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OpenGL 300 000 fps

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i never run newer version of opengl, back then i was used only OGl 1 and i never got fps higher than about 900 for a some cube test with that, but yesterday i did it with my new OGL/freeglut framevork and it seems that i got 300 000 fps - at least the succesive timer cals in the called in display method raports that delta time 3 microsecond on each display - is this really flushing 300 thousands of screens per second or I mestaken something (something asynchronous is called or something) and should measure it in a differend way?

 

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and should measure it in a differend way?

This in the first place! FPS is a reciprocal measure and as such not useful if the range becomes bigger than some ten FPS, perhaps up to e.g. 100 FPS or so. The 900 is already a less meaningful number. Its better to use a linear measure: Compute the mean time per frame over a couple of frames as an absolute measure, and perhaps a percentage between such values for a comparative one.

 

Also: A cube is most probably not a meaningful test at all. In a real world you may encounter several limits: DMA transfer, texture sampling, pixel fill rate, shader complexity, …; none of them is in peril with a cube example (assuming you don't mean a Koch cube ;)).

 

Regarding the question of performance boost itself: OpenGL 1 is very, VERY old. None of the (more or less) modern techniques was supported. If you use a modern OpenGL it is much more adapted to existing graphics cards. So yes, it is principally possible, of course.

Edited by haegarr

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Try measuring the FPS across multiple frames, it might be that the timer resolution is not enough for the tiny duration of a single frame and is for some reason giving results smaller than reality.

 

no the timer is good, i think that it gives good results it is when i have

 

IdleLoop()

{

  double timeDelta = TakeTime();

  displayScene();

 

}

 

the time delta (3 microseconds) is given properly but I am maybe not sure if the DisplayScene here is doing all the work of making whole

new pixelbuffer and show it or maybe not?

 

the display code itself is

 

 
void draw()
{
    glEnableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY);
    glEnableClientState(GL_COLOR_ARRAY);
    glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);
    glNormalPointer(GL_FLOAT, 0, normals2);
    glColorPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, colors2);
    glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, vertices2);
 
    glPushMatrix();
 
    glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 36, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, indices);
 
    glPopMatrix();
 
    glDisableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);  
    glDisableClientState(GL_COLOR_ARRAY);
    glDisableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY);
}
 
 
 
////////////////////////////////////////
 
void display()
{
    frame++;
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
    glPushMatrix();
    glRotatef(frame/1000 , 1, 0, 0);   
    draw();
    glPopMatrix();
    glFlush();
}
 

 

can it be so fast? does it really whole frame generation (as a result

i see rotating rectangle (some tears on the sufface too) but ofc i cannot be sure if this is 300 tys frames per second or maybe just 300 or so

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You are measuring the speed at which you can submit render commands, not the speed at which your scene is drawn and displayed. Basically what you measure is the memcpy that OpenGL does on your vertex array (to a vertex buffer that you don't know about) when you call glDrawElements, plus the overhead of a dozen library calls. It's not very surprising that this is fast.

 

You are not swapping buffers, so there is really no notion of a "frame" at all. You do call glFlush, but that isn't the same thing (for the most part, glFlush is pretty useless).

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You are measuring the speed at which you can submit render commands, not the speed at which your scene is drawn and displayed. Basically what you measure is the memcpy that OpenGL does on your vertex array (to a vertex buffer that you don't know about) when you call glDrawElements, plus the overhead of a dozen library calls. It's not very surprising that this is fast.

 

You are not swapping buffers, so there is really no notion of a "frame" at all. You do call glFlush, but that isn't the same thing (for the most part, glFlush is pretty useless).

atlight tnx, (i suspected thah things releted to asynchronicity) so how to measure real frame making speed - i am using ogl + freeglut, but not got much experience with this yet

 

I used glFinish and got only 9000fps :C

 

with  glutSwapBuffers() i got  75 fps-es (oscillating 74.7 - 75.3)

this is my screen refresh rate setting 

 

I use lcd right now - has this monitor the refresh rate like crt ones- 

it is better to set 60 or 75?

Edited by fir

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glFinish is much closer to what one would want to use since it blocks until all command execution has finished (glFlush doesn't wait for anything). It comes with a serious performance impact, however, since it causes a pipeline stall.

 

glutSwapBuffers, on the other hand, is the real, true thing. It actually swaps buffers, so there is really a notion of "frame". It also blocks, but synchronized to the actual hardware update frequency, and in a somewhat less rigid way (usually drivers will let you pre-render 2 or 3 frames or will only block at the next draw command after swap, or something else).

The reason why you only see 75 fps is that you have vertical sync enabled (in your driver settings). If you can "comfortably" get those 75 fps at all times (i.e. your frame time (worst, not average) is below 13.3 ms), it doesn't really matter how much faster you can render since that's all the monitor will display anyway. Rendering more frames than those displayed is only a waste of energy (and wearing down components due to heat development).

 

Now of course, if you only ever get at most 75 (or 60 on other monitors) frames per second displayed, it seems a bit hard to measure the actual frame time accurately. You might have a frame time of 13.3 ms or 10ms or 8ms and it would be no difference since it all comes out as 75fps because the driver syncs to that after finishing your drawing commands

 

glQueryCounter can be of help here. It lets you get accurate timing without having to stall as when using glFinish. So you can measure the actual time it takes to draw, regardless of how long the driver blocks thereafter to sync.

 

(Another less elegant but nevertheless effective solution would be to disable vertical sync during development.)

Edited by samoth

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glFinish is much closer to what one would want to use since it blocks until all command execution has finished (glFlush doesn't wait for anything). It comes with a serious performance impact, however, since it causes a pipeline stall.

 

glutSwapBuffers, on the other hand, is the real, true thing. It actually swaps buffers, so there is really a notion of "frame". It also blocks, but synchronized to the actual hardware update frequency, and in a somewhat less rigid way (usually drivers will let you pre-render 2 or 3 frames or will only block at the next draw command after swap, or something else).

The reason why you only see 75 fps is that you have vertical sync enabled (in your driver settings). If you can "comfortably" get those 75 fps at all times (i.e. your frame time (worst, not average) is below 13.3 ms), it doesn't really matter how much faster you can render since that's all the monitor will display anyway. Rendering more frames than those displayed is only a waste of energy (and wearing down components due to heat development).

 

Now of course, if you only ever get at most 75 (or 60 on other monitors) frames per second displayed, it seems a bit hard to measure the actual frame time accurately. You might have a frame time of 13.3 ms or 10ms or 8ms and it would be no difference since it all comes out as 75fps because the driver syncs to that after finishing your drawing commands

 

glQueryCounter can be of help here. It lets you get accurate timing without having to stall as when using glFinish. So you can measure the actual time it takes to draw, regardless of how long the driver blocks thereafter to sync.

 

(Another less elegant but nevertheless effective solution would be to disable vertical sync during development.)

alright tnx for explanation, i disabled vsync in nvconsole (do not know why perprogram not working but global disable working) and got about 9000 fps with swap buffer close to the same as with glFinish

 

yet some doubt if glFlush is not drawing all the calls what it is doing with such calls? skips or queues?

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glFlush is supposed to mean "start processing all pending GL commands now and return immediately".  It doesn't wait for the commands to finish processing, it just signals to the driver that it can start processing them.  There are actually a lot of implicit glFlush cases in normal code, with the most obvious one being when the command buffer is full - the driver must start emptying the buffer before new commands can go in.

 

I see that Carmack has noted on his Twitter that with some drivers glFlush is a nop.  If this is the case, then calling glFlush at the end of a frame (or wherever in the frame) will have no effect and the actual flush won't occur until the command buffer fills.  Depending on how much work you do in a frame, and on how big the command buffer is (that's driver-dependent so don't ask) it means that you may get 10, 20, or even hundreds of frames worth of commands in there before anything actually happens.

 

It's easy to see how this kind of behaviour can seriously mislead you into thinking that you're running crazy-fast.  A large part of the blame here must seriously go to old GLUT tutorials that always create a single-buffered context.  That's just so unrepresentative of how things work in real programs.

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glutSwapBuffers, on the other hand, is the real, true thing. It actually swaps buffers, so there is really a notion of "frame". It also blocks, but synchronized to the actual hardware update frequency, and in a somewhat less rigid way (usually drivers will let you pre-render 2 or 3 frames or will only block at the next draw command after swap, or something else).



When timing with just SwapBuffers though, be careful. The problem ends up being the driver typically queues up the request quickly on the CPU and returns immediately (i.e. CPU does not block), after which it lets you start queuing up render commands for future frames. At some random point in the middle of queuing one of those frames when the FIFO fills, "then" the CPU blocks, waiting on some VSYNC event in the middle of a frame. This causes really odd timing spikes leaving you puzzled as to what's going on.

If you want reasonable full-frame timings, after SwapBuffers(), put a glFinish(), and then stop your timer.

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      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

       
      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
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