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    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test

      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
    • By Fadey Duh
      Good evening everyone!

      I was wondering if there is something equivalent of  GL_NV_blend_equation_advanced for AMD?
      Basically I'm trying to find more compatible version of it.

      Thank you!
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello guys, 
      Please tell me! 
      How do I know? Why does wavefront not show for me?
      I already checked I have non errors yet.
      using OpenTK; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.IO; using System.Text; namespace Tutorial_08.net.sourceskyboxer { public class WaveFrontLoader { private static List<Vector3> inPositions; private static List<Vector2> inTexcoords; private static List<Vector3> inNormals; private static List<float> positions; private static List<float> texcoords; private static List<int> indices; public static RawModel LoadObjModel(string filename, Loader loader) { inPositions = new List<Vector3>(); inTexcoords = new List<Vector2>(); inNormals = new List<Vector3>(); positions = new List<float>(); texcoords = new List<float>(); indices = new List<int>(); int nextIdx = 0; using (var reader = new StreamReader(File.Open("Contents/" + filename + ".obj", FileMode.Open), Encoding.UTF8)) { string line = reader.ReadLine(); int i = reader.Read(); while (true) { string[] currentLine = line.Split(); if (currentLine[0] == "v") { Vector3 pos = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inPositions.Add(pos); if (currentLine[1] == "t") { Vector2 tex = new Vector2(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2])); inTexcoords.Add(tex); } if (currentLine[1] == "n") { Vector3 nom = new Vector3(float.Parse(currentLine[1]), float.Parse(currentLine[2]), float.Parse(currentLine[3])); inNormals.Add(nom); } } if (currentLine[0] == "f") { Vector3 pos = inPositions[0]; positions.Add(pos.X); positions.Add(pos.Y); positions.Add(pos.Z); Vector2 tc = inTexcoords[0]; texcoords.Add(tc.X); texcoords.Add(tc.Y); indices.Add(nextIdx); ++nextIdx; } reader.Close(); return loader.loadToVAO(positions.ToArray(), texcoords.ToArray(), indices.ToArray()); } } } } } And It have tried other method but it can't show for me.  I am mad now. Because any OpenTK developers won't help me.
      Please help me how do I fix.

      And my download (mega.nz) should it is original but I tried no success...
      - Add blend source and png file here I have tried tried,.....  
      PS: Why is our community not active? I wait very longer. Stop to lie me!
      Thanks !
    • By codelyoko373
      I wasn't sure if this would be the right place for a topic like this so sorry if it isn't.
      I'm currently working on a project for Uni using FreeGLUT to make a simple solar system simulation. I've got to the point where I've implemented all the planets and have used a Scene Graph to link them all together. The issue I'm having with now though is basically the planets and moons orbit correctly at their own orbit speeds.
      I'm not really experienced with using matrices for stuff like this so It's likely why I can't figure out how exactly to get it working. This is where I'm applying the transformation matrices, as well as pushing and popping them. This is within the Render function that every planet including the sun and moons will have and run.
      if (tag != "Sun") { glRotatef(orbitAngle, orbitRotation.X, orbitRotation.Y, orbitRotation.Z); } glPushMatrix(); glTranslatef(position.X, position.Y, position.Z); glRotatef(rotationAngle, rotation.X, rotation.Y, rotation.Z); glScalef(scale.X, scale.Y, scale.Z); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, mesh->indiceCount, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, mesh->indices); if (tag != "Sun") { glPopMatrix(); } The "If(tag != "Sun")" parts are my attempts are getting the planets to orbit correctly though it likely isn't the way I'm meant to be doing it. So I was wondering if someone would be able to help me? As I really don't have an idea on what I would do to get it working. Using the if statement is truthfully the closest I've got to it working but there are still weird effects like the planets orbiting faster then they should depending on the number of planets actually be updated/rendered.
    • By Jens Eckervogt
      Hello everyone, 
      I have problem with texture
      using System; using OpenTK; using OpenTK.Input; using OpenTK.Graphics; using OpenTK.Graphics.OpenGL4; using System.Drawing; using System.Reflection; namespace Tutorial_05 { class Game : GameWindow { private static int WIDTH = 1200; private static int HEIGHT = 720; private static KeyboardState keyState; private int vaoID; private int vboID; private int iboID; private Vector3[] vertices = { new Vector3(-0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f), // V0 new Vector3(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f), // V1 new Vector3(0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f), // V2 new Vector3(0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f) // V3 }; private Vector2[] texcoords = { new Vector2(0, 0), new Vector2(0, 1), new Vector2(1, 1), new Vector2(1, 0) }; private int[] indices = { 0, 1, 3, 3, 1, 2 }; private string vertsrc = @"#version 450 core in vec3 position; in vec2 textureCoords; out vec2 pass_textureCoords; void main(void) { gl_Position = vec4(position, 1.0); pass_textureCoords = textureCoords; }"; private string fragsrc = @"#version 450 core in vec2 pass_textureCoords; out vec4 out_color; uniform sampler2D textureSampler; void main(void) { out_color = texture(textureSampler, pass_textureCoords); }"; private int programID; private int vertexShaderID; private int fragmentShaderID; private int textureID; private Bitmap texsrc; public Game() : base(WIDTH, HEIGHT, GraphicsMode.Default, "Tutorial 05 - Texturing", GameWindowFlags.Default, DisplayDevice.Default, 4, 5, GraphicsContextFlags.Default) { } protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e) { base.OnLoad(e); CursorVisible = true; GL.GenVertexArrays(1, out vaoID); GL.BindVertexArray(vaoID); GL.GenBuffers(1, out vboID); GL.BindBuffer(BufferTarget.ArrayBuffer, vboID); GL.BufferData(BufferTarget.ArrayBuffer, (IntPtr)(vertices.Length * Vector3.SizeInBytes), vertices, BufferUsageHint.StaticDraw); GL.GenBuffers(1, out iboID); GL.BindBuffer(BufferTarget.ElementArrayBuffer, iboID); GL.BufferData(BufferTarget.ElementArrayBuffer, (IntPtr)(indices.Length * sizeof(int)), indices, BufferUsageHint.StaticDraw); vertexShaderID = GL.CreateShader(ShaderType.VertexShader); GL.ShaderSource(vertexShaderID, vertsrc); GL.CompileShader(vertexShaderID); fragmentShaderID = GL.CreateShader(ShaderType.FragmentShader); GL.ShaderSource(fragmentShaderID, fragsrc); GL.CompileShader(fragmentShaderID); programID = GL.CreateProgram(); GL.AttachShader(programID, vertexShaderID); GL.AttachShader(programID, fragmentShaderID); GL.LinkProgram(programID); // Loading texture from embedded resource texsrc = new Bitmap(Assembly.GetEntryAssembly().GetManifestResourceStream("Tutorial_05.example.png")); textureID = GL.GenTexture(); GL.BindTexture(TextureTarget.Texture2D, textureID); GL.TexParameter(TextureTarget.Texture2D, TextureParameterName.TextureMagFilter, (int)All.Linear); GL.TexParameter(TextureTarget.Texture2D, TextureParameterName.TextureMinFilter, (int)All.Linear); GL.TexImage2D(TextureTarget.Texture2D, 0, PixelInternalFormat.Rgba, texsrc.Width, texsrc.Height, 0, PixelFormat.Bgra, PixelType.UnsignedByte, IntPtr.Zero); System.Drawing.Imaging.BitmapData bitmap_data = texsrc.LockBits(new Rectangle(0, 0, texsrc.Width, texsrc.Height), System.Drawing.Imaging.ImageLockMode.ReadOnly, System.Drawing.Imaging.PixelFormat.Format32bppRgb); GL.TexSubImage2D(TextureTarget.Texture2D, 0, 0, 0, texsrc.Width, texsrc.Height, PixelFormat.Bgra, PixelType.UnsignedByte, bitmap_data.Scan0); texsrc.UnlockBits(bitmap_data); GL.Enable(EnableCap.Texture2D); GL.BufferData(BufferTarget.TextureBuffer, (IntPtr)(texcoords.Length * Vector2.SizeInBytes), texcoords, BufferUsageHint.StaticDraw); GL.BindAttribLocation(programID, 0, "position"); GL.BindAttribLocation(programID, 1, "textureCoords"); } protected override void OnResize(EventArgs e) { base.OnResize(e); GL.Viewport(0, 0, ClientRectangle.Width, ClientRectangle.Height); } protected override void OnUpdateFrame(FrameEventArgs e) { base.OnUpdateFrame(e); keyState = Keyboard.GetState(); if (keyState.IsKeyDown(Key.Escape)) { Exit(); } } protected override void OnRenderFrame(FrameEventArgs e) { base.OnRenderFrame(e); // Prepare for background GL.Clear(ClearBufferMask.ColorBufferBit); GL.ClearColor(Color4.Red); // Draw traingles GL.EnableVertexAttribArray(0); GL.EnableVertexAttribArray(1); GL.BindVertexArray(vaoID); GL.UseProgram(programID); GL.BindBuffer(BufferTarget.ArrayBuffer, vboID); GL.VertexAttribPointer(0, 3, VertexAttribPointerType.Float, false, 0, IntPtr.Zero); GL.ActiveTexture(TextureUnit.Texture0); GL.BindTexture(TextureTarget.Texture3D, textureID); GL.BindBuffer(BufferTarget.ElementArrayBuffer, iboID); GL.DrawElements(BeginMode.Triangles, indices.Length, DrawElementsType.UnsignedInt, 0); GL.DisableVertexAttribArray(0); GL.DisableVertexAttribArray(1); SwapBuffers(); } protected override void OnClosed(EventArgs e) { base.OnClosed(e); GL.DeleteVertexArray(vaoID); GL.DeleteBuffer(vboID); } } } I can not remember where do I add GL.Uniform2();
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OpenGL Vulkan Win32 WMI

This topic is 775 days old which is more than the 365 day threshold we allow for new replies. Please post a new topic.

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Has anyone encountered a problem with deallocating Win32 surface using NVIDIA drivers?


Unfortunately, there is no appropriate tutorial how to deal with the window system integration (WMI). I followed the samples from the LunarG SDK and modified a bit in order to incorporate into my code (framework). All functions return VK_SUCCESS, however, with 356.39-vkonly_geforce_win8 drivers, the application crashes at Vulkan instance destroy. With 356.45-vkonly_geforce_win8 drivers, the application doesn't crash, but there is a memory leak (pretty the same as if I prevent the instance destroying with 356.39).



Detected memory leaks!

Dumping objects ->
{355} normal block at 0x06B223F0, 16 bytes long.
 Data: <` k     P       > 60 B1 6B 04 00 00 00 00 50 18 B2 06 00 00 00 00 
{349} normal block at 0x046BD9C8, 12 bytes long.
 Data: <            > 02 00 00 00 03 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 
{348} normal block at 0x046BD978, 16 bytes long.
 Data: <,       2       > 2C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 32 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 



Also, is there any requirements for the window pixel format (like in OpenGL) in order to draw correctly on the surface?


So far it seems WMI is the most complicated part of the Vulkan. wacko.png

I hope after finishing correctly some interface functions for presentation on the windows I wouldn't have to change that code ever since.


Thanks in advance for any assistance or useful hints!


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Huh! sad.png

It is not easy to post a reasonable amount of code when you code using Vulkan... I didn't expected that it needs about a thousand lines of code just to initialize...

Well, here is a code "fragment" that initializes swap chain:

char* APP_SHORT_NAME = "VkRenderer";
VkApplicationInfo app_info = {};
app_info.pNext = NULL;
app_info.pApplicationName = APP_SHORT_NAME;
app_info.applicationVersion = 1;
app_info.pEngineName = APP_SHORT_NAME;
app_info.engineVersion = 1;
app_info.apiVersion = VK_API_VERSION;
VkInstanceCreateInfo inst_info = {};
inst_info.pNext = NULL;
inst_info.flags = 0;
inst_info.pApplicationInfo = &app_info;
inst_info.enabledExtensionCount = instance_extension_names.size();
inst_info.ppEnabledExtensionNames = inst_info.enabledExtensionCount ? instance_extension_names.data() : NULL;
inst_info.enabledLayerCount = 0;
inst_info.ppEnabledLayerNames = NULL;
VkResult res;
res = vkCreateInstance(&inst_info, NULL, &m_vkInst);

VkWin32SurfaceCreateInfoKHR createInfo = {};
createInfo.pNext = NULL;
createInfo.hinstance = GetModuleHandle(NULL); //info.connection;
createInfo.hwnd = wnd;
VkResult res = vkCreateWin32SurfaceKHR(m_vkInst, &createInfo, NULL, &m_surface);

VkBool32 *supportsPresent = (VkBool32 *)malloc(queue_count * sizeof(VkBool32));
for (uint32_t i = 0; i < queue_count; i++) {
vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceSupportKHR(m_vGPU[0], i, m_surface, &supportsPresent[i]);

uint32_t graphicsQueueNodeIndex = UINT32_MAX;
for (uint32_t i = 0; i < queue_count; i++) {
if ((m_queue_props[i].queueFlags & VK_QUEUE_GRAPHICS_BIT) != 0) {
if (supportsPresent[i] == VK_TRUE) {
graphicsQueueNodeIndex = i;

float queue_priorities[1] = { 0.0 };
VkDeviceQueueCreateInfo queue_info = {};
queue_info.pNext = NULL;
queue_info.queueCount = 1;
queue_info.pQueuePriorities = queue_priorities;
VkDeviceCreateInfo device_info = {};
device_info.pNext = NULL;
device_info.queueCreateInfoCount = 1;
device_info.pQueueCreateInfos = &queue_info;
device_info.enabledExtensionCount = device_extension_names.size();
device_info.ppEnabledExtensionNames = device_info.enabledExtensionCount ? device_extension_names.data() : NULL;
device_info.enabledLayerCount = 0;
device_info.ppEnabledLayerNames = NULL;
device_info.pEnabledFeatures = NULL;
res = vkCreateDevice(m_vGPU[0], &device_info, NULL, &m_vkDevice);

uint32_t formatCount;
VkResult res = vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceFormatsKHR(m_vGPU[0], m_surface, &formatCount, NULL);
assert(res == VK_SUCCESS);
VkSurfaceFormatKHR *surfFormats = (VkSurfaceFormatKHR *)malloc(formatCount * sizeof(VkSurfaceFormatKHR));
res = vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceFormatsKHR(m_vGPU[0], m_surface, &formatCount, surfFormats);
assert(res == VK_SUCCESS);
// If the format list includes just one entry of VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED,
// the surface has no preferred format.  Otherwise, at least one
// supported format will be returned.
VkFormat format;
if (formatCount == 1 && surfFormats[0].format == VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED) {
format = VK_FORMAT_B8G8R8A8_UNORM;
else {
assert(formatCount >= 1);
format = surfFormats[0].format;
VkSurfaceCapabilitiesKHR surfCapabilities;
res = vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfaceCapabilitiesKHR(m_vGPU[0], m_surface, &surfCapabilities);
uint32_t presentModeCount;
res = vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfacePresentModesKHR(m_vGPU[0], m_surface, &presentModeCount, NULL);
VkPresentModeKHR *presentModes = (VkPresentModeKHR *)malloc(presentModeCount * sizeof(VkPresentModeKHR));
res = vkGetPhysicalDeviceSurfacePresentModesKHR(m_vGPU[0], m_surface, &presentModeCount, presentModes);

VkExtent2D swapChainExtent;
if (surfCapabilities.currentExtent.width == (uint32_t)-1) {
swapChainExtent.width = width;
swapChainExtent.height = height;
else {
swapChainExtent = surfCapabilities.currentExtent;

VkPresentModeKHR swapchainPresentMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_FIFO_KHR;
for (size_t i = 0; i < presentModeCount; i++) {
if (presentModes[i] == VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR) {
swapchainPresentMode = VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR;
if ((swapchainPresentMode != VK_PRESENT_MODE_MAILBOX_KHR) &&
(presentModes[i] == VK_PRESENT_MODE_IMMEDIATE_KHR)) {

uint32_t desiredNumberOfSwapChainImages =
surfCapabilities.minImageCount + 1;
if ((surfCapabilities.maxImageCount > 0) &&
(desiredNumberOfSwapChainImages > surfCapabilities.maxImageCount)) {
desiredNumberOfSwapChainImages = surfCapabilities.maxImageCount;
VkSurfaceTransformFlagBitsKHR preTransform;
if (surfCapabilities.supportedTransforms &
else {
preTransform = surfCapabilities.currentTransform;
VkSwapchainCreateInfoKHR swap_chain = {};
swap_chain.pNext = NULL;
swap_chain.surface = m_surface;
swap_chain.minImageCount = desiredNumberOfSwapChainImages;
swap_chain.imageFormat = format;
swap_chain.imageExtent.width = swapChainExtent.width;
swap_chain.imageExtent.height = swapChainExtent.height;
swap_chain.preTransform = preTransform;
swap_chain.compositeAlpha = VK_COMPOSITE_ALPHA_OPAQUE_BIT_KHR;
swap_chain.imageArrayLayers = 1;
swap_chain.presentMode = swapchainPresentMode;
swap_chain.oldSwapchain = NULL;
swap_chain.clipped = true;
swap_chain.imageColorSpace = VK_COLORSPACE_SRGB_NONLINEAR_KHR;
swap_chain.imageSharingMode = VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE;
swap_chain.queueFamilyIndexCount = 0;
swap_chain.pQueueFamilyIndices = NULL;
res = vkCreateSwapchainKHR(m_vkDevice, &swap_chain, NULL, &m_swap_chain);
res = vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR(m_vkDevice, m_swap_chain, &m_swapchainImageCount, NULL);
VkImage *swapchainImages = (VkImage *)malloc(m_swapchainImageCount * sizeof(VkImage));
res = vkGetSwapchainImagesKHR(m_vkDevice, m_swap_chain, &m_swapchainImageCount, swapchainImages);

vkGetDeviceQueue(m_vkDevice, m_graphicsQueueFamilyIndex, 0, &m_queue);
for (uint32_t i = 0; i < m_swapchainImageCount; i++) {
VkImageViewCreateInfo color_image_view = {};
color_image_view.pNext = NULL;
color_image_view.format = format;
color_image_view.components.r = VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_R;
color_image_view.components.g = VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_G;
color_image_view.components.b = VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_B;
color_image_view.components.a = VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_A;
color_image_view.subresourceRange.aspectMask = VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT;
color_image_view.subresourceRange.baseMipLevel = 0;
color_image_view.subresourceRange.levelCount = 1;
color_image_view.subresourceRange.baseArrayLayer = 0;
color_image_view.subresourceRange.layerCount = 1;
color_image_view.viewType = VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D;
color_image_view.flags = 0;
m_buffers[i].image = swapchainImages[i];
SetImageLayout(m_buffers[i].image, VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT,
color_image_view.image = m_buffers[i].image;
res = vkCreateImageView(m_vkDevice, &color_image_view, NULL, &m_buffers[i].view);


This is not the whole code. All handles are valid and functions always return VK_SUCCESS. The dealocation code is like following:

for (uint32_t i = 0; i < m_swapchainImageCount; i++) {
vkDestroyImageView(m_vkDevice, m_buffers[i].view, NULL);
vkDestroySwapchainKHR(m_vkDevice, m_swap_chain, NULL);


I'm sorry for so much code, but that is Vulkan! unsure.png

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