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    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.


    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test

      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello guys, 
      Please tell me! 
      How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
      I already checked I have non errors yet.
      using OpenTK; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Text; namespace Tutorial_08.net.sourceskyboxer { public class WaveFrontLoader { private static List<Vector3> inPositions; private static List<Vector2> inTexcoords; private static List<Vector3> inNormals; private static List<float> positions; private static List<float> texcoords; private static List<int> indices; public static RawModel LoadObjModel(string filename, Loader loader) { inPositions = new List<Vector3>(); inTexcoords = new List<Vector2>(); inNormals = new List<Vector3>(); positions = new List<float>(); texcoords = new List<float>(); indices = new List<int>(); int nextIdx = 0; using (var reader = new StreamReader(File.Open("Contents/" + filename + ".obj", FileMode.Open), Encoding.UTF8)) { string line = reader.ReadLine(); int i = reader.Read(); while (true) { string[] currentLine = line.Split(); if (currentLine[0] == "v") { Vector3 pos = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inPositions.Add(pos); if (currentLine[1] == "t") { Vector2 tex = new Vector2(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2])); inTexcoords.Add(tex); } if (currentLine[1] == "n") { Vector3 nom = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inNormals.Add(nom); } } if (currentLine[0] == "f") { Vector3 pos = inPositions[0]; positions.Add(pos.X); positions.Add(pos.Y); positions.Add(pos.Z); Vector2 tc = inTexcoords[0]; texcoords.Add(tc.X); texcoords.Add(tc.Y); indices.Add(nextIdx); ++nextIdx; } reader.Close(); return loader.loadToVAO(positions.ToArray(), texcoords.ToArray(), indices.ToArray()); } } } } } And It have tried other method but it can't show for me.  I am mad now. Because any OpenTK developers won't help me.
      Please help me how do I fix.

      And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
      - Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....  
      PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
      Thanks !
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OpenGL OpenGL Texture got corrupted

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I had a code that was loading a BMP file and displaying a quad with the BMP as texture on screen.


I was restructuring the code and when I tried to test it again, the textures weren't showing anymore.

After a bunch of tests, I got to something really weird.


The reading from the BMP wasn't changed at all, so I don't think that's the cause, and the draw function is also really simple (it's also copied from another project I'm 100% sure it's working).


I tried changing BMPs to see if that was the issue, and a bunch of other images didn't show either.

However a simple checker BMP image I did some time ago for tests was showing perfectly fine.


This is the checker image, and what displays when I call it:




This is another image I tried to display (among a bunch of others) and this is what shows:




After testing for hours and not finding anything, I decided to do a little test, I copied some pixels from the image that wasn't displaying to the one that was:




And then I called it "Weird.bmp" and tried to load it on my code, and this is what happened:




(Note the messed up first pixel row)

Also, another BMP that I was using for tests (640x913 BMP) seems to cause my BMP loading code to bug out/infinite loop, as it's header's height/width are being set to a negative value:

    char *bitmapFileHeaderChar = new char[sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER)]; 
    fileReader.read(bitmapFileHeaderChar, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER));
    BITMAPFILEHEADER *bitmapFileHeader = (BITMAPFILEHEADER*)(bitmapFileHeaderChar);
    char *bitmapInfoHeaderChar = new char[sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER)];
    fileReader.read(bitmapInfoHeaderChar, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER));
    BITMAPINFOHEADER *bitmapInfoHeader = (BITMAPINFOHEADER*)(bitmapInfoHeaderChar);
    _texture->textureHeight = bitmapInfoHeader->biHeight; //On this specific BMP image, this has a -842150451
    _texture->textureWidth = bitmapInfoHeader->biWidth; //This too
    long imageTotalBytes = _texture->textureHeight * _texture->textureWidth * 4;
    _texture->_textureData = new GLubyte[imageTotalBytes];
    char pixelInfo[3];
    int c = 0;
    while(c < imageTotalBytes)
        fileReader.read(pixelInfo, 3);
        _texture->_textureData[c] = (GLubyte)pixelInfo[2];
        _texture->_textureData[c - 1] = (GLubyte)pixelInfo[1];
        _texture->_textureData[c - 2] = (GLubyte)pixelInfo[0];
        _texture->_textureData[c - 3] = 255; //Manually filling alpha
        c += 4;

Even after I got the original and re-saved it again, I'm still getting the same wrong header file. And it seems to be just on this specific file.


What could be causing this, or do you have any suggestions on how can I debug this?


Edit: I have this same image that has a negative header value in a binary file I made for test reading/writing, and when I load it from there, it shows perfectly fine.

However, now even my project that I use to load/read files and pack them in a single binary file isn't working anymore because it's reading this BMPs wrongly as well (it's even a different file, same image, in a different folder).

Edited by Danicco

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I would look carefully at BITMAPFILEHEADER and BITMAPINFOHEADER, they have some non-standard packing going on, and if they're just simply defined without the necessary pragmas, then that could be breaking things. For instance, what value do you get for sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER)? If it's not 14, then you have some packing issues to attend to. Or perhaps your file reading code is assuming that it'll always be reading multiples of 4 bytes at a time?


I think you also need to look again at this loop:

    int c = 0;
    while(c < imageTotalBytes)
        fileReader.read(pixelInfo, 3);
        _texture->_textureData[c] = (GLubyte)pixelInfo[2];
        _texture->_textureData[c - 1] = (GLubyte)pixelInfo[1];
        _texture->_textureData[c - 2] = (GLubyte)pixelInfo[0];
        _texture->_textureData[c - 3] = 255; //Manually filling alpha
        c += 4;

On the first iteration through, you are using a negative subscript into _texture->_textureData, which is most likely splatting some random memory.

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Oh - Also, you're making big assumptions about the format of the .bmp file.


For instance, if the file is palettized or greyscale, your code will not be loading correctly. The .bmp format has plenty of dusty corners that aren't worth supporting, but at the very least you should sanity check pretty much each and every field of BITMAPINFOHEADER and assert if you come across something that you don't support in your loader.

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Oh that was a typo, it's actually c + 1c + 2, etc...


I rechecked the sizes, it's 14 and 40 for the bitmap file header and info header sizes.

The sizes and values seems fine, on most images I do get the correct width x height, but it just doesn't show at all (like my test #2).


And sigh, just figured what it was... I forgot to add fileReader(resourceName.c_str(), ios::binary).


What's more annoying is that I took 3h and went to sleep frustrated because of it, and it was something this stupid...

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