# Vulkan Vulkan Tutorial

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Thanks for this! This is one of the better Vulkan learning articles I've seen by far.

And the tutorial I've been looking for since starting my own work with Vulkan.

It's nice to see a clean, simplified writeup with code of how to get a triangle rendering.
Without it just being commented code.

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Thanks for this! This is one of the better Vulkan learning articles I've seen by far.

And the tutorial I've been looking for since starting my own work with Vulkan.

It's nice to see a clean, simplified writeup with code of how to get a triangle rendering.
Without it just being commented code.

You are welcome and thanks for the feedback.

Also, I just published a follow up with the parts I left out. Once you are done with this one you can check out the next one: http://av.dfki.de/~jhenriques/vulkan_shaders.html ;)

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May I ask why everyone tends to load the function pointers dynamically *by hand* instead of leveraging the Vulkan SDK?

If seen this in paper from Intel. But why?

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I've seen it a few times too. I think it's because the Vulkan SDK is ultimately a 3rd party SDK (Made by LunarG). And some people may want to avoid 3rd party libraries if possible, or at least have the option.

Personally, I use the LunarG SDK, but I'll probably remove it at some point to have finer control over the DLL loading while Vulkan's existance is not guaranteed on a system.

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Thanks! Or as we say in Texas, "Many Garcias!"

I always say, "If I can figure out how to draw a triangle with a platform, I can make games with it."

I'm still trying to put together my OGL 4.5 basic engine, but I'll probably make use of your tutorial there as soon as I finish that project, hopefully in the next month or so. Although, I'm not sure if I have to build a new computer in order to use Vulkan or not. It's on my agenda to build a new computer in the next couple of months anyway. Mine is 7 years old and still chugging along nicely. An update is over due. I'm hoping to get into VR programming this year and my GPU won't cut it. So, time for a GTX 1080. But anyway, I'll go through your tutorial at some point I imagine.

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I tried compiling the code off github with VS 2015. First, I'm getting a lot of implicit conversion errors. I had to look at my own code to see how I've gotten past this in the past. You can do a (LPCWSTR) conversion explicitly on all the strings, but you can also just add the letter 'L' before each string. (I may have run into one problem where LPCWSTR didn't work right.)

When I run it, *base is a null_ptr and it crashes in the assert function. Oh wait. That's intentional. The problem is in the layers.

Installing the Vulkan SDK seems to be necessary on my computer. It went from 2 layers to 15 after installing the SDK and it found the layer it was looking for. On to the next problem.

//fileHandle = CreateFile( L"..\\vert.spv", GENERIC_READ, 0, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL );
fileHandle = CreateFile(L"simple.vert", GENERIC_READ, 0, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL);

Hmmmm... maybe that wasn't the right solution. Now it blows completely apart on vkCreateShaderModule() with the following error:

Unhandled exception at 0x0F334530 (VkLayer_core_validation.dll) in JoseEnriques.exe: 0xC0000005: Access violation reading location 0x0458A808.

Oh. Hey! It helps if you read the instructions. That was not the correct solution. It needs to be a SPIR-V file, which is why it has a completely different file name. Wow it sure did not like the source code file, I can tell ya that!

So, I had to learn to use a make file. I guess that was a good learning experience. Funny that they have the source code for CMake that you have to make in order to build CMake. Finally found the binary so I could make glSlangValidator. Got the SPIR-V files. Had to remove the leading "..\\" before the file names. But after that, it ran like a charm.

So, now I've run my first Vulkan program on my computer. Guess my computer can handle it.

Thanks for the tutorial. Now that I have working code, I'll go back and read the tutorial.

Edited by BBeck

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So much code! that's why i'm afraid of starting vulka, I'll never get out of it xD

Didn't you publish it as an article here? Anyhow, excellent tutorial, thank you!

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Good tutorial and indeed it's lots of code, but this is what Vulkan was designed to be like :) There's one more skill needed to use it - patience :)

There are few things worth mentioning.

- Final color attachment layout transition to VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR doesn't have to be done through barrier but it should be rather done with end of the render pass. Notice, when creating the render pass, it's possible to fill initialLayout and finalLayout fields in the VkAttachmentDescription structure. This way no additional barrier is needed if we know that color attachment at the very end must change layout to PRESENT_SRC_KHR.

- Barriers ( and other synchronisation mechanisms ) are tricky and in more complex cases it's hard to get it right. It's good to group them together and submit in one go. For example, when the layout of each swapchain image is changed initially to VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR, then single vkCmdPipelineBarrier() should be submitted with n-barriers ( depends how many images we have ).

- If I understand correct, the sample code assumes the presentation and graphics queue are same queue:

        if( supportsPresent && ( queueFamilyProperties[j].queueFlags & VK_QUEUE_GRAPHICS_BIT ) ) {
context.physicalDevice = physicalDevices[i];
context.physicalDeviceProperties = deviceProperties;
context.presentQueueIdx = j;
break;
}


This isn't good assumption. There may be queue that supports presentation, but not graphics and vice versa. In most of video cards it's very unlikely ( have't seen such case yet ), but it is possible, so...

- ...Why one may want to synchronise work being submitted to the same queue? The answer is simple: despite "implicit ordering guarantees" the submitted work may overlap. In the example synchronisation between vkQueuePresentKHR() and rendering with command buffer is necessary.

- vkQueuePresentKHR works as if it was a command+submission to the queue.  It may be dispatched while the previous drawing is still happening. Presentation engine may work aside the rendering engine and those two works may overlap even if they are submitted sequentially to the same queue.

- There's a suspicious code at the very end:

    VkPresentInfoKHR presentInfo = {};
presentInfo.sType = VK_STRUCTURE_TYPE_PRESENT_INFO_KHR;
presentInfo.waitSemaphoreCount = 1;
presentInfo.pWaitSemaphores = &renderingCompleteSemaphore;
presentInfo.swapchainCount = 1;
presentInfo.pSwapchains = &context.swapChain;
presentInfo.pImageIndices = &nextImageIdx;
presentInfo.pResults = NULL;
vkQueuePresentKHR( context.presentQueue, &presentInfo );

vkDestroySemaphore( context.device, presentCompleteSemaphore, NULL );
vkDestroySemaphore( context.device, renderingCompleteSemaphore, NULL );


It is possible that renderingCompleteSemaphore will be destroyed BEFORE the presentation engine will execute. vkQueuePresentKHR() isn't blocking. I have seen two outcomes of destroying semaphore too early: DEVICE_LOST error and complete system freeze ( on Ubuntu with NVIDIA graphics card using open source driver 364.19 ). I guess it also could just crash :) But I understand this approach as specification clearly says, the semaphore is created as unsignaled and after signaling it can't be reset, so it should be destroyed. This has been noted as a bug and will be addressed. Current situation shows there's no way to tell when such semaphore, which is assigned to presentInfo.pWaitSemaphores can be destroyed. Moreover, it seems like semaphores can be reused, what is done in examples from LunarG. So for now my suggestion is to create as many pairs render/present semaphores as we have images in the swapchain and simply reuse them. Once they are placed in the submitInfo.pSignalSemaphores slot they are being "magically" reset ( I believe it will be clarified soon ). Also it's worth noting, every "...Create()" function may be quite heavy. It depends on implementation and used allocator, but that's why there are to ways of creating Vulkan objects: vk...Create() which is considered to be heavy weight and vk...Allocate() which is considered to be lightweight. So creating and destroying sync primitives every frame isn't good idea.

- One more thing I noticed is using fences to know that command buffer has been executed in order to be able to use it again. In general fences should be rather avoided as this is heavyweight device-host synchronisation primitive. In this case, to avoid it is better to go with round-robin and simply double/triple buffer command buffers. While one is rendering, the next one may be recorded. Otherwise if you do the same thing in OpenGL you may be surprised that OpenGL shows better performance ;) Well, synchronisation in Vulkan is HUGE topic.

- About SPIR-V I recommend to look at tool SPIRV-Cross ( https://github.com/KhronosGroup/SPIRV-Cross ). It allows to decompile SPIR-V back into GLSL and few other things. Also there's plan of extending it to be able to generate pipelines from shader programs ( as everyone could see from the tutorial - setting up a pipeline, descriptor sets layouts etc. is a chore but somebody had this idea that lot can be deducted from the shader code ).

And last thing :)

So much code! that's why i'm afraid of starting vulka, I'll never get out of it xD

Vulkan looks like that. You might try to take shortcuts and for example assume, that your first GPU is the one supporting Vulkan - it may be true. You may assume that extensions like swapchain exists everywhere - this also might be true... sometimes. What you may not know is that Vulkan is not only graphics API and in the future you may have devices in your PC or mobile phone which support Vulkan, but they don't support graphics ( only at least one compute queue is REQUIRED, others are not ). For example it could be DSP chipset that supports Vulkan. That's why initial enumeration and double checking is required. It may be deal breaker for some people, some other will swallow it and do code :)

Edited by j_uk_dev

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