# OpenGL breakout game

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I am working on a breakout game using texture mapping and OpenGL. I have the paddle working but when I move it the bricks disappear. The problem is probably related to the buffer swapping command.
[code]
void drawScene() {
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);

glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
for(float i=-5.0f;i<=3.0f;i+=2.0f)
{
//draw bricks
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(i, 5.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(i+2.0f, 5.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(i+2.0f, 4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(i, 4.5f, 0.0f);
glEnd();
}
for(float i=-5.0f;i<=3.0f;i+=2.0f)
{
//draw bricks
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(i, 4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(i+2.0f, 4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(i+2.0f, 4.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(i, 4.0f, 0.0f);
glEnd();
}
for(float i=-5.0f;i<=3.0f;i+=2.0f)
{
//draw bricks
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(i, 4.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(i+2.0f, 4.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(i+2.0f, 3.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(i, 3.5f, 0.0f);
glEnd();
}
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(-1.0f, -4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(1.0f, -4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(1.0f, -5.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(-1.0f, -5.0f, 0.0f);
glEnd();
glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);

glutSwapBuffers();
}
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);

glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(-1.0f+i, -4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(-1.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(1.0f+i, -4.5f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f);
glVertex3f(1.0f+i, -5.0f, 0.0f);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f);
glVertex3f(-1.0+i, -5.0f, 0.0f);
glEnd();
i-=0.05f;
glDisable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
glutSwapBuffers();
}
[/code]
hopefully this is not too much.

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Why would you expect anything else if you clear the buffer, draw only the paddle and then display only the paddle?

How does this even compile if 'i' isn't declared in paddle_left (and if it's global... can you tell why naming a global variable "i" is just incredibly bad and confusing?)

And how is this ever going to work if the next time you draw your scene you will always draw the paddle in exactly the same position, no matter what?

How will you ever "remove" a brick if drawing them is hard coded like that?

Why is that loop copy pasted for every row of bricks and how will you ever be able to have any other number of rows in a level?

You need to take a very big step back and realize that the stuff drawn on the screen isn't the "game", but takes the current state of the game and visualizes it. AI players (or psychics) should be able to play without needing ANY kind of graphics of drawing. In one nice Google friendly acronym: "MVC".

A buffer in OpenGL isn't a stage where you put stuff and then move it around, it's a ton of pixels that need to be rendered again for every frame (unless you really know what you're doing and invest a lot of head ache to optimize something that absolutely doesn't need to be optimized).

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I have worked on this a lot, can I get another hint on what to do.

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If you don't understand what he is saying, then you should ask a [b]specific[/b] question about his post.

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[quote name='Trienco' timestamp='1353563068' post='5003130']
Why would you expect anything else if you clear the buffer, draw only the paddle and then display only the paddle?
[/quote]
can you please clarify what you mean by only drawing the paddle and the bricks.

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wow that is a lot to digest, thanks for all the help, I will do some research on game loops.

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[quote name='JTippetts' timestamp='1353649892' post='5003391']
assume you call paddle_left whenever the paddle is supposed to move left? That's why your bricks disappear. As soon as paddle_left is called, the buffer is cleared and only the paddle is drawn. Anything else that was drawn (perhaps during a previous call to draw_scene) is wiped when glClear is called inside paddle_left.
[/quote]
I am still working on this problem.

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well according to tippets I should put all my rendering inside the drawscene function. I should do no drawing inside the paddle left function. My question is what should I put in my paddle left function.

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well tippets is right on, thanks a lot I finally figured it out.

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google is my friend, I have done a lot of research on this topic. I am trying to move a ball in a breakout game. I am unsure of how to proceed.here Is the code I am working on.
[code]
void Timer(int value)
{
if(x > windowWidth - rsize || x < -windowWidth || y > windowHeight)
{
xstep = -xstep;
ystep = -ystep;
}

x += xstep;
y += ystep;

glutPostRedisplay();

glutTimerFunc(20,Timer,1);
}
[/code]

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I don't know why this is so hard for you to understand: if you make a post and you have a question, then you need to actually ask the question. If you have an error you can't figure out, post the error. If you have a problem, describe the problem. This, at a minimum, includes both what you want to happen and what is happening instead. Just posting code and saying that you are having troubles [b]still[/b] doesn't cut it.

Note that this isn't just frustration at your extremely poor communication skills. The minimum information for formulating a proper post is also the minimum information for properly examining a problem on your own. You need to develop the skill of breaking down a problem into smaller chunks, and the very first step of that is understanding the problem well enough to describe it.

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ok this code works, kind of. It causes a ball to move from the lower left side of the screen and to move to the upper right side and then back again. what I want it to do is move more in the middle of the screen, I am using a cartesion coordinate system. The origin is at the center of the screen. I am using gluOrtho2D(-5.0,5.0,-5.0,5.0) to set the edges of the screen. With a small amount of code change I can get the ball to move from the upper right to the lower left of the screen.

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[quote name='phil67rpg' timestamp='1353814775' post='5003871']
what I want it to do is move more in the middle of the screen
[/quote]
Be more precise. How do you want the ball to do this? Would you like a shallower angle so that it bounces between the walls more often before it hits the ceiling? Do you want the ball to bend towards the center as it travels like there's a black hole there?

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ok yes I would like the ball to have a shallower angle so that it hits off the ceiling more than off the walls.

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Your xstep and ystep values together constitute what is called a vector. The word vector has quite a few different but related meanings, but in this context you can think of it as Direction + Magnitude. If you imagine the vector as an arrow, the direction of course is the direction the arrow is pointing, and the magnitude is the arrow's length. If xstep=1 and ystep=1, the resulting vector is (1,1). It can be conceptualized as an arrow that is pointing up and to the right (assuming the origin, (0,0), to be in the lower left corner of the screen) at a 45 degree angle. The magnitude of the vector is approximately 1.414. (The magnitude, or length, of course is calculated by the Pythagorean theorem.) So if you add xstep and ystep to the ball's current position, the result is to move it up and right a distance of 1.414 units.

To get the ball to move in other directions, you merely change the values of xstep and ystep to point the arrow in different directions. xstep=-1, ystep=1 will move it up and to the left. xstep=0, ystep=1 will move it straight up. xstep=1, ystep=0 will move it straight right. And so forth.

Of course, you also need the ball to move at a consistent speed (denoted by the magnitude of the vector) regardless of what direction it is pointing. A vector of (1,1) is not the same length as the vector (0,1), so a ball moving along the vector (1,1) will move faster than along the vector (0,1). To fix this, you need to normalize the vector; ie, convert the vector to what is called a unit vector, or a vector whose magnitude is 1. This is simple enough to do, you simply divide xstep and ystep by the magnitude of the vector.

Once your vector is normalized to unit length, then you can scale it by the ball's speed (by multiplying xstep and ystep by speed) before using it to move the ball. One way of doing this is to encapsulate xstep, ystep and speed into some sort of ball structure, which is far preferable than having xstep and ystep live globally in your program. Then you can just call a method on the ball structure/class to move the ball. Something like this:

[code]
class Ball
{
public:
Ball(float x, float y, float vx, float vy, float speed) : x_(x), y_(y), speed_(speed)
{
setDirection(vx,vy);
}
~Ball(){}

void setPosition(float x, float y)
{
x_=x;
y_=y;
}

void setDirection(float vx, float vy)
{
vx_=vx;
vy_=vy;
float len=sqrt(vx*vx+vy*vy);
vx/=len;
vy/=len;
}

void move()
{
x_+=vx_*speed_;
y_+=vy_*speed_;

// Check to see if it hit the sides, and reflect the vector if so
if(x_<0 || x_>ScreenWidth) vx_*=-1.0f;
if(y_<0 || y_>ScreenHeight) vy_*=-1.0f
}

private:
float x_, y_, speed_, vx_, vy_;
};
[/code]

This is just a quickie, of course, but it shows how the Ball class encapsulates everything it needs to move. Then in your timer function, instead of explicitly performing the movement and checks there, you can simply call Ball.move() to have the ball update itself.

[code]

void timer(int value)
{
ball.move();
glutPostRedisplay();
glutTimerFunc(20, timer, 1);
}

[/code]

There is no reason any of the ball's internal logic should be in timer() itself; that should be safely encapsulated inside Ball, so that the timer function doesn't have to worry about it. The timer function should just be calling logic update methods, and letting the object logic handle itself. It's much cleaner and far more flexible this way.

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wow that is a lot to learn, I need to read up on vectors

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I have stubbed out the above code. It works good but I have a question. The x and y variables are the ball's position and I think vx and vy are the balls velocity. What I don't know is what the x_ and _y and speed_ variables are. I have studied this code in depth and I know that setDirection is a function that normalizes the vector associated with the ball.

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x_, y_, vx_ and vy_ are class members. They're the actual ball position and velocity. That should be apparent by the fact that setPosition() sets x_ and y_, and setDirection() sets vx_ and vy_. (Appending a _ for class members is a convention of mine I picked up who knows where to allow me to quickly identify members while reading code.)

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cool thanks jtippetts, after much tweaking I finally got my ball to behave properly, now all I have to do is the collision detection.

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well now comes the hard part. I am now using the following code to detect ball and brick collision detection. The error I am getting is that the ball quickly disappears on the screen when I run the program. I have done a great deal of research on this topic but I still need some help.
[code]
void brick_collision()
{
if(x>3.0f && x<5.0f)
{
brick=3.0f;
bricks[3][5]=false;
}

else if(x>1.0f && x<3.0f)
{
brick=1.0f;
bricks[3][4]=false;
}

else if(x>-1.0f && x<1.0f)
{
brick=-1.0f;
bricks[3][3]=false;
}

else if(x>-3.0f && x<-1.0f)
{
brick=-3.0f;
bricks[3][2]=false;
}

else if(x>-5.0f && x<-3.0f)
{
brick=-5.0f;
bricks[3][1]=false;
}

SPRITE object3;
SPRITE object4;

object3.x=x;
object3.y=y;
object3.width=0.1f;
object3.height=0.1f;

object4.x=brick;
object4.y=3.5f;
object4.width=2.0f;
object4.height=1.0f;

if(Sprite_Collide(&object3,&object4)==1)
{
xstep=-xstep;
ystep=-ystep;
}
}
[/code]
I will do more research on collision detection.

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