty sure the way you reacted to LS and similar answers set this thread downhill. Clarification on your part probably would have went a long way.
2) Plenty of people here don't like goto (unless absolutely positively necessary, which it usually isn't).
3) I don't believe you can get a negative rating - perhaps I am wrong about that one though.

Please try to reconsider your perspective on all this - it's not what you think it is.

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3) I don't believe you can get a negative rating - perhaps I am wrong about that one though.

No you actually can. Lowest I've seen so far is -350 or so. Not that ratings matter that much anyway. I've come to the conclusion that the thread creator is a troll, and you know what they say about trolls. Edited by Bacterius

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I can only second L Spiro here.

You ask a question, which it must be assumed was well-intentioned and in good faith.
You get some answers that also read as well-intentioned and in good faith.

From there it seems that you didn't like the answers you got and the resulting conflagration borders on thermonuclear war. Not good.

I'm not saying that you're obliged to like the answers, but there is such a thing as basic manners - people have freely and willingly given of their own time here.

One can only answer a question based on the information contained in that question; if the answers recieved are believed to be inadequate or otherwise lacking then there is obviously a communication deficit of some kind to be addressed. Strikes me that it would have been far more productive to address that deficit than to engage in flaming out.

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huh.png


Excellent Caffeware - I downloaded it and it ran instantly - this is how all software should be written!

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Yes! I almost achieved my negative rating!

This shows what a farce it is.

When you're a 20 year veteran of the 3D graphics industry and already worked on Madden Football, Far Cry, Doom, Descent and other games, the rating system doesn't disprove you, you disprove the rating system. Edited by bigneil

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"Strikes me that it would have been far more productive to address that deficit than to engage in flaming out."

It's the forum that flames out. I was once a member for years and had a rating of 400 or so, then when I said I didn't like Goto my rating went all the way to -400 - OVER ONE THREAD. Edited by bigneil

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I really do not get why you're reacting this agressively to people's reactions, there was no need for any agression, nobody tried to flame you or attack you in any way whatsoever. You got some valid answers to your question, there may have been some misunderstandings and miscommunications but there's no reason to suddenly react the way you did.
You claim to be an industry veteran of 20 years, if that's true you might want to think about acting somewhat more like an adult then in this situation instead of starting to flame and trying to profile yourself as superior to everyone else because of the projects you have done or (of all things) the compile times you get.

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When you're a 20 year veteran of the 3D graphics industry and already worked on Madden Football, Far Cry, Doom, Descent and other games, the rating system doesn't disprove you, you disprove the rating system.

I am really getting tired of you and your inferiority complex. You asked a question hoping to find people with more experience than you on a given subject.
I answered because that subject is exactly down my ally. When I go to work, I make a game engine (unless I am going to my other job that is). When I get home, I make a game engine.

Game engines aren’t rendering engines, but it just so happens that my current task at work is the rendering part, and on my own engine I am currently working on the rendering part.

Because I was just tasked with writing a rendering engine from scratch I wanted to get a consensus on what people who have written rendering engines more recently thought.

And I am exactly the person you wanted to answer this question. I am writing a damned book about rendering/loading graphics files/etc. as we speak.

Suddenly you are offended that someone is better than you at this task, yet why wouldn’t I be? It’s what I do all day every day—whatever you do all day every day probably makes you better at that than I am.
So your inferiority complex kicks in and you have to make up for it in other ways—salary, past projects, status, etc.
I have been extremely kind up to this point, having passed up numerous chances to put you in your place, but here is the deal: You don’t impress me.
There are people here who do, but you will never be one of them. They impress due to their skills and professionalism. Your salary, past projects, and status as a business owner are not impressive. Once again I am leaving it at that instead of taking you down a few notches, although you do deserve to be put in your place. I can at least say that based on your salary, past projects, and status as a business owner, you have no place to brag, so listing these things as an attempt to make up for your shortcomings in skill only make you out as someone that much more desperate to have lived a better life. Just stop trying to make yourself more than you are, because I can promise you that no respectable person I have ever met has made the kinds of posts you have made, trying to prove themselves to some other random person online. Each time you do so just makes you much less of an impressive person and much more like the kind of person who wishes he or she was more than he or she actually is.

You are what’s bringing this site’s quality down.
You only come here to flame and brag about yourself, and this topic serves absolutely no purpose to anyone who stumbles upon it in the future. It starts with a very vague question and quickly becomes a 1-man flame-war. Then you make it clear that your goal is only to get a negative reputation (I still haven’t touched your reputation, by the way).
I am not a moderator here, but it is obvious that if you don’t take a contributory tone starting from your very next post, you will be banned.


L. Spiro Edited by L. Spiro

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At this point I need to chime in about reputation.

Reputation is NOT there to stroke anyone's ego. Any member of this site with sufficiently high reputation is most definitely NOT getting an internet hard-on (pardon the choice of phrase, couldn't think of a better way of putting it) from it, because they understand the purpose of the system.

The reason for reputation is to act as a service to the community. People can identify the good answers to questions, the ones that are most likely to be the right answer or to at least shove them in the right direction.

A good, fully functioning member will welcome negative reputation as much as they welcome positive reputation, because they will see negative reputation as something that puts their own previously held assumptions to the test. Because they understand that no matter how much one is experienced, no matter how much one knows, learning is a continuous process.

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As a slight topic digression, what is the state / benefits to your engine Spiro? I'm always interested in hearing what goes on :)
As a member who frequents another forum devoted to a specific software, I hope I can provide something in the nature of an opinion.
I myself do not work in rendering engines. I have little experience, yet enough to understand that it can become a quickly all-encompassing task.
The issue here is that you failed to address a generic opening. This is the cause of the troubles. If you have a genuine question, ask it again, and perhaps apologise if you feel that you have overreacted. If you feel that this is unfair, then lest this topic be useful to others it should be left. Best of luck to all.

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      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

       
      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
    • By reenigne
      For those that don't know me. I am the individual who's two videos are listed here under setup for https://wiki.libsdl.org/Tutorials
      I also run grhmedia.com where I host the projects and code for the tutorials I have online.
      Recently, I received a notice from youtube they will be implementing their new policy in protecting video content as of which I won't be monetized till I meat there required number of viewers and views each month.

      Frankly, I'm pretty sick of youtube. I put up a video and someone else learns from it and puts up another video and because of the way youtube does their placement they end up with more views.
      Even guys that clearly post false information such as one individual who said GLEW 2.0 was broken because he didn't know how to compile it. He in short didn't know how to modify the script he used because he didn't understand make files and how the requirements of the compiler and library changes needed some different flags.

      At the end of the month when they implement this I will take down the content and host on my own server purely and it will be a paid system and or patreon. 

      I get my videos may be a bit dry, I generally figure people are there to learn how to do something and I rather not waste their time. 
      I used to also help people for free even those coming from the other videos. That won't be the case any more. I used to just take anyone emails and work with them my email is posted on the site.

      I don't expect to get the required number of subscribers in that time or increased views. Even if I did well it wouldn't take care of each reoccurring month.
      I figure this is simpler and I don't plan on putting some sort of exorbitant fee for a monthly subscription or the like.
      I was thinking on the lines of a few dollars 1,2, and 3 and the larger subscription gets you assistance with the content in the tutorials if needed that month.
      Maybe another fee if it is related but not directly in the content. 
      The fees would serve to cut down on the number of people who ask for help and maybe encourage some of the people to actually pay attention to what is said rather than do their own thing. That actually turns out to be 90% of the issues. I spent 6 hours helping one individual last week I must have asked him 20 times did you do exactly like I said in the video even pointed directly to the section. When he finally sent me a copy of the what he entered I knew then and there he had not. I circled it and I pointed out that wasn't what I said to do in the video. I didn't tell him what was wrong and how I knew that way he would go back and actually follow what it said to do. He then reported it worked. Yea, no kidding following directions works. But hey isn't alone and well its part of the learning process.

      So the point of this isn't to be a gripe session. I'm just looking for a bit of feed back. Do you think the fees are unreasonable?
      Should I keep the youtube channel and do just the fees with patreon or do you think locking the content to my site and require a subscription is an idea.

      I'm just looking at the fact it is unrealistic to think youtube/google will actually get stuff right or that youtube viewers will actually bother to start looking for more accurate videos. 
    • By Balma Alparisi
      i got error 1282 in my code.
      sf::ContextSettings settings; settings.majorVersion = 4; settings.minorVersion = 5; settings.attributeFlags = settings.Core; sf::Window window; window.create(sf::VideoMode(1600, 900), "Texture Unit Rectangle", sf::Style::Close, settings); window.setActive(true); window.setVerticalSyncEnabled(true); glewInit(); GLuint shaderProgram = createShaderProgram("FX/Rectangle.vss", "FX/Rectangle.fss"); float vertex[] = { -0.5f,0.5f,0.0f, 0.0f,0.0f, -0.5f,-0.5f,0.0f, 0.0f,1.0f, 0.5f,0.5f,0.0f, 1.0f,0.0f, 0.5,-0.5f,0.0f, 1.0f,1.0f, }; GLuint indices[] = { 0,1,2, 1,2,3, }; GLuint vao; glGenVertexArrays(1, &vao); glBindVertexArray(vao); GLuint vbo; glGenBuffers(1, &vbo); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vbo); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertex), vertex, GL_STATIC_DRAW); GLuint ebo; glGenBuffers(1, &ebo); glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, ebo); glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices,GL_STATIC_DRAW); glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, false, sizeof(float) * 5, (void*)0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); glVertexAttribPointer(1, 2, GL_FLOAT, false, sizeof(float) * 5, (void*)(sizeof(float) * 3)); glEnableVertexAttribArray(1); GLuint texture[2]; glGenTextures(2, texture); glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); sf::Image* imageOne = new sf::Image; bool isImageOneLoaded = imageOne->loadFromFile("Texture/container.jpg"); if (isImageOneLoaded) { glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, imageOne->getSize().x, imageOne->getSize().y, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, imageOne->getPixelsPtr()); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } delete imageOne; glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR); sf::Image* imageTwo = new sf::Image; bool isImageTwoLoaded = imageTwo->loadFromFile("Texture/awesomeface.png"); if (isImageTwoLoaded) { glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, imageTwo->getSize().x, imageTwo->getSize().y, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, imageTwo->getPixelsPtr()); glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D); } delete imageTwo; glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "inTextureOne"), 0); glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "inTextureTwo"), 1); GLenum error = glGetError(); std::cout << error << std::endl; sf::Event event; bool isRunning = true; while (isRunning) { while (window.pollEvent(event)) { if (event.type == event.Closed) { isRunning = false; } } glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); if (isImageOneLoaded && isImageTwoLoaded) { glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]); glUseProgram(shaderProgram); } glBindVertexArray(vao); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, nullptr); glBindVertexArray(0); window.display(); } glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &vao); glDeleteBuffers(1, &vbo); glDeleteBuffers(1, &ebo); glDeleteProgram(shaderProgram); glDeleteTextures(2,texture); return 0; } and this is the vertex shader
      #version 450 core layout(location=0) in vec3 inPos; layout(location=1) in vec2 inTexCoord; out vec2 TexCoord; void main() { gl_Position=vec4(inPos,1.0); TexCoord=inTexCoord; } and the fragment shader
      #version 450 core in vec2 TexCoord; uniform sampler2D inTextureOne; uniform sampler2D inTextureTwo; out vec4 FragmentColor; void main() { FragmentColor=mix(texture(inTextureOne,TexCoord),texture(inTextureTwo,TexCoord),0.2); } I was expecting awesomeface.png on top of container.jpg

    • By khawk
      We've just released all of the source code for the NeHe OpenGL lessons on our Github page at https://github.com/gamedev-net/nehe-opengl. code - 43 total platforms, configurations, and languages are included.
      Now operated by GameDev.net, NeHe is located at http://nehe.gamedev.net where it has been a valuable resource for developers wanting to learn OpenGL and graphics programming.

      View full story
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