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Tasche

DX11 Rendertarget switching with deferred lighting

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hello again, this time im doing deferred lighting following this concept:

http://kayru.org/articles/deferred-stencil/

 

ive got it implemented, but some questions remain...

-in the first pass you need to turn off color, while the second one draws to the rendertarget. at the moment i achieve this by setting the rendertarget to 0 during the first pass. however rendertarget switching is expensive, so i wonder if i should do this maybe with alpha blending. i know i can simply try it out, but i don't want a days worth of bughunting just to find out my original solution was better, and rather profit from someone elses experience. any other clever (i.e. fast) ways to mask out color drawing?

 

-also, when doing multiple lights, i save a light color and specular factor in the rendertarget and accumulate values for all lights in the same target. is this the right way to do it?

 

in pseudocode, i do a loop over my lights which looks something like this:

 

for (all lights)

{

     set_rendertarget(null,depthstencil)

     renderfrontfaces()

 

     set_rendertarget(colorbuffer,depthstencil)

     renderbackfaces()

}

 

so my loop always switches between those targets, feels kinda expensive (atm my fps drop from 200 to 60 with 50 lights each covering ~30% of the screen, even though their pixelshader code does almost nothing, only a tex lookup (well overdraw also kills fps, but that much?)). doing the first pass with all lights, then the second doesnt work obviously, because backfaces of some light may coincide with frontfaces of another drawn earlier, and produce a draw area which should've been stenciled out.

 

im using dx11 btw, if it matters...

 

any thoughts how to do this properly is appreciated

 

cheers,

   tasche

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that is a lot of rendertarget switching.  why not drop the stencil buffer and just handle it in the light shader.  unproject from screen space coord and depth value to world space position and discard fragment if its outside the bounds of the light (super easy to calculate for boxes, spheres, cones and probably doing it anyway when computing attenuation).  then you can just set the render target and render all your lights in one go.

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If you have to switch render targets anyways (i.e. from the previous final frame rendering) then you aren't really losing anything by only binding the depth buffer and then after the first step binding the render target. 

 

However, if you really want to try something else, you could always use the RenderTargetWriteMask in the blend state.  I'm pretty sure using the render target set to null is going to be significantly faster than this though, since this will allow your pixel shader to continue operating and just throws away the results (whereas with no render target the pixel shader probably won't execute at all).

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so first thanks for those quick responses...

that is a lot of rendertarget switching.  why not drop the stencil buffer and just handle it in the light shader.  unproject from screen space coord and depth value to world space position and discard fragment if its outside the bounds of the light (super easy to calculate for boxes, spheres, cones and probably doing it anyway when computing attenuation).  then you can just set the render target and render all your lights in one go.

hm i heard about people doing something like this, but to be honest i couldn't figure out how. doing a bounding volume test on a pixel's world position seems rather expensive  compared to rendering a low poly sphere twice, since it involves trigonometry, and has to be done for every pixel covered by the sphere (which still has to be rendered), not only the lit areas. but i probably am missing some integral part of the algorithm. got any links? googling something like 'deferred lighting without stencil' lists a bunch of stencil algorithms -.-' but as soon as i find some info on this ill definitely look into it.

 

If you have to switch render targets anyways (i.e. from the previous final frame rendering) then you aren't really losing anything by only binding the depth buffer and then after the first step binding the render target. 

 

However, if you really want to try something else, you could always use the RenderTargetWriteMask in the blend state.  I'm pretty sure using the render target set to null is going to be significantly faster than this though, since this will allow your pixel shader to continue operating and just throws away the results (whereas with no render target the pixel shader probably won't execute at all).

to the first part: but the color buffer always get bound and unbound (depthstencil remains) for every light iteration. if the card/driver is clever it will optimize it to just skip the pix shader, in which case i get optimal performance (best case), if not it will move the entire light accumulation buffer into cache and out again (worst case), which i think is actually happening.

to the second part: hm so you are saying the way i got it at the moment is faster? that word 'allow' confuses me, since it implies the opposite =)

 

pls post back once you read this guys! thanks again by the way...

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so first thanks for those quick responses...

that is a lot of rendertarget switching.  why not drop the stencil buffer and just handle it in the light shader.  unproject from screen space coord and depth value to world space position and discard fragment if its outside the bounds of the light (super easy to calculate for boxes, spheres, cones and probably doing it anyway when computing attenuation).  then you can just set the render target and render all your lights in one go.

hm i heard about people doing something like this, but to be honest i couldn't figure out how. doing a bounding volume test on a pixel's world position seems rather expensive  compared to rendering a low poly sphere twice, since it involves trigonometry, and has to be done for every pixel covered by the sphere (which still has to be rendered), not only the lit areas. but i probably am missing some integral part of the algorithm. got any links? googling something like 'deferred lighting without stencil' lists a bunch of stencil algorithms -.-' but as soon as i find some info on this ill definitely look into it.

 

>

If you have to switch render targets anyways (i.e. from the previous final frame rendering) then you aren't really losing anything by only binding the depth buffer and then after the first step binding the render target. 

 

However, if you really want to try something else, you could always use the RenderTargetWriteMask in the blend state.  I'm pretty sure using the render target set to null is going to be significantly faster than this though, since this will allow your pixel shader to continue operating and just throws away the results (whereas with no render target the pixel shader probably won't execute at all).

to the first part: but the color buffer always get bound and unbound (depthstencil remains) for every light iteration. if the card/driver is clever it will optimize it to just skip the pix shader, in which case i get optimal performance (best case), if not it will move the entire light accumulation buffer into cache and out again (worst case), which i think is actually happening.

to the second part: hm so you are saying the way i got it at the moment is faster? that word 'allow' confuses me, since it implies the opposite =)

 

pls post back once you read this guys! thanks again by the way...

That's right - I meant that using the blend state would allow your pixel shader to run --> meaning it will be slower than just enabling and disabling the whole render target.  I know you don't want to hear this, but the best way is just to try it out - it should be very easy to test out, and you can verify that you are doing things correctly with PIX / Graphics Debugger too.

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so first thanks for those quick responses...

that is a lot of rendertarget switching.  why not drop the stencil buffer and just handle it in the light shader.  unproject from screen space coord and depth value to world space position and discard fragment if its outside the bounds of the light (super easy to calculate for boxes, spheres, cones and probably doing it anyway when computing attenuation).  then you can just set the render target and render all your lights in one go.

hm i heard about people doing something like this, but to be honest i couldn't figure out how. doing a bounding volume test on a pixel's world position seems rather expensive  compared to rendering a low poly sphere twice, since it involves trigonometry, and has to be done for every pixel covered by the sphere (which still has to be rendered), not only the lit areas. but i probably am missing some integral part of the algorithm. got any links? googling something like 'deferred lighting without stencil' lists a bunch of stencil algorithms -.-' but as soon as i find some info on this ill definitely look into it.

 

so in point light rendered as sphere you're probably already computing the attenuation with some linear fall off that hits zero at light radius.  if the distance between light pos and world pos is greater than the light radius then you don't want to light that point so you either fully attenuate or discard (depending on expense of the rest of your shader)

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so in point light rendered as sphere you're probably already computing the attenuation with some linear fall off that hits zero at light radius.  if the distance between light pos and world pos is greater than the light radius then you don't want to light that point so you either fully attenuate or discard (depending on expense of the rest of your shader)

consider following situation (picture done in pov-ray, just for demo purposes)

brick wall + blue stuff = a floor and a ...well ... a wall in the gbuffer

white sphere = my pointlight bounding object

small ellipses = intersections of the bounding object with wall and floor

 

http://imagebin.org/248058 (sry somehow i cant post images directly)

 

my code will only run the pixel shader for the small ellipses in the white sphere. if i understand your suggestion correctly, the pixel shader will run for every pixel in the white sphere, and do at least a distance testing (trigonometry) before exiting.

 

since the sphere covers nearly the entire screen, this will be very expensive compared to my method. of course its a constructed situation, but i wouldn't say its uncommon.

the way i do it will always be less or same (since it only runs a pixel shader on intersections with the light sphere).

true, the sphere has to be rendered twice, but a modern GPU tears through a low vertex count vertex shader like a knife through butter, and aside from that rendertarget switch and some depthstencil settings data remains in cache for both passes. its definitly the target switch that is painful (provided that it is needed at all).

im still not 100% sure i got your method right, because i know a lot of people do deferred lighting in one pass, i just cant find proper info on it)

 

guess ill just have to try some alpha technique... if anyone knows anything else on how to mask color buffer (i may need it for something else, you never know :D) pls share!

 

on a side note, i noticed my severe frame rate drops were due to me loading and unloading the gbuffer as resource (3 fullHD size 32 bit textures) for every light, after fixing that i can render up to 250 lights at otherwise same settings/resulting fps. stupid me. i'm still very interested in the answers to my question though, but with this i can work.

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ah sry to dig out this old one, but just for completeness, i tried the alpha = 0 version and just setting first pass target to 0 is marginally quicker.

so if anyone ever wondered, go for a nulltarget =)

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g_Viewport.TopLeftY = 0.0f; g_Viewport.MinDepth = 0.0f; g_Viewport.MaxDepth = 1.0f; return 0; } bool LoadContent() { //Load Shaders HRESULT hr; assert(g_d3dDevice); //VS ID3DBlob* vsBlob = nullptr; D3DReadFileToBlob(L"../Shaders/SimpleVertexShader.cso", &vsBlob); assert(vsBlob); hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateVertexShader(vsBlob->GetBufferPointer(), vsBlob->GetBufferSize(), nullptr, &g_d3dVertexShader); if (FAILED(hr)) { SafeRelease(vsBlob); return false; } //Create VS Input Layout D3D11_INPUT_ELEMENT_DESC vertexLayoutDesc[] = { { "POSITION", 0, DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT, 0, offsetof(VertexPosColor, Position), D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA ,0 }, { "COLOR", 0, DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT, 0, offsetof(VertexPosColor, Color), D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA ,0 } }; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateInputLayout(vertexLayoutDesc, _countof(vertexLayoutDesc), vsBlob->GetBufferPointer(), vsBlob->GetBufferSize(), &g_d3dInputLayout); if (FAILED(hr)) { SafeRelease(vsBlob); return false; } SafeRelease(vsBlob); //PS ID3DBlob* psBlob = nullptr; D3DReadFileToBlob(L"../Shaders/SimplePixelShader.cso", &psBlob); assert(psBlob); hr = g_d3dDevice->CreatePixelShader(psBlob->GetBufferPointer(), psBlob->GetBufferSize(), nullptr, &g_d3dPixelShader); SafeRelease(psBlob); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } //Load Vertex Buffer D3D11_BUFFER_DESC vertexBufferDesc{}; vertexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(VertexPosColor) * _countof(g_Vertices); vertexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; vertexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER; D3D11_SUBRESOURCE_DATA resourceData{}; resourceData.pSysMem = g_Vertices; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &resourceData, &g_d3dVertexBuffer); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } //Load Index Buffer D3D11_BUFFER_DESC indexBufferDesc{}; indexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(WORD) * _countof(g_Indicies); indexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; indexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_INDEX_BUFFER; resourceData.pSysMem = g_Indicies; hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateBuffer(&indexBufferDesc, &resourceData, &g_d3dIndexBuffer); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } //Load Constant Buffers D3D11_BUFFER_DESC cBufferDesc{}; cBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(XMMATRIX); cBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT; cBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_CONSTANT_BUFFER; for (size_t bufferID = 0; bufferID < NumConstantBuffers; bufferID++) { hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateBuffer(&cBufferDesc, nullptr, &g_d3dConstantBuffers[bufferID]); if (FAILED(hr)) { return false; } } //Setup Projection Matrix RECT client{}; GetClientRect(g_WinHnd, &client); float clientWidth = static_cast<float>(client.right - client.left); float clientHeight = static_cast<float>(client.bottom - client.top); g_ProjectionMatrix = DirectX::XMMatrixPerspectiveFovLH(XMConvertToRadians(45.0f), clientWidth / clientHeight, 0.1f, 100.0f); g_d3dDeviceContext->UpdateSubresource(g_d3dConstantBuffers[CB_Application], 0, nullptr, &g_ProjectionMatrix, 0, 0); return true; } void Update(float deltaTime) { XMVECTOR eyePosition = XMVectorSet(0, 0, -10, 1); XMVECTOR focusPoint = XMVectorSet(0, 0, 0, 1); XMVECTOR upDirection = XMVectorSet(0, 1, 0, 0); g_ViewMatrix = DirectX::XMMatrixLookAtLH(eyePosition, focusPoint, upDirection); g_d3dDeviceContext->UpdateSubresource(g_d3dConstantBuffers[CB_Frame], 0, nullptr, &g_ViewMatrix, 0, 0); static float angle = 0.0f; angle += 90.0f * deltaTime; XMVECTOR rotationAxis = XMVectorSet(0, 1, 1, 0); g_WorldMatrix = DirectX::XMMatrixRotationAxis(rotationAxis, XMConvertToRadians(angle)); g_d3dDeviceContext->UpdateSubresource(g_d3dConstantBuffers[CB_Object], 0, nullptr, &g_WorldMatrix, 0, 0); } void Clear(const FLOAT clearColor[4], FLOAT clearDepth, UINT8 clearStencil) { g_d3dDeviceContext->ClearRenderTargetView(g_d3dRenderTargerView, clearColor); g_d3dDeviceContext->ClearDepthStencilView(g_d3dDepthStencilView, D3D11_CLEAR_DEPTH | D3D11_CLEAR_STENCIL, clearDepth, clearStencil); } void Present(bool vSync) { if (vSync) { g_d3dSwapChain->Present(1, 0); } else { g_d3dSwapChain->Present(0, 0); } } void Render() { assert(g_d3dDevice); assert(g_d3dDeviceContext); Clear(Colors::CornflowerBlue, 1.0f, 0); //IA const UINT vertexStride = sizeof(VertexPosColor); const UINT offset = 0; g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetVertexBuffers(0, 1, &g_d3dVertexBuffer, &vertexStride, &offset); g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetInputLayout(g_d3dInputLayout); g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetIndexBuffer(g_d3dIndexBuffer, DXGI_FORMAT_R16_UINT, 0); g_d3dDeviceContext->IASetPrimitiveTopology(D3D11_PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLELIST); //VS g_d3dDeviceContext->VSSetShader(g_d3dVertexShader, nullptr, 0); g_d3dDeviceContext->VSGetConstantBuffers(0, NumConstantBuffers, g_d3dConstantBuffers); //RS g_d3dDeviceContext->RSSetState(g_d3dRasterizerState); g_d3dDeviceContext->RSSetViewports(1, &g_Viewport); //PS g_d3dDeviceContext->PSSetShader(g_d3dPixelShader, nullptr, 0); //OM g_d3dDeviceContext->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &g_d3dRenderTargerView, g_d3dDepthStencilView); g_d3dDeviceContext->OMSetDepthStencilState(g_d3dDepthStencilState, 1); //draw g_d3dDeviceContext->DrawIndexed(_countof(g_Indicies), 0, 0); Present(g_EnableVSync); } void CleanUp() { SafeRelease(g_d3dVertexShader); SafeRelease(g_d3dPixelShader); SafeRelease(g_d3dVertexBuffer); SafeRelease(g_d3dIndexBuffer); SafeRelease(g_d3dInputLayout); SafeRelease(g_d3dDepthStencilBuffer); for (size_t bufferID = 0; bufferID < NumConstantBuffers; bufferID++) { SafeRelease(g_d3dConstantBuffers[bufferID]); } SafeRelease(g_d3dDepthStencilState); SafeRelease(g_d3dRasterizerState); SafeRelease(g_d3dRenderTargerView); SafeRelease(g_d3dDepthStencilView); SafeRelease(g_d3dSwapChain); SafeRelease(g_d3dDeviceContext); SafeRelease(g_d3dDevice); }  
    • By MarcusAseth
      Hi guys, I'm trying to learn this stuff but running into some problems 😕
      I've compiled my .hlsl into a header file which contains the global variable with the precompiled shader data:
      //... // Approximately 83 instruction slots used #endif const BYTE g_vs[] = { 68, 88, 66, 67, 143, 82, 13, 236, 152, 133, 219, 113, 173, 135, 18, 87, 122, 208, 124, 76, 1, 0, 0, 0, 16, 76, 0, 0, 6, 0, //.... And now following the "Compiling at build time to header files" example at this msdn link , I've included the header files in my main.cpp and I'm trying to create the vertex shader like this:
      hr = g_d3dDevice->CreateVertexShader(g_vs, sizeof(g_vs), nullptr, &g_d3dVertexShader); if (FAILED(hr)) { return -1; } and this is failing, entering the if and returing -1.
      Can someone point out what I'm doing wrong? 😕 
    • By Toastmastern
      Hello everyone,
      After a few years of break from coding and my planet render game I'm giving it a go again from a different angle. What I'm struggling with now is that I have created a Frustum that works fine for now atleast, it does what it's supose to do alltho not perfect. But with the frustum came very low FPS, since what I'm doing right now just to see if the Frustum worked is to recreate the vertex buffer every frame that the camera detected movement. This is of course very costly and not the way to do it. Thats why I'm now trying to learn how to create a dynamic vertexbuffer instead and to map and unmap the vertexes, in the end my goal is to update only part of the vertexbuffer that is needed, but one step at a time ^^

      So below is my code which I use to create the Dynamic buffer. The issue is that I want the size of the vertex buffer to be big enough to handle bigger vertex buffers then just mPlanetMesh.vertices.size() due to more vertices being added later when I start to do LOD and stuff, the first render isn't the biggest one I will need.
      vertexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DYNAMIC; vertexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = mPlanetMesh.vertices.size(); vertexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER; vertexBufferDesc.CPUAccessFlags = D3D11_CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; vertexBufferDesc.MiscFlags = 0; vertexBufferDesc.StructureByteStride = 0; vertexData.pSysMem = &mPlanetMesh.vertices[0]; vertexData.SysMemPitch = 0; vertexData.SysMemSlicePitch = 0; result = device->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &vertexData, &mVertexBuffer); if (FAILED(result)) { return false; } What happens is that the 
      result = device->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &vertexData, &mVertexBuffer); Makes it crash due to Access Violation. When I put the vertices.size() in it works without issues, but when I try to set it to like vertices.size() * 2 it crashes.
      I googled my eyes dry tonight but doesn't seem to find people with the same kind of issue, I've read that the vertex buffer can be bigger if needed. What I'm I doing wrong here?
       
      Best Regards and Thanks in advance
      Toastmastern
    • By yonisi
      Hi,
      I have a terrain engine where the terrain and water are on different grids. So I'm trying to render planar reflections of the terrain into the water grid. After reading some web pages and docs and also trying to learn from the RasterTek reflections demo and the small water bodies demo as well. What I do is as follows:
      1. Create a Reflection view matrix  - Technically I ONLY flip the camera position in the Y direction (Positive Y is up) and add to it 2 * waterLevel. Then I update the View matrix and I save that matrix for later. The code:
      void Camera::UpdateReflectionViewMatrix( float waterLevel ) { mBackupPosition = mPosition; mBackupLook = mLook; mPosition.y = -mPosition.y + 2.0f * waterLevel; //mLook.y = -mLook.y + 2.0f * waterLevel; UpdateViewMatrix(); mReflectionView = View(); } 2. I render the Terrain geometry to a 512x512 sized Render target by using the Reflection view matrix and an opposite culling (My Terrain is using front culling by nature so I'm using back culling for the Reflction render pass). Let me say that I checked with the Graphics debugger and the Reflection Render target looks "OK" at this stage (Picture attached). I don't know if the fact that the terrain is shown only at the top are of the texture is expected or not, but it seems OK.

      3. Render the Reflection texture into the water using projective texturing - I hope this step is OK code wise. Basically I'm sending to the shader the WorldReflectionViewProj matrix that was created at step 1 in order to use it for the projective texture coordinates, I then convert the position in the DS (Water and terrain are drawn with Tessellation) to the projective tex coords using that WorldReflectionViewProj matrix, then I sample the reflection texture after setting up the coordinates in the PS. Here is the code:
      //Send the ReflectionWorldViewProj matrix to the shader: XMStoreFloat4x4(&mPerFrameCB.Data.ReflectionWorldViewProj, XMMatrixTranspose( ( mWorld * pCam->GetReflectedView() ) * mProj )); //Setting up the Projective tex coords in the DS: Output.projTexPosition = mul(float4(worldPos.xyz, 1), g_ReflectionWorldViewProj); //Setting up the coords in the PS and sampling the reflection texture: float2 projTexCoords; projTexCoords.x = input.projTexPosition.x / input.projTexPosition.w / 2.0 + 0.5; projTexCoords.y = -input.projTexPosition.y / input.projTexPosition.w / 2.0 + 0.5; projTexCoords += normal.xz * 0.025; float4 reflectionColor = gReflectionMap.SampleLevel(SamplerClampLinear, projTexCoords, 0); texColor += reflectionColor * 0.25; I'll add that when compiling the PS I'm getting a warning on those dividing by input.projTexPosition.w for a possible float division by 0, I tried to add some offset or some minimum to the dividing term but that still not solved my issue.
      Here is the problem itself. At relatively flat view angles I'm seeing correct reflections (Or at least so it seems), but as I pitch the camera down, I'm seeing those artifacts which I have no idea where are coming from. I'm culling the terrain in the reflection render pass when it's lower than water height (I have heightmaps for that).
       
      Any help will be appreciated because I don't know what is wrong or where else to look.
    • By thmfrnk
      Hi,
      I am looking for a usefull commandline based texture compression tool with the rights to be able to ship with my application. It should have following caps:
      Supports all major image format as source files (jpeg, png, tga, bmp) Export as DDS Compression Formats BC1, BC2, BC3, BC4, BC7 I am actually using the nvdxt tool from Nvidia, but it does not support BC4 (which I need for one-channel 8bit textures). Everything else which I found wasn't really useful.
      Any suggestions?
      Thx
       
    • By trojanfoe
      I have been trying to create a BlendState for my UI text sprites so that they are both alpha-blended (so you can see them) and invert the pixel they are rendered over (again, so you can see them).
      In order to get alpha blending you would need:
      SrcBlend = SRC_ALPHA DestBlend = INV_SRC_ALPHA and in order to have inverted colours you would need something like:
      SrcBlend = INV_DEST_COLOR DestBlend = INV_SRC_COLOR and you can't have both.
      So I have come to the conclusion that it's not possible; am I right?
    • By Royma
      In traditional way, it needs 6 passes for a point light and many passes for cascaded shadow mapping to generate shadow maps. Recently I learnt a method that using a geometry shader to generate all the shadow maps in one pass.I specify a render target and a depth-stencil buffer which are both Texture2dArray in DirectX11.It looks much better than the traditional way I think.But after I implemented it, I found cascaded shadow mapping runs much slower than the traditional way.The fps slow down from 60 to 35.I don't know why.I guess may be I should do some culling or maybe the geometry shader is not efficient.
      I want to know the reason that I reduced the drawcalls from 8 to 1, but it runs slow down.Should I abandon this method or is there any way to optimize this method to run more efficiently than multi-pass rendering?
      Here is the gs code:

      [maxvertexcount(24)]
      void main(
          triangle DepthGsIn input[3] : SV_POSITION,
          inout TriangleStream< DepthPsIn > output
      )
      {
          for (uint k = 0; k < 8; ++k)
          {
              DepthPsIn element;
              element.RTIndex = k;
              for (uint i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
              {
                  float2 shadowSlopeBias = calculateShadowSlopeBias(input.normal, -g_cameras[k].world[1]);
                  float shadowBias = shadowSlopeBias.y * g_cameras[k].shadowMapParameters.x + g_cameras[k].shadowMapParameters.y;
                  element.position = input.position + shadowBias * g_cameras[k].world[1];
                  element.position = mul(element.position, g_cameras[k].viewProjection);
                  element.depth = element.position.z / element.position.w;
                  
                  output.Append(element);
              }
              output.RestartStrip();
          }
      }
       
    • By savail
      Hey,
      There are a few things which confuse me regarding DirectX 11 and HLSL shaders in general. I would be very grateful for your advice!
      1. Let's take for example a scene which invokes 2 totally separate pipeline render passes interchangeably. I understand I need to bind correct shaders for each of the render pass and potentially blend/depth or rasterizer state but what about resources such as Constant Buffers, Shader Resource Views and Unordered Access Views? Assuming that the second render pass uses none of the resources used by the first pass, do I still need to unbind the resources and clean pipeline state after first pass? Or is it ok to leave pipeline with unbound garbage since anything I'd need to bind for second pass would overwrite contents in the appropriate register slots anyway?
      2. Is it a good practice to assign register slots manually to all resources in HLSL?
      3. I thought about assigning manually register slots for every distinct render pass up to the maximum slot limit if neccessary. For example in 1 render pass I invoke 3 CS's, 2 VS's and 2 PS's and for all resources used by those shaders I try to fill as many register slots as neccessary and potentially reuse many times the same slot in shaders sharing the same resource. I was wondering if there is any performance penalty or gain when I bind all of my needed resources at the start of render pass and never gonna have to do it again until next render pass? - this means potentially binding a lot of registers and having excessive number of bound resources for every shader that is run.
      4. Is it a good practice to create a separate include file for every resource that occurs in >= 2 shader files or is it better to duplicate the declarations? In first case, the code is imo easier to maintain and edit but might be harder to read if there's too many includes. I've come up with a compromise between these 2 like this: create a separate include file for every CB that occurs in >= 2 shader files and a separate include file for every sampler I ever need to use. All other resources like srvs and uavs I prefer to duplicate in multiple shaders because they take much less space than CB for example... I'm not sure however if that's a good practice
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