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OpenGL Can't get skeletal animation to work [SOLVED :-) ]

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I have been trying to get this to work for the past few weeks but to no avail. Apparently I must still be missing something.

Some background information first:


I use 2 executables, the first one uses Assimp to import mesh, skeleton and animation data. I save everything in 3 separate binary files.

The second program is a modified Rastertek Tutorial, one of the initial ones with basic lighting, to which I'm trying to add vertex skinning.

Loading a static mesh works perfectly. I've also successfully modified the vertex input signature to include the indices and blendweights.


My binary format is extremely simple and, dare I say, naive. The Assimp structures usually consist of a mNumSomething which I save with a simple ofstream e.g. ofs.write( (char *) &numvtxindices, 4); followed with a for loop that iterates the items and writes them too.

It's very easy to read this data back by getting the number of items, then reading them in a loop and cast to the original or a similar same sized structure.


I also flattened the skeletal node hierarchy to a simple array of parent ids as in this tutorial:


Creating a current pose should really be as simple as iterating this array and for each node:

uint parentid = mHierarchy[i];

mGlobalPoses[i] = mLocalPoses[i] * mGlobalPoses[parentid];


then upload mInvBindMatrices[i] * mGlobalPoses[i] to the shader. Or so I thought, because nothing works.

I just get Spaghetti Bolognaise whatever combination I try, invert Assimps offset matrix or not, transpose or not etc.


Now it might sound like I'm just trying random hacks but in reality I think I do know that for DirectXmath's row-major matrices the above is the right combination, with Assimp's mOffset aiMatrices transposed to XMMATRIX, and aiQuats order (w,x,y,z) swizzled to XMVECTOR's (x,y,z,w)

It doesn't help that most examples are in OpenGL too.


I haven't interpolated anything yet. It's a single pose for which i created a temporary class, adequately named testpose (lol), and probably used a lot of bad coding practices just to keep it simple. I made every member variable public for easy access when sending the matrix palette, 

din't create many separate methods etc. Moreover I have still kept skeleton & anim data together. I'm aware once it works it'll need to be split.


OK, now that this is out of the way let's post the most relevant code.


Let's start with the polygon layout

polygonLayout[0].SemanticName = "POSITION";
polygonLayout[0].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[0].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32_FLOAT;
polygonLayout[0].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[0].AlignedByteOffset = 0;
polygonLayout[0].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[0].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;
polygonLayout[1].SemanticName = "TEXCOORD";
polygonLayout[1].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[1].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32_FLOAT;
polygonLayout[1].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[1].AlignedByteOffset = D3D11_APPEND_ALIGNED_ELEMENT;
polygonLayout[1].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[1].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;
polygonLayout[2].SemanticName = "NORMAL";
polygonLayout[2].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[2].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32_FLOAT;
polygonLayout[2].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[2].AlignedByteOffset = D3D11_APPEND_ALIGNED_ELEMENT;
polygonLayout[2].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[2].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;
polygonLayout[3].SemanticName = "BLENDINDICES";
polygonLayout[3].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[3].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_UINT;
polygonLayout[3].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[3].AlignedByteOffset = D3D11_APPEND_ALIGNED_ELEMENT;
polygonLayout[3].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[3].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;
polygonLayout[4].SemanticName = "BLENDWEIGHT";
polygonLayout[4].SemanticIndex = 0;
polygonLayout[4].Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32G32B32A32_FLOAT;
polygonLayout[4].InputSlot = 0;
polygonLayout[4].AlignedByteOffset = D3D11_APPEND_ALIGNED_ELEMENT;
polygonLayout[4].InputSlotClass = D3D11_INPUT_PER_VERTEX_DATA;
polygonLayout[4].InstanceDataStepRate = 0;
// Get a count of the elements in the layout.
    numElements = sizeof(polygonLayout) / sizeof(polygonLayout[0]);
// Create the vertex input layout.
result = device->CreateInputLayout(polygonLayout, numElements, vertexShaderBuffer->GetBufferPointer(), vertexShaderBuffer->GetBufferSize(), 
return false;

The vertex shader

// Filename: light.vs
#define MAXJOINTS 60
cbuffer MatrixBuffer
matrix worldMatrix;
matrix viewMatrix;
matrix projectionMatrix;
matrix joints[MAXJOINTS];
cbuffer CameraBuffer
    float3 cameraPosition;
float padding;
struct VertexInputType
    float4 position : POSITION;
    float2 tex : TEXCOORD0;
float3 normal : NORMAL;
uint4 boneidx : BLENDINDICES;
float4 bonewgt : BLENDWEIGHT;
struct PixelInputType
    float4 position : SV_POSITION;
    float2 tex : TEXCOORD0;
float3 normal : NORMAL;
float3 viewDirection : TEXCOORD1;
// Vertex Shader
PixelInputType LightVertexShader(VertexInputType input)
    PixelInputType output;
float4 worldPosition;
float4 skinnedpos = float4(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f);
// Change the position vector to be 4 units for proper matrix calculations.
    input.position.w = 1.0f;
//transform according to joint matrix palette
skinnedpos += input.bonewgt.x * mul(input.position, joints[input.boneidx.x]);
skinnedpos += input.bonewgt.y * mul(input.position, joints[input.boneidx.y]);
skinnedpos += input.bonewgt.z * mul(input.position, joints[input.boneidx.z]);
    skinnedpos += input.bonewgt.w * mul(input.position, joints[input.boneidx.w]);
skinnedpos.w = 1.0f;
// Calculate the position of the vertex against the world, view, and projection matrices.
    output.position = mul(skinnedpos, worldMatrix);
    output.position = mul(output.position, viewMatrix);
    output.position = mul(output.position, projectionMatrix);
//todo: transform normals too but since it doesn't work they can wait
// Store the texture coordinates for the pixel shader.
output.tex = input.tex;
// Calculate the normal vector against the world matrix only.
    output.normal = mul(input.normal, (float3x3)worldMatrix);
    // Normalize the normal vector.
    output.normal = normalize(output.normal);
// Calculate the position of the vertex in the world.
    worldPosition = mul(input.position, worldMatrix);
    // Determine the viewing direction based on the position of the camera and the position of the vertex in the world.
    output.viewDirection = -;
    // Normalize the viewing direction vector.
    output.viewDirection = normalize(output.viewDirection);
    return output;

The code that sends the cBuffers

bool LightShaderClass::SetShaderParameters(ID3D11DeviceContext* deviceContext,XMMATRIX * globalPoses, unsigned int numJoints, const XMMATRIX& worldMatrix, const XMMATRIX& viewMatrix,
  const XMMATRIX& projectionMatrix, ID3D11ShaderResourceView* texture, const XMFLOAT3& lightDirection, 
  const XMFLOAT4& ambientColor, const XMFLOAT4& diffuseColor, const XMFLOAT3& cameraPosition, const XMFLOAT4& specularColor, float specularPower )
HRESULT result;
    D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE mappedResource;
unsigned int bufferNumber;
MatrixBufferType* dataPtr;
LightBufferType* dataPtr2;
CameraBufferType* dataPtr3;
XMMATRIX worldMatrixCopy,viewMatrixCopy,projectionMatrixCopy;
// Transpose the matrices to prepare them for the shader.
worldMatrixCopy = XMMatrixTranspose( worldMatrix );
viewMatrixCopy = XMMatrixTranspose( viewMatrix );
projectionMatrixCopy = XMMatrixTranspose( projectionMatrix );
// Lock the constant buffer so it can be written to.
result = deviceContext->Map(m_matrixBuffer, 0, D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD, 0, &mappedResource);
return false;
// Get a pointer to the data in the constant buffer.
dataPtr = (MatrixBufferType*)mappedResource.pData;
// Copy the matrices into the constant buffer.
dataPtr->world = worldMatrixCopy;
dataPtr->view = viewMatrixCopy;
dataPtr->projection = projectionMatrixCopy;
for(unsigned char i = 0; i < numJoints; i++)
dataPtr->joints[i] = XMMatrixTranspose( globalPoses[i]);
//dataPtr->joints[i] = globalPoses[i];
//dataPtr->joints[i] = XMMatrixIdentity();
// Unlock the constant buffer.
    deviceContext->Unmap(m_matrixBuffer, 0);
// Set the position of the constant buffer in the vertex shader.
bufferNumber = 0;
// Now set the constant buffer in the vertex shader with the updated values.
    deviceContext->VSSetConstantBuffers(bufferNumber, 1, &m_matrixBuffer);
// Lock the camera constant buffer so it can be written to.
result = deviceContext->Map(m_cameraBuffer, 0, D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD, 0, &mappedResource);
return false;
// Get a pointer to the data in the constant buffer.
dataPtr3 = (CameraBufferType*)mappedResource.pData;
// Copy the camera position into the constant buffer.
dataPtr3->cameraPosition = cameraPosition;
dataPtr3->padding = 0.0f;
// Unlock the camera constant buffer.
deviceContext->Unmap(m_cameraBuffer, 0);
// Set the position of the camera constant buffer in the vertex shader.
bufferNumber = 1;
// Now set the camera constant buffer in the vertex shader with the updated values.
deviceContext->VSSetConstantBuffers(bufferNumber, 1, &m_cameraBuffer);
// Set shader texture resource in the pixel shader.
deviceContext->PSSetShaderResources(0, 1, &texture);
// Lock the light constant buffer so it can be written to.
result = deviceContext->Map(m_lightBuffer, 0, D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD, 0, &mappedResource);
return false;
// Get a pointer to the data in the light constant buffer.
dataPtr2 = (LightBufferType*)mappedResource.pData;
// Copy the lighting variables into the light constant buffer.
dataPtr2->ambientColor = ambientColor;
dataPtr2->diffuseColor = diffuseColor;
dataPtr2->lightDirection = lightDirection;
dataPtr2->specularColor = specularColor;
dataPtr2->specularPower = specularPower;
// Unlock the light constant buffer.
deviceContext->Unmap(m_lightBuffer, 0);
// Set the position of the light constant buffer in the pixel shader.
bufferNumber = 0;
// Finally set the light constant buffer in the pixel shader with the updated values.
deviceContext->PSSetConstantBuffers(bufferNumber, 1, &m_lightBuffer);
return true;
void LightShaderClass::RenderShader(ID3D11DeviceContext* deviceContext, int indexCount)
// Set the vertex input layout.
    // Set the vertex and pixel shaders that will be used to render this triangle.
    deviceContext->VSSetShader(m_vertexShader, NULL, 0);
    deviceContext->PSSetShader(m_pixelShader, NULL, 0);
// Set the sampler state in the pixel shader.
deviceContext->PSSetSamplers(0, 1, &m_sampleState);
// Render the triangle.
deviceContext->DrawIndexed(indexCount, 0, 0);

The vertex declaration

struct VertexType
XMFLOAT3 position;
   XMFLOAT2 texture;
XMFLOAT3 normal;
unsigned int blendindices[4];
 float blendweights[4];

My "testpose" header file

* This class is only used for testing a frame of an animation e.g. 1 pose at a given keyframe
#pragma once
#include <DirectXMath.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <fstream>
using namespace DirectX;
using namespace std;
class testpose
struct Channel 
unsigned int mNumChannels;
Channel *mChannels;
bool Init(void);
unsigned int mNumJoints;
unsigned int *mHierarchy;
XMMATRIX *mInvbindpose;
XMMATRIX *mLocalPoses;
XMMATRIX *mGlobalPoses;

My testpose's code //testpose.cpp

#include "testpose.h"
mNumChannels = 0;
mChannels = nullptr;
mNumJoints = 0;
mHierarchy = nullptr;
mInvbindpose = nullptr;
mLocalPoses = nullptr;
mGlobalPoses = nullptr;
if(mChannels != nullptr)
delete[] mChannels;
mChannels = nullptr;
if(mHierarchy != nullptr)
delete[] mHierarchy;
mHierarchy = nullptr;
if(mInvbindpose != nullptr)
mInvbindpose = nullptr;
if(mLocalPoses != nullptr)
mLocalPoses = nullptr;
if(mGlobalPoses != nullptr)
mGlobalPoses = nullptr;
bool testpose::Init(void)
ifstream ifs("../data/anim1frame.bin", std::ifstream::in | ios::binary);
return false;
//------------------Read in a frame of animation-------------------------------------------- (char*) &mNumChannels,4);
if(mNumChannels == 0)
return false;
mChannels = new Channel[mNumChannels];
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < mNumChannels; i++)
{ (char*) &mChannels[i].S, 3 * 4); (char*) &mChannels[i].R, 4 * 4); (char*) &mChannels[i].T, 3 * 4);
//---------------read in bone data such as hierarchy and inverse bind transform-----------------------------------------------"../data/skeleton.bin",  std::ifstream::in | ios::binary);
return false;
//determine number of joints (char*) &mNumJoints,4);
if(mNumJoints == 0)
return false;
mHierarchy = new unsigned int[mNumJoints];
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < mNumJoints; i++)
{ (char*) &mHierarchy[i],4);
mInvbindpose = (XMMATRIX*) _aligned_malloc(sizeof(XMMATRIX) * mNumJoints,16);
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < mNumJoints; i++)
{ (char*) &mInvbindpose[i],16 * 4); //4x4 matrix of 4 byte floats
mInvbindpose[i] = XMMatrixTranspose(mInvbindpose[i]);
//-------------------------------------convert the animation from vectors & quaternions to actual SIMD-friendly matrices--------------
mLocalPoses = (XMMATRIX *) _aligned_malloc( sizeof(XMMATRIX) * mNumChannels, 16);
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < mNumChannels; i++)
//aiQuaternions that were saved are stored as <w,x,y,z> but XMVECTORS use the <x,y,z,w> convention
float x,y,z,w;
w = mChannels[i].R.x;
x = mChannels[i].R.y;
y = mChannels[i].R.z;
z = mChannels[i].R.w;
XMVECTOR S = XMLoadFloat3(&mChannels[i].S);
XMVECTOR R = XMVectorSet(x,y,z,w);
XMVECTOR T = XMLoadFloat3(&mChannels[i].T);
XMMATRIX Smat = XMMatrixScalingFromVector(S);
XMMATRIX Rmat = XMMatrixRotationQuaternion(R);
XMMATRIX Tmat = XMMatrixTranslationFromVector(T);
XMMATRIX SRTmat = Smat * Rmat * Tmat;
//XMMATRIX SRTmat =Tmat * Rmat * Smat;
//SRTmat = XMMatrixTranspose(SRTmat);
mLocalPoses[i] = SRTmat;
//XMMatrixDecompose(&Stmp,&Rtmp,&Ttmp,SRTmat); //just tried to debug this to see whether data seemed valid, it seemed like it was.
//--------------------------------------create global poses from the hierarchy ---------------------------------------------------------
mGlobalPoses = (XMMATRIX *) _aligned_malloc( sizeof(XMMATRIX) * mNumChannels, 16);
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < mNumChannels; i++)
if(mHierarchy[i] == -1)
mGlobalPoses[i] = mLocalPoses[i];
unsigned int parentid = mHierarchy[i];
mGlobalPoses[i] = mLocalPoses[i] * mGlobalPoses[parentid];
//mGlobalPoses[i] = mGlobalPoses[parentid] * mLocalPoses[i]; //I've tried permutations of this
//-------------------------------------------------generate final Matrix Palette for the vertex shader ---------------------------------------------
for(unsigned int i = 0; i < mNumChannels; i++)
//mGlobalPoses[i] = mGlobalPoses[i] * mInvbindpose[i]; //I've tried permutations of this too and combinations with the above ones
mGlobalPoses[i] = mInvbindpose[i] * mGlobalPoses[i];
return true;

What model I am using (it's a test model from Assimp itself)

scene = importer.ReadFile( "../../../../../SDKs/assimp-3.1.1-win-binaries/test/models/X/BCN_Epileptic.x", 
        aiProcess_CalcTangentSpace       | 
        aiProcess_Triangulate            |
        aiProcess_JoinIdenticalVertices  | 
aiProcessPreset_TargetRealtime_Quality | 
aiProcess_OptimizeGraph | 
aiProcess_OptimizeMeshes |
&~aiProcess_FindInvalidData | //recommended on a tutorial
  // If the import failed, report it
  if( scene == nullptr)
   cout << "import failed" << endl;
    return -1;

How I saved 1 frame of animations, no interpolation yet

 //---------------------------------------------------temp 1 frame of animation--------------------------------------------------
  cout << "saving one frame of animation" << endl;
  ofstream ostmp("anim1frame.bin", std::ofstream::out | ios::binary);
  ostmp.write( (char*) &scene->mAnimations[0]->mNumChannels,4);
  for(unsigned int chanidx = 0; chanidx < scene->mAnimations[0]->mNumChannels; chanidx++)
 aiVector3D S,T;
 aiQuaternion R;
 unsigned int rotidx = 0;
 scene->mAnimations[0]->mChannels[chanidx]->mNumRotationKeys > 1 ? rotidx = 45 : rotidx = 0; //not all channels have an array of rotations
 S = scene->mAnimations[0]->mChannels[chanidx]->mScalingKeys[0].mValue; //none of them have more than one
 R = scene->mAnimations[0]->mChannels[chanidx]->mRotationKeys[rotidx].mValue; //well 1 or 100 depending on the channel, choose 45 for no apparent reason (somewhere mid-anim)
 T = scene->mAnimations[0]->mChannels[chanidx]->mPositionKeys[0].mValue; //same as scalings
 ostmp.write( (char*) &S,3*4);
 ostmp.write( (char*) &R,4*4);
 ostmp.write( (char*) &T,3*4);
  cout << endl;

How my skeleton was saved

//------------------------------ save skeleton data-----------------------------------------------------------------
 cout << "saving skeleton" << endl;
  ofstream ofskel ("skeleton.bin", std::ofstream::out | ios::binary);
  unsigned int numnodestosave = flattenedNodes.size();
  ofskel.write( (char*) &numnodestosave,4);
  for (unsigned int i = 0; i < numnodestosave; i++)
 ofskel.write( (char*) &flattenedNodes[i].id, 4); // 4 byte ids
  for (unsigned int i = 0; i < numnodestosave; i++)
  ofskel.write( (char*) &flattenedNodes[i].invbindpose, 4 * 4 * 4); // 4 bytes per float, 4x4 matrix

For completeness, I added a Renderdoc screen cap that shows indices and weights seem OK.







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You can help others help you (by doing something other than staring at the code you've already stared at - TL;DR) by determining (by following the data) at a minimum which section of code causes the problem. That is, look at the run-time values of variables at various places in your code to determine if they're correct. If they are correct, the problem is somewhere later in the "loop." If they're incorrect, the problem is occurring before that code. E.g., is the data imported correctly? That is, have you examined the actual data (run-time) after import?


As a suggestion, your goal should be to be able to post: "At [some-specified-point-in-my-code], I've verified the input data is correct; the matrix values are correct; there are no errors indicated in any function calls up to the point; and the debug runtime reports no problems. But, after the following 4 lines of code are executed, the results are incorrect as follows: ..."


Also, it appears you've jumped from a static cube to a much more complex hierarchical mesh. If you create a very simple hierarchy to begin with, and your 1000 lines of code don't work, finding what portion of the code is causing the problem will be much simpler.


it might sound like I'm just trying random hacks


Actually, you are just hacking, which sometimes works. But it's much better to understand what you should be doing, and verify that the code actually does what you think it should, rather than "discovering" what works by guessing.


EDIT: There's no problem with not understanding why a line of code doesn't do what you think it should. We've all been there. wink.png Just suggesting you be the one to find that line of code!




I think [emphasis mine - buckeye] I do know that for DirectXmath's row-major matrices the above is the right combination


Row-major or not, a matrix with incorrect values will probably result in something you don't want. It's much better to verify that the actual values at run-time are correct, or at least, what you think is correct. Have you done that?

Edited by Buckeye

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Thanks for answering.

I want to clarify one thing, I'm not a noob who just made his first cube just because I said I used an early rastertek tutorial.

In fact I did them all including refraction & reflection,shadows, their whole terrain tuts etc.

If I used an early tut it's because I needed a framework that was easy enough to add to and it would have seemed a weird choice to choose one where there's already a skybox, reflection, simple collisons etc...


As far as looking at variables at exact places etc (aka debugging?) I've done that where I could, I think I saw meaningful matrices (I mean a matrix with values like 1546789,98654544,23455,-454545435435,545343 etc would show as weird. I did see meaningful values. I did use XMMatrixdecompose() to see whether the individual S,R,T values made at least a little sense but in the end of the day I think I can't tell whether values that do look ok are the ones to be expected in vertex skinning because it's such a long chain of events and I can't know the actual end values. I'm not sure if this makes sense.

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I did see meaningful values. I did use XMMatrixdecompose() to see whether the individual S,R,T values made at least a little sense but in the end of the day I think I can't tell whether values that do look ok are the ones to be expected in vertex skinning because it's such a long chain of events and I can't know the actual end values. I'm not sure if this makes sense.


Oh, yeah, it makes sense. biggrin.png  Anyone who's gotten into skinned mesh animation has been there. Also, I wasn't trying to imply you were a noob at programming. Just seemed like you weren't sure where to look, and link was intended to give some idea where to start. Seriously, particularly for finding problems with skinned mesh animation, if "meaningful" doesn't mean "correct", that isn't enough.


A response you should expect to hear: you've got 1000 lines of untested code, pieced together from what sounds like several sources, you have a custom binary format file, you coded an import routine, and imported relatively complex data that may or may not be loaded correctly, and expect it all to fire up the first time? Really?


That's out of the way, so get yourself down to serious business (if you really want it all to work). I still suggest you "follow the data." If you don't know what good data looks like, then give yourself a chance. Go into Blender (or whatever you're modeling program is) and create the simplest skinned mesh you can get away with - maybe just 2 or 3 bones, a couple of boxes to skin, positioned at easily recognized values such as (0,0,0), (0,1,0), etc, all bones and boxes aligned vertically, each vertex weighted to just 1 bone - something like that. Create an animation of 1 or 2 frames with no rotations or translations. Vertex data is easy to recognize as correct, the animation SRT's are trivial, you have simple matrices to look at, etc.


Start with loading the data, and make sure it's correct - not "meaningful" - correct. That includes vertices, matrices, animation values, etc. There's absolutely no sense in debugging code which may be FUBAR, if the input data is FUBAR.


Follow the data from there. E.g.,  you posted "Creating a current pose should really be as simple as ..." Go look at it!

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Go into Blender (or whatever you're modeling program is) and create the simplest skinned mesh you can get away with - maybe just 2 or 3 bones, a couple of boxes to skin, positioned at easily recognized values such as (0,0,0), (0,1,0), etc, all bones and boxes aligned vertically, each vertex weighted to just 1 bone

This is something I was considering next, although I was hoping to avoid it as Blender has a steep learning curve of its own.

I think I will first try another test model with fewer bones such as the wuson.


Start with loading the data, and make sure it's correct - not "meaningful" - correct.

I think this is where I might use a small recap as I'm starting to have doubts.

Are localposes & offset matrices, and applying those 2 equations above to get global poses really all there is to it or did I miss something?

I've read at several tutorials or forum posts that the transform in aiNodes is only used when there is no animation and that you can ignore them for animations because the animation data replaces, not complements, those.

If I can be 100% confident about this then it's obviously my data trail that's wrong, probably in my importer or something.

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OK guys, I found a huge flaw in the way I saved animations.

That model was composed of 3 meshes. I only used mesh 0, saved offset matrices for it but while saving animations I just saved all channels, even those which affected nodes for which I didn't save offset matrices (those nodes that probably affect mesh 1 and 2)


I obviously have to match anim node with ainodes the same way I did for offset matrices. I must've been drunk when I wrote that code.

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Are localposes & offset matrices, and applying those 2 equations above to get global poses really all there is to it or did I miss something?


If you're referring to the paragraph that begins: "Creating a current pose ..." - maybe. wink.png  Depends on what you mean by "current pose, " "localpose," "global pose," where in the process that occurs, and what you're going to do with that matrix. Unfortunately, there isn't a universal set of skinned mesh animation terms. I.e., you may be using "local pose" to mean something different than what I may assume. "Global" implies "world," but you may mean "relative to root frame/bone." (etc.)


First, though, take a look at this article regarding skinned mesh animation. Maybe it will help you with your understanding of the process. Rather than concentrating on the implementation of the code, I'd suggest you glean from it more of how the process works, particularly regarding what each matrix (by whatever name) does with regard to the final process.

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YAAAAAY !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

I Finally got this to work.

After correcting the way I saved animations it didn't work yet and I was so disappointed and frustrated.

Now it appears I simply had another big bug in how I saved the BLENDINDICES. I saved the index into mBones (wrong, so wrong) instead of into my flattenednode array.


Next step will be to actually interpolate and animate but that's for Monday and the whole of next week :)

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      I'm looking to render multiple objects (rectangles) with different shaders. So far I've managed to render one rectangle made out of 2 triangles and apply shader to it, but when it comes to render another I get stucked. Searched for documentations or stuffs that could help me, but everything shows how to render only 1 object. Any tips or help is highly appreciated, thanks!
      Here's my code for rendering one object with shader!
      #define GLEW_STATIC #include <stdio.h> #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "window.h" #define GLSL(src) "#version 330 core\n" #src // #define ASSERT(expression, msg) if(expression) {fprintf(stderr, "Error on line %d: %s\n", __LINE__, msg);return -1;} int main() { // Init GLFW if (glfwInit() != GL_TRUE) { std::cerr << "Failed to initialize GLFW\n" << std::endl; exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } // Create a rendering window with OpenGL 3.2 context glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 2); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_FORWARD_COMPAT, GL_TRUE); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_RESIZABLE, GL_FALSE); // assing window pointer GLFWwindow *window = glfwCreateWindow(800, 600, "OpenGL", NULL, NULL); glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); // Init GLEW glewExperimental = GL_TRUE; if (glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cerr << "Failed to initialize GLEW\n" << std::endl; exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } // ----------------------------- RESOURCES ----------------------------- // // create gl data const GLfloat positions[8] = { -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, }; const GLuint elements[6] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; // Create Vertex Array Object GLuint vao; glGenVertexArrays(1, &vao); glBindVertexArray(vao); // Create a Vertex Buffer Object and copy the vertex data to it GLuint vbo; glGenBuffers(1, &vbo); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vbo); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(positions), positions, GL_STATIC_DRAW); // Specify the layout of the vertex data glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); // layout(location = 0) glVertexAttribPointer(0, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 0, 0); // Create a Elements Buffer Object and copy the elements data to it GLuint ebo; glGenBuffers(1, &ebo); glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, ebo); glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(elements), elements, GL_STATIC_DRAW); // Create and compile the vertex shader const GLchar *vertexSource = GLSL( layout(location = 0) in vec2 position; void main() { gl_Position = vec4(position, 0.0, 1.0); } ); GLuint vertexShader = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER); glShaderSource(vertexShader, 1, &vertexSource, NULL); glCompileShader(vertexShader); // Create and compile the fragment shader const char* fragmentSource = GLSL( out vec4 gl_FragColor; uniform vec2 u_resolution; void main() { vec2 pos = gl_FragCoord.xy / u_resolution; gl_FragColor = vec4(1.0); } ); GLuint fragmentShader = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER); glShaderSource(fragmentShader, 1, &fragmentSource, NULL); glCompileShader(fragmentShader); // Link the vertex and fragment shader into a shader program GLuint shaderProgram = glCreateProgram(); glAttachShader(shaderProgram, vertexShader); glAttachShader(shaderProgram, fragmentShader); glLinkProgram(shaderProgram); glUseProgram(shaderProgram); // get uniform's id by name and set value GLint uRes = glGetUniformLocation(shaderProgram, "u_Resolution"); glUniform2f(uRes, 800.0f, 600.0f); // ---------------------------- RENDERING ------------------------------ // while(!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) { // Clear the screen to black glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); glClearColor(0.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, 1.0f); // Draw a rectangle made of 2 triangles -> 6 vertices glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL); // Swap buffers and poll window events glfwSwapBuffers(window); glfwPollEvents(); } // ---------------------------- CLEARING ------------------------------ // // Delete allocated resources glDeleteProgram(shaderProgram); glDeleteShader(fragmentShader); glDeleteShader(vertexShader); glDeleteBuffers(1, &vbo); glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &vao); return 0; }  
    • By Vortez
      Hi guys, im having a little problem fixing a bug in my program since i multi-threaded it. The app is a little video converter i wrote for fun. To help you understand the problem, ill first explain how the program is made. Im using Delphi to do the GUI/Windows part of the code, then im loading a c++ dll for the video conversion. The problem is not related to the video conversion, but with OpenGL only. The code work like this:

      DWORD WINAPI JobThread(void *params) { for each files { ... _ConvertVideo(input_name, output_name); } } void EXP_FUNC _ConvertVideo(char *input_fname, char *output_fname) { // Note that im re-initializing and cleaning up OpenGL each time this function is called... CGLEngine GLEngine; ... // Initialize OpenGL GLEngine.Initialize(render_wnd); GLEngine.CreateTexture(dst_width, dst_height, 4); // decode the video and render the frames... for each frames { ... GLEngine.UpdateTexture(pY, pU, pV); GLEngine.Render(); } cleanup: GLEngine.DeleteTexture(); GLEngine.Shutdown(); // video cleanup code... }  
      With a single thread, everything work fine. The problem arise when im starting the thread for a second time, nothing get rendered, but the encoding work fine. For example, if i start the thread with 3 files to process, all of them render fine, but if i start the thread again (with the same batch of files or not...), OpenGL fail to render anything.
      Im pretty sure it has something to do with the rendering context (or maybe the window DC?). Here a snippet of my OpenGL class:
      bool CGLEngine::Initialize(HWND hWnd) { hDC = GetDC(hWnd); if(!SetupPixelFormatDescriptor(hDC)){ ReleaseDC(hWnd, hDC); return false; } hRC = wglCreateContext(hDC); wglMakeCurrent(hDC, hRC); // more code ... return true; } void CGLEngine::Shutdown() { // some code... if(hRC){wglDeleteContext(hRC);} if(hDC){ReleaseDC(hWnd, hDC);} hDC = hRC = NULL; }  
      The full source code is available here. The most relevant files are:
      -OpenGL class (header / source)
      -Main code (header / source)
      Thx in advance if anyone can help me.
    • By DiligentDev
      This article uses material originally posted on Diligent Graphics web site.
      Graphics APIs have come a long way from small set of basic commands allowing limited control of configurable stages of early 3D accelerators to very low-level programming interfaces exposing almost every aspect of the underlying graphics hardware. Next-generation APIs, Direct3D12 by Microsoft and Vulkan by Khronos are relatively new and have only started getting widespread adoption and support from hardware vendors, while Direct3D11 and OpenGL are still considered industry standard. New APIs can provide substantial performance and functional improvements, but may not be supported by older hardware. An application targeting wide range of platforms needs to support Direct3D11 and OpenGL. New APIs will not give any advantage when used with old paradigms. It is totally possible to add Direct3D12 support to an existing renderer by implementing Direct3D11 interface through Direct3D12, but this will give zero benefits. Instead, new approaches and rendering architectures that leverage flexibility provided by the next-generation APIs are expected to be developed.
      There are at least four APIs (Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES, Vulkan, plus Apple's Metal for iOS and osX platforms) that a cross-platform 3D application may need to support. Writing separate code paths for all APIs is clearly not an option for any real-world application and the need for a cross-platform graphics abstraction layer is evident. The following is the list of requirements that I believe such layer needs to satisfy:
      Lightweight abstractions: the API should be as close to the underlying native APIs as possible to allow an application leverage all available low-level functionality. In many cases this requirement is difficult to achieve because specific features exposed by different APIs may vary considerably. Low performance overhead: the abstraction layer needs to be efficient from performance point of view. If it introduces considerable amount of overhead, there is no point in using it. Convenience: the API needs to be convenient to use. It needs to assist developers in achieving their goals not limiting their control of the graphics hardware. Multithreading: ability to efficiently parallelize work is in the core of Direct3D12 and Vulkan and one of the main selling points of the new APIs. Support for multithreading in a cross-platform layer is a must. Extensibility: no matter how well the API is designed, it still introduces some level of abstraction. In some cases the most efficient way to implement certain functionality is to directly use native API. The abstraction layer needs to provide seamless interoperability with the underlying native APIs to provide a way for the app to add features that may be missing. Diligent Engine is designed to solve these problems. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common C++ front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native APIs. It also supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. Full source code is available for download at GitHub and is free to use.
      Diligent Engine API takes some features from Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 as well as introduces new concepts to hide certain platform-specific details and make the system easy to use. It contains the following main components:
      Render device (IRenderDevice  interface) is responsible for creating all other objects (textures, buffers, shaders, pipeline states, etc.).
      Device context (IDeviceContext interface) is the main interface for recording rendering commands. Similar to Direct3D11, there are immediate context and deferred contexts (which in Direct3D11 implementation map directly to the corresponding context types). Immediate context combines command queue and command list recording functionality. It records commands and submits the command list for execution when it contains sufficient number of commands. Deferred contexts are designed to only record command lists that can be submitted for execution through the immediate context.
      An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
      The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
      In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
      Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
      Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
      Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
      Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
      Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
      Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
      API Basics
      Creating Resources
      Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
      BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
      TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
      Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

      Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.
    • By michaeldodis
      I've started building a small library, that can render pie menu GUI in legacy opengl, planning to add some traditional elements of course.
      It's interface is similar to something you'd see in IMGUI. It's written in C.
      Early version of the library
      I'd really love to hear anyone's thoughts on this, any suggestions on what features you'd want to see in a library like this? 
      Thanks in advance!
    • By Michael Aganier
      I have this 2D game which currently eats up to 200k draw calls per frame. The performance is acceptable, but I want a lot more than that. I need to batch my sprite drawing, but I'm not sure what's the best way in OpenGL 3.3 (to keep compatibility with older machines).
      Each individual sprite move independently almost every frame and their is a variety of textures and animations. What's the fastest way to render a lot of dynamic sprites? Should I map all my data to the GPU and update it all the time? Should I setup my data in the RAM and send it to the GPU all at once? Should I use one draw call per sprite and let the matrices apply the transformations or should I compute the transformations in a world vbo on the CPU so that they can be rendered by a single draw call?
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