# Trouble making my animation smooth

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Hello, I'm trying to implement the game loop where the physics is independent from rendering but my animation isn't as smooth as I would like it to be. The animation periodically jumps forward and I have no idea why this is happening. Here is my code:

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// alpha is used for interpolation
// counter_old_time is to do with displaying the fps
double alpha = 0, counter_old_time = 0;
double accumulator = 0, delta_time = 0, current_time = 0, previous_time = 0;
unsigned frame_counter = 0, current_fps = 0; // also used for displaying the fps
const unsigned physics_rate = 40, max_step_count = 5;

// information about the magic ball (position and velocity)
int old_pos_x = 100, new_pos_x = 100, render_pos_x = 100, velocity_x = 60;

const double
step_duration       = 1.0 / 40.0,
accumulator_max     = step_duration * 5;

previous_time = al_get_time();

while(true) {
current_time = al_get_time();
delta_time = current_time - previous_time;
previous_time = current_time;
accumulator += delta_time;

if(accumulator > accumulator_max) {
accumulator = accumulator_max;
}

while(accumulator >= step_duration) {
if(new_pos_x > 1330) velocity_x = -15;
else if(new_pos_x < 70) velocity_x = 15;

old_pos_x = new_pos_x;
new_pos_x += velocity_x;
accumulator -= step_duration;
}

alpha = accumulator / static_cast<double>(step_duration);
render_pos_x = old_pos_x + (new_pos_x - old_pos_x) * alpha;

al_clear_to_color(al_map_rgb(20, 20, 40)); // clears the screen
al_draw_textf(font, al_map_rgb(255, 255, 255), 20, 20, 0, "current_fps: %i", current_fps); // print fps
al_draw_filled_circle(render_pos_x, 400, 15, al_map_rgb(255, 255, 255)); // draw circle
// I've added this to test how the program will behave when rendering takes
// considerably longer than updating the game.
al_rest(0.008);
al_flip_display(); // swaps the buffers

frame_counter++;

if(al_get_time() - counter_old_time >= 1) {
current_fps = frame_counter;
frame_counter = 0;
counter_old_time = al_get_time();
}
}


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I have added a pause during the rendering part because I wanted to see how the code would behave when a lot of rendering is involved. Removing it makes the animation smooth but then I'll have to make sure that I don't let the frame rate drop too much and that doesn't seem like a good solution.

I've tried remove the clamp (that avoids the spiral of death) and checked my interpolation method but had no luck so I'd be very grateful if someone can have a look at this. Thank you!

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Try instead of while(accumulator >= step_duration) if(accumulator >= step_duration).

That is not a solution. But it can help us find the problem.

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Thank you for the suggestion. Just tried that and it made no difference. With the pause, my frame rate is around 125 so the physics is updated once for every 2 to 3 renders.

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Well, if that made no difference I would guess that this is the problem:

1. alpha = accumulator / static_cast<double>(step_duration);
2. render_pos_x = old_pos_x + (new_pos_x - old_pos_x) * alpha;

try just:

render_pos_x = new_pos_x;

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Using the alpha to render is the whole point of doing the loop this way. Try "new_pos_x += velocity_x * delta_time;" in the inner loop. See if anything changes.

Edited by NumberXaero

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Using the alpha to render is the whole point of doing the loop this way. Try "new_pos_x += velocity_x * delta_time;" in the inner loop. See if anything changes.

delta_time is in seconds and it's usually about 0.00-something so making that change just makes the circle stay still. Changing the type of the position variables to double makes the circle move ever so slightly.

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Does the framerate change drastically? Because i suspect you only compute fps once a second,
and only fairly steady framerates will produce animations with no speed jitter when they like this.

(Consider using framerate-independent timing if the above is the case)

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My framerate varied between 58 and 62 and I was told on the Allegro forum that this is normal and I should  calculate the average instead. When playing games, I notice that the FPS changes a lot and so I assumed that games still look smooth even if the FPS isn't completely steady.

And... I thought I was already using frame rate independent timing? :(

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What happens when you increase step duration? Try something crazy like 2.0 instead of 1.0/40.0.

Note that we're all shooting in the dark without actually seeing the bug.

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Sorry, I tried recording the bug but it introduced extra lag and the actual issue wasn't clearly visible in the video. Changing step duration to 2.0 makes the animation very slow and it's a little bit smoother.

I may have discovered the issue: after swapping the buffers, I started printing the time difference between the swap that just happened and the previous swap. It normally prints 0.008s and 0.009s but 0.01s are quite frequent so maybe this is causing the animation to not look as smooth? I found out that Allegro has vsync option and enabling that made the animation very smooth. From the output, I got 0.016s with occasional 0.0017s which is a lot more even.

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