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• ### Similar Content

• By fleissi
Hey guys!

I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
The full source code is hosted on github:
https://github.com/fleissna/flyEngine

I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

Features I have so far:
- Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
- Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
- Rendering large amounts of static meshes
- Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
- Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
- Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
- Wind animations based on vertex displacement
- A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
- Procedural Grass generation
- Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
- Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

Features I would like to have:
- Global illumination methods
- Scalable physics
- Occlusion culling
- A nice procedural terrain generator
- Scripting
- Level Editing
- Sound system
- Optimization techniques

Books I have so far:
- Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
- 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
- Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
Procedural grass on the GPU
Procedural Terrain Engine
Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.

Bye,

Phil
• By tj8146
I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this?

Errors when I build my code:
1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

Renderer.cpp
#include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
#pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
#include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
#pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
#pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }
Game.zip
• By lxjk
Hi guys,
There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
The following image shows the general ideas

Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test

I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!

Eric

• Good evening everyone!

I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

Thank you!

• Hello guys,

How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
I already checked I have non errors yet.

And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
- Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....

PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
Thanks !

# OpenGL OpenGL ES God Ray Precision error

This topic is 1004 days old which is more than the 365 day threshold we allow for new replies. Please post a new topic.

## Recommended Posts

I have encountered the following (i think) precision error.

My source of inspiration was:

On the PC everything works fine, but on android it shows those weird squares.

I had the same problem with a procedurally masked sprite. When the radius of the circle was getting too big i had the same error so i changed the mask from a shader radius uniform to a texture mask uniform, so i guess there is a precision problem.

This guy here had the same problem but unfortunately i can't see the answer.

The code adapted to OpenGL ES is the following:

#version 100

precision mediump float;

uniform sampler2D tex_diff;
uniform vec2 light_on_screen;

varying vec2 texture_coord;

const int NUM_SAMPLES = 128;

void main()
{
const float exposure = 0.0225;
const float decay = 0.95;
const float density = 0.95;
const float weight = 3.75;

// Inner used values
vec2 deltaTextCoord = vec2(texture_coord.st - light_on_screen.xy);
vec2 textCoo = texture_coord.st;
deltaTextCoord *= 1.0 / float(NUM_SAMPLES) * density;
float illuminationDecay = 1.0;

vec4 c = vec4(0, 0, 0, 0);

for(int i=0; i < NUM_SAMPLES ; i++)
{
textCoo -= deltaTextCoord;

textCoo.s = clamp(textCoo.s, 0.0, 1.0);
textCoo.t = clamp(textCoo.t, 0.0, 1.0);

vec4 sample = texture2D(tex_diff, textCoo);

sample *= illuminationDecay * weight;

c += sample;

illuminationDecay *= decay;
}

c *= exposure;

c.r = clamp(c.r, 0.0, 1.0);
c.g = clamp(c.g, 0.0, 1.0);
c.b = clamp(c.b, 0.0, 1.0);
c.a = clamp(c.a, 0.0, 1.0);

gl_FragColor = c;
}

Showing the whole engine is useless since it's huge. All the shader input is correct, the coordinates are correct, the only problem is the inner shader computation.

Anybody encountered this or has any ideas for any workarounds?

Scanned the whole net for a solution for this, and i couldn't seem to find one. Any can point me in the right direction? Or maybe someone encountered this type of error in a different context or in a different shader? Maybe i can apply the same workaround here too.

I thought that if there's a right place to get answers to this kind of questions it's here on Gamedev  .

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The best way to start would be to force everything to use highp and see if the problem goes away. If it does, then you can start the process of figuring out what needs to be highp and what can be mediump or lowp.

IMO, using a precision declaration at the top (the line: "precision mediump float;") is bad practice, on mobile fragment shaders you ought to think about the required precision of every operation. But in this case it makes life easier because all you need to do to confirm whether it's a precision problem is change that line to be "precision highp float;". You should also go into your vertex shader and make sure the texture_coord varying is being output as a highp too.

If that fixes it, then that's great, but you do need to bear in mind that not all Android GPUs support high precision floats in their fragment shader. However, you might be able to get it all working at mediump. Most likely the place where precision is being lost is the iterative adjustment of textCoo, you might see an improvement by calculating textCoo on each iteration rather than applying a delta. (change the line "textCoo -= deltaTextCoord;" to something like "textCoo = texture_coord.st - (deltaTextCoord * (i + 1));" or if tweak stuff correctly before you enter your loop you could use the far more optimal "textCoo = texture_coord.st + (deltaTextCoord * i);")

As an aside, attempting 128 samples might be too many unless you're targeting only the extreme high end devices.

Edited by C0lumbo

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Trying it now. And yes, the max number of samples is at around 15-20 but i used that high number to better illustrate the problem.

Update after changing '(texCoo - delta)':

The precision is a lot better now. Unfortunately i can't use 'highp' at the moment, but in a few hours i am borrowing a device that can handle 'high'. In the upper image there's a slight distortion but i will see if 'highp' tricks it.

As for the optimization ill optimize for 10(low) - 50(ultra high) samples, and before adding the final effect i'll vertically and horizontally blur the rays to get over the remaining little defects and make it mobile ready. Also rendering to a lower 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 renderbuffer will improve performance.

Thanks for all the help!

Update:

'highp' did not fixed the later problem it entirely will still have to blur a little.

Edited by AssemblyJohn