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    • By stale
      I'm continuing to learn more about terrain rendering, and so far I've managed to load in a heightmap and render it as a tessellated wireframe (following Frank Luna's DX11 book). However, I'm getting some really weird behavior where a large section of the wireframe is being rendered with a yellow color, even though my pixel shader is hard coded to output white. 

      The parts of the mesh that are discolored changes as well, as pictured below (mesh is being clipped by far plane).

      Here is my pixel shader. As mentioned, I simply hard code it to output white:
      float PS(DOUT pin) : SV_Target { return float4(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); } I'm completely lost on what could be causing this, so any help in the right direction would be greatly appreciated. If I can help by providing more information please let me know.
    • By evelyn4you
      i try to implement voxel cone tracing in my game engine.
      I have read many publications about this, but some crucial portions are still not clear to me.
      At first step i try to emplement the easiest "poor mans" method
      a.  my test scene "Sponza Atrium" is voxelized completetly in a static voxel grid 128^3 ( structured buffer contains albedo)
      b. i dont care about "conservative rasterization" and dont use any sparse voxel access structure
      c. every voxel does have the same color for every side ( top, bottom, front .. )
      d.  one directional light injects light to the voxels ( another stuctured buffer )
      I will try to say what i think is correct ( please correct me )
      GI lighting a given vertecie  in a ideal method
      A.  we would shoot many ( e.g. 1000 ) rays in the half hemisphere which is oriented according to the normal of that vertecie
      B.  we would take into account every occluder ( which is very much work load) and sample the color from the hit point.
      C. according to the angle between ray and the vertecie normal we would weigth ( cosin ) the color and sum up all samples and devide by the count of rays
      Voxel GI lighting
      In priciple we want to do the same thing with our voxel structure.
      Even if we would know where the correct hit points of the vertecie are we would have the task to calculate the weighted sum of many voxels.
      Saving time for weighted summing up of colors of each voxel
      To save the time for weighted summing up of colors of each voxel we build bricks or clusters.
      Every 8 neigbour voxels make a "cluster voxel" of level 1, ( this is done recursively for many levels ).
      The color of a side of a "cluster voxel" is the average of the colors of the four containing voxels sides with the same orientation.

      After having done this we can sample the far away parts just by sampling the coresponding "cluster voxel with the coresponding level" and get the summed up color.
      Actually this process is done be mip mapping a texture that contains the colors of the voxels which places the color of the neighbouring voxels also near by in the texture.
      Cone tracing, howto ??
      Here my understanding is confus ?? How is the voxel structure efficiently traced.
      I simply cannot understand how the occlusion problem is fastly solved so that we know which single voxel or "cluster voxel" of which level we have to sample.
      Supposed,  i am in a dark room that is filled with many boxes of different kind of sizes an i have a pocket lamp e.g. with a pyramid formed light cone
      - i would see some single voxels near or far
      - i would also see many different kind of boxes "clustered voxels" of different sizes which are partly occluded
      How do i make a weighted sum of this ligting area ??
      e.g. if i want to sample a "clustered voxel level 4" i have to take into account how much per cent of the area of this "clustered voxel" is occluded.
      Please be patient with me, i really try to understand but maybe i need some more explanation than others
      best regards evelyn
    • By Endemoniada

      Hi guys, when I do picking followed by ray-plane intersection the results are all wrong. I am pretty sure my ray-plane intersection is correct so I'll just show the picking part. Please take a look:
      // get projection_matrix DirectX::XMFLOAT4X4 mat; DirectX::XMStoreFloat4x4(&mat, projection_matrix); float2 v; v.x = (((2.0f * (float)mouse_x) / (float)screen_width) - 1.0f) / mat._11; v.y = -(((2.0f * (float)mouse_y) / (float)screen_height) - 1.0f) / mat._22; // get inverse of view_matrix DirectX::XMMATRIX inv_view = DirectX::XMMatrixInverse(nullptr, view_matrix); DirectX::XMStoreFloat4x4(&mat, inv_view); // create ray origin (camera position) float3 ray_origin; ray_origin.x = mat._41; ray_origin.y = mat._42; ray_origin.z = mat._43; // create ray direction float3 ray_dir; ray_dir.x = v.x * mat._11 + v.y * mat._21 + mat._31; ray_dir.y = v.x * mat._12 + v.y * mat._22 + mat._32; ray_dir.z = v.x * mat._13 + v.y * mat._23 + mat._33;  
      That should give me a ray origin and direction in world space but when I do the ray-plane intersection the results are all wrong.
      If I click on the bottom half of the screen ray_dir.z becomes negative (more so as I click lower). I don't understand how that can be, shouldn't it always be pointing down the z-axis ?
      I had this working in the past but I can't find my old code
      Please help. Thank you.
    • By turanszkij
      I finally managed to get the DX11 emulating Vulkan device working but everything is flipped vertically now because Vulkan has a different clipping space. What are the best practices out there to keep these implementation consistent? I tried using a vertically flipped viewport, and while it works on Nvidia 1050, the Vulkan debug layer is throwing error messages that this is not supported in the spec so it might not work on others. There is also the possibility to flip the clip scpace position Y coordinate before writing out with vertex shader, but that requires changing and recompiling every shader. I could also bake it into the camera projection matrices, though I want to avoid that because then I need to track down for the whole engine where I upload matrices... Any chance of an easy extension or something? If not, I will probably go with changing the vertex shaders.
    • By evelyn4you
      in my game engine i want to implement my own bone weight painting tool, so to say a virtual brush painting tool for a mesh.
      I have already implemented my own "dual quaternion skinning" animation system with "morphs" (=blend shapes)  and "bone driven"  "corrective morphs" (= morph is dependent from a bending or twisting bone)
      But now i have no idea which is the best method to implement a brush painting system.
      Just some proposals
      a.  i would build a kind of additional "vertecie structure", that can help me to find the surrounding (neighbours) vertecie indexes from a given "central vertecie" index
      b.  the structure should also give information about the distance from the neighbour vertecsies to the given "central vertecie" index
      c.  calculate the strength of the adding color to the "central vertecie" an the neighbour vertecies by a formula with linear or quadratic distance fall off
      d.  the central vertecie would be detected as that vertecie that is hit by a orthogonal projection from my cursor (=brush) in world space an the mesh
            but my problem is that there could be several  vertecies that can be hit simultaniously. e.g. i want to paint the inward side of the left leg. the right leg will also be hit.
      I think the given problem is quite typical an there are standard approaches that i dont know.
      Any help or tutorial are welcome
      P.S. I am working with SharpDX, DirectX11
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DX11 Cannot enable 4X MSAA Anti-Aliasing DirectX11

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I am currently learning how to use DirectX11 but I am unable to use 4X MSAA. Here is my code (Since I'm just learning I haven't used any headers or classes, sorry for the messy code)

#define SCREEN_WIDTH 800
#define SCREEN_HEIGHT 600

// include the basic windows header files and the Direct3D header files
#include <windows.h>
#include <windowsx.h>
#include <d3d11.h>
#include <d3dx11.h>
#include <d3dx10.h>
#include <DirectXMath.h>

using namespace DirectX;

// include the Direct3D Library file
#pragma comment (lib, "d3d11.lib")
#pragma comment (lib, "d3dx11.lib")
#pragma comment (lib, "d3dx10.lib")

// global declarations
IDXGISwapChain *swapchain;             // the pointer to the swap chain interface
ID3D11Device *dev;                     // the pointer to our Direct3D device interface
ID3D11DeviceContext *devcon;           // the pointer to our Direct3D device context
ID3D11RenderTargetView *backbuffer;    // the pointer to our back buffer
ID3D11Buffer* triangleVertBuffer;
ID3D11VertexShader* VS;
ID3D11PixelShader* PS;
ID3D10Blob* VS_Buffer;
ID3D10Blob* PS_Buffer;
ID3D11InputLayout* vertLayout;

									   // function prototypes
void InitD3D(HWND hWnd);    // sets up and initializes Direct3D
void RenderFrame(void);     // renders a single frame
void CleanD3D(void);        // closes Direct3D and releases memory
void InitScene(void);

							// the WindowProc function prototype
LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);

// the entry point for any Windows program
int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,
	HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
	LPSTR lpCmdLine,
	int nCmdShow)
	HWND hWnd;

	ZeroMemory(&wc, sizeof(WNDCLASSEX));

	wc.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
	wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
	wc.lpfnWndProc = WindowProc;
	wc.hInstance = hInstance;
	wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW);
	wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)COLOR_WINDOW;
	wc.lpszClassName = L"WindowClass";


	RECT wr = { 0, 0, 800, 600 };

	hWnd = CreateWindowEx(NULL,
		L"Eagle Engine (Alpha)",
		wr.right - wr.left,
		wr.bottom - wr.top,

	ShowWindow(hWnd, nCmdShow);

	// set up and initialize Direct3D

	// enter the main loop:

	MSG msg;

	while (TRUE)
		if (PeekMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE))

			if (msg.message == WM_QUIT)


	// clean up DirectX and COM

	return msg.wParam;

// this is the main message handler for the program
LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
	switch (message)
		return 0;
	} break;

	return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);

// this function initializes and prepares Direct3D for use
void InitD3D(HWND hWnd)
	// create a struct to hold information about the swap chain

	// clear out the struct for use
	ZeroMemory(&scd, sizeof(DXGI_SWAP_CHAIN_DESC));

	// fill the swap chain description struct
	scd.BufferCount = 2;                                    // one back buffer
	scd.BufferDesc.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R8G8B8A8_UNORM;     // use 32-bit color
	scd.BufferUsage = DXGI_USAGE_RENDER_TARGET_OUTPUT;      // how swap chain is to be used
	scd.OutputWindow = hWnd;                                // the window to be used
	scd.SampleDesc.Count = 4;                               // how many multisamples
	scd.Windowed = TRUE;                                    // windowed/full-screen mode
															// create a device, device context and swap chain using the information in the scd struct

	hr = D3D11CreateDeviceAndSwapChain(NULL,

	// get the address of the back buffer
	ID3D11Texture2D *pBackBuffer;
	swapchain->GetBuffer(0, __uuidof(ID3D11Texture2D), (LPVOID*)&pBackBuffer);

	// use the back buffer address to create the render target
	dev->CreateRenderTargetView(pBackBuffer, NULL, &backbuffer);

	// set the render target as the back buffer
	devcon->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &backbuffer, NULL);

	ID3D11Texture2D* pDepthStencil = NULL;
	D3D11_TEXTURE2D_DESC descDepth;
	descDepth.Width = SCREEN_WIDTH;
	descDepth.Height = SCREEN_HEIGHT;
	descDepth.MipLevels = 1;
	descDepth.ArraySize = 1;
	descDepth.Format = DXGI_FORMAT_R32_TYPELESS;
	descDepth.SampleDesc.Count = 4;
	descDepth.SampleDesc.Quality = 0;
	descDepth.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT;
	descDepth.CPUAccessFlags = 0;
	descDepth.MiscFlags = 0;
	hr = dev->CreateTexture2D(&descDepth, NULL, &pDepthStencil);

	descDSV.ViewDimension = D3D11_DSV_DIMENSION_TEXTURE2D;
	descDSV.Texture2D.MipSlice = 0;

	// Create the depth stencil view
	ID3D11DepthStencilView* pDSV;
	hr = dev->CreateDepthStencilView(pDepthStencil, // Depth stencil texture
		&descDSV, // Depth stencil desc
		&pDSV);  // [out] Depth stencil view

	devcon->OMSetRenderTargets(1, &backbuffer, pDSV);

	// Set the viewport
	D3D11_VIEWPORT viewport;
	ZeroMemory(&viewport, sizeof(D3D11_VIEWPORT));

	viewport.TopLeftX = 0;
	viewport.TopLeftY = 0;
	viewport.Width = SCREEN_WIDTH;
	viewport.Height = SCREEN_HEIGHT;
	viewport.MinDepth = 0.0f;
	viewport.MaxDepth = 1.0f;

	devcon->RSSetViewports(1, &viewport);

// this is the function used to render a single frame
void RenderFrame(void)
	// clear the back buffer to a deep blue
	devcon->Draw(3, 0);
	// switch the back buffer and the front buffer
	swapchain->Present(0, 0);

// this is the function that cleans up Direct3D and COM
void CleanD3D(void)
	// close and release all existing COM objects

struct Vertex 
	Vertex() {}
	Vertex(float x, float y, float z)
		: pos(x, y, z) {}
	XMFLOAT3 pos;

UINT numElements = ARRAYSIZE(layout);

void InitScene()
	//Compile Shaders from shader file
	D3DX11CompileFromFile(L"Effects.fx", 0, 0, "VS", "vs_4_0", 0, 0, 0, &VS_Buffer, 0, 0);
	D3DX11CompileFromFile(L"Effects.fx", 0, 0, "PS", "ps_4_0", 0, 0, 0, &PS_Buffer, 0, 0);

	//Create the Shader Objects
	dev->CreateVertexShader(VS_Buffer->GetBufferPointer(), VS_Buffer->GetBufferSize(), NULL, &VS);
	dev->CreatePixelShader(PS_Buffer->GetBufferPointer(), PS_Buffer->GetBufferSize(), NULL, &PS);

	//Set Vertex and Pixel Shaders
	devcon->VSSetShader(VS, 0, 0);
	devcon->PSSetShader(PS, 0, 0);

	//Create the vertex buffer
	Vertex v[] =
		Vertex(0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f),
		Vertex(0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f),
		Vertex(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f),

	D3D11_BUFFER_DESC vertexBufferDesc;
	ZeroMemory(&vertexBufferDesc, sizeof(vertexBufferDesc));

	vertexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT;
	vertexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(Vertex) * 3;
	vertexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER;
	vertexBufferDesc.CPUAccessFlags = 0;
	vertexBufferDesc.MiscFlags = 0;

	D3D11_SUBRESOURCE_DATA vertexBufferData;

	ZeroMemory(&vertexBufferData, sizeof(vertexBufferData));
	vertexBufferData.pSysMem = v;
	dev->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &vertexBufferData, &triangleVertBuffer);

	//Set the vertex buffer
	UINT stride = sizeof(Vertex);
	UINT offset = 0;
	devcon->IASetVertexBuffers(0, 1, &triangleVertBuffer, &stride, &offset);

	//Create the Input Layout
	dev->CreateInputLayout(layout, numElements, VS_Buffer->GetBufferPointer(),
		VS_Buffer->GetBufferSize(), &vertLayout);

	//Set the Input Layout

	//Set Primitive Topology

I've attached a photo of what I get when I compile the above code. Notice the jagged edges 

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I can't remember exactly, but try changing:

descDSV.ViewDimension = D3D11_DSV_DIMENSION_TEXTURE2D;




Note the 'MS' suffix

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Pass the D3D11_CREATE_DEVICE_DEBUG flag when creating your D3D11 device: it will cause the runtime to output warning and error messages when you do something wrong with the API. It's a good idea to always use that for your debugging builds, and fix any issues that it brings up.


If you'd like, you can also tell the runtime to break into the debugger right when an error occurs so that you know exactly which line of code is causing the problem:


ID3D11InfoQueue* infoQueue = nullptr;
device->QueryInterface(__uuidof(ID3D11InfoQueue), reinterpret_cast<void**>(&infoQueue));
    infoQueue->SetBreakOnSeverity(D3D11_MESSAGE_SEVERITY_WARNING, TRUE);
    infoQueue->SetBreakOnSeverity(D3D11_MESSAGE_SEVERITY_ERROR, TRUE);
    infoQueue = nullptr;

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