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    • By Achivai
      Hey, I am semi-new to 3d-programming and I've hit a snag. I have one object, let's call it Object A. This object has a long int array of 3d xyz-positions stored in it's vbo as an instanced attribute. I am using these numbers to instance object A a couple of thousand times. So far so good. 
      Now I've hit a point where I want to remove one of these instances of object A while the game is running, but I'm not quite sure how to go about it. At first my thought was to update the instanced attribute of Object A and change the positions to some dummy number that I could catch in the vertex shader and then decide there whether to draw the instance of Object A or not, but I think that would be expensive to do while the game is running, considering that it might have to be done several times every frame in some cases. 
      I'm not sure how to proceed, anyone have any tips?
    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.


    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test

      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
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OpenGL Struggling with casting cloud shadow on earth sphere in OpenGL

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I am trying to do an earth simulation in OpenGL with GLSL shaders, and so far it's been going decent. Although I am stuck with a slightly small problem. Right now I have 3 spheres, one for ground level (earth), one for clouds and the third for the atmosphere (scattering effects). The earth sphere handles with most of the textures.


The cloud sphere is a slightly bigger sphere than the earth sphere, and is mapped with a cloud texture and normal mapped using one created with the photoshop plugin. One more thing to point out is, the rotation speed of the cloud sphere is slightly greater than the rotation speed of the earth sphere.


This is where things get confusing for me. I am trying to cast the shadow of the clouds onto the ground (earth) sphere by passing the cloud texture into the earth sphere's shader and subtracting the cloud's color from earth's color. But since the rotation speeds of the two sphere's are different, I figured if I multiplied the rotation matrix of the cloud sphere with the uv coordinates for the cloud texture, that should solve the problem. But sadly, the shadows and the clouds do not seem to rotate in sync. I was hoping if anyone can help me figure out the math to make the shadows and the cloud rotate in sync with each other, no matter how different the rotation speeds of the two sphere are.

Here is my fragment shader for the earth where I'm calculating the cloud's shadow:

#version 400 core

uniform sampler2D day;
uniform sampler2D bumpMap;
uniform sampler2D night;
uniform sampler2D specMap;
uniform sampler2D clouds;

uniform mat4 cloudRotation;

in vec3 vPos;

in vec3 lightVec;
in vec3 eyeVec;
in vec3 halfVec;

in vec2 texCoord;

out vec4 frag_color;

void main()

    vec3 normal = 2.0 * texture(bumpMap, texCoord).rgb - 1.0;
    //normal.z = 1 - normal.x * normal.x - normal.y * normal.y;
    normal = normalize ( normal );

    vec4 spec = vec4(1.0, 0.941, 0.898, 1.0);
    vec4 specMapColor = texture2D(specMap, texCoord);

    vec3 L = lightVec;
    vec3 N = normal;
    vec3 Emissive = normalize(-vPos);
    vec3 R = reflect(-L, N);
    float dotProd = max(dot(R, Emissive), 0.0);
    vec4 specColor = spec * pow(dotProd,6.0) * 0.5;
    float diffuse = max(dot(N, L), 0.0);

    vec2  cloudTexCoord         =   vec2(cloudRotation * vec4(texCoord, 0.0, 1.0));

    vec3 cloud_color            =   texture2D( clouds, cloudTexCoord).rgb;
    vec3 day_color              =   texture2D( day, texCoord ).rgb * diffuse + specColor.rgb * specMapColor.g - cloud_color * 0.25;// * (1 - cloud_color.r) + cloud_color.r * diffuse;
    vec3 night_color            =   texture2D( night, texCoord ).rgb * 0.5;// * (1 - cloud_color.r) * 0.5;

    vec3 color = day_color;
    if(dot(N, L) < 0.1)
        color = mix(night_color, day_color, (diffuse + 0.1) * 5.0);
    frag_color = vec4(color, 1.0);

Here's a sample output as a result of the above shader. Note that the shadows start out at the correct position, but the due to the wrong rotation speed, they tend to move ahead of the rotation of the cloud sphere.






Again, it would be really helpful if anyone can help me figure out the math behind keep the shadow and the clouds in sync

Thanks in advance

Edited by pslayer89

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Try generating a new rotation matrix just for the cloud shadow. Do not use the same one, because it will add its rotation to the earths rotation matrix.


Generate the new rotation matrix by subtracting the clouds rotation by the earths rotation, and then create a rotation matrix out of those newly calculated rotations. Plug it into your shader, and that should fix the problem.

Edited by Solid_Spy

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so from what I'm understanding you get the value of a cloud texture over a certain point on earth and you subtract the cloud color from the day color, which in a way simulates the way shadow is cast, well its not a proper way to calculate the shadows, this wont result in shadows expected from a directional light (which in your case sun is a spot light rather than a directional like).


but any ways you shouldn't be rotating the coordinates of texture instead depending on the speed of rotation and the axis around which you're rotating the cloud sphere, you should add a value to the texture coordinates


lets say you're rotating the cloud sphere around the Y axis and you have a speed of 1degree/frame so your coordinates at the nth frame will be:


texture_coord+vec2(n/360 , 0);


(well this is if you wrap the texture around the sphere as a cylinder)

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Sadly, taking the difference of the two rotations and rotating the uv coord didn't work either. But the method that IYP suggested worked :



you shouldn't be rotating the coordinates of texture instead depending on the speed of rotation and the axis around which you're rotating the cloud sphere, you should add a value to the texture coordinates


lets say you're rotating the cloud sphere around the Y axis and you have a speed of 1degree/frame so your coordinates at the nth frame will be:


texture_coord+vec2(n/360 , 0);


Although, I had to subtract the value instead of adding it and to the uv coord instead though, but that maybe because of the direction in which I'm rotating the sphere. But that works for now. Also you mentioned that this method won't work in case of a directional light, could you explain how would I go about implementing that so that the directional light always takes in account the angle at which the shadow is casted? 

Thanks again for the help

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well certainly normal shadow mapping methods aren't necessary here and they will introduce aliasing problem, which you don't want to deal with, i'd recommend a simple change in the same method you already use.


you can draw a none lit cloud sphere to a texture from sun's view, with orthogonal projection of course, (also apply face culling, you only need front faces). then you access that texture and then get the value and do the same thing you already do with the cloud value.


this is quite like shadow mapping but instead of depth you write cloud color values and instead of depth test you subtract the value of the cloud color from day color.

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