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    • By racarate
      Hey everybody!
      I am trying to replicate all these cool on-screen debug visuals I see in all the SIGGRAPH and GDC talks, but I really don't know where to start.  The only resource I know of is almost 16 years old:
      http://number-none.com/product/Interactive Profiling, Part 1/index.html
      Does anybody have a more up-to-date reference?  Do people use minimal UI libraries like Dear ImgGui?  Also, If I am profiling OpenGL ES 3.0 (which doesn't have timer queries) is there really anything I can do to measure performance GPU-wise?  Or should I just chart CPU-side frame time?  I feel like this is something people re-invent for every game there has gotta be a tutorial out there... right?
       
       
    • By Achivai
      Hey, I am semi-new to 3d-programming and I've hit a snag. I have one object, let's call it Object A. This object has a long int array of 3d xyz-positions stored in it's vbo as an instanced attribute. I am using these numbers to instance object A a couple of thousand times. So far so good. 
      Now I've hit a point where I want to remove one of these instances of object A while the game is running, but I'm not quite sure how to go about it. At first my thought was to update the instanced attribute of Object A and change the positions to some dummy number that I could catch in the vertex shader and then decide there whether to draw the instance of Object A or not, but I think that would be expensive to do while the game is running, considering that it might have to be done several times every frame in some cases. 
      I'm not sure how to proceed, anyone have any tips?
    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:
      https://github.com/fleissna/flyEngine

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.

      Bye,

      Phil
    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
       
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
       
      Renderer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
      Game.zip
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

       
      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test
       

       
      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
       
      Eric
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OpenGL Vulkan or OpenGL ES or OpenGL

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Hello, I understand that questions like mine was asked billion times, but I need some elaboration. I'm learning in the university and this is last year of bachelor degree learning. I must write some graduation work I want to write my own render framework (I know this maybe hard for one person, but I want :D) But I dont know what lib to choose. I saw some Vulkan videos and run it on my own PC, it was awesome ( but Dota 2 so laggy :( ) I right now learn OpenGL by this  https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0321773039/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1  

 

P.S.: If you know some better theme linked with game development please write below.

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Well, first of all OpenGL and openGL ES are pretty much the same thing, with the exception that OpenGL ES is targeted at mobile devices (ES stands for Embedded Systems).

 

Now for choosing between OpenGL and Vulkan.

 

OpenGL is very popular,and has been around for a long time now, so you won't have much of a problem finding resources about how to use it.

 

Vulkan however, if I may put it this way, is the future of OpenGL (and, perhaps, of graphics API in general).

This means, however, that it not only has fewer resources available (since it is pretty recent), but also that it is harder to program, because, unlike other APIs (OpenGL or DirectX), you have (mostly) full responsability of ensuring that everything works correctly (whereas other APIs are more lenient, in that they will not only manage graphics memory for you, but also ensure that your graphics card never crashes your application, etc).

 

I like to think of the difference between the two as somewhat like a managed language (say, C#) and C++.

C++ will allow you to do pretty much anything you want, even if it is detrimental/dangerous/etc to your application, whereas C# (or other similar managed languages) will be safer to program in, at the expense of limiting what you can do.

 

So, in my opinion, I'd advise you to learn OpenGL first, again, mainly because it has the most resources available, and also because it is the easier of the two to learn.

 

Do note that, regardless of what API you choose, most of the things you'll learn will still apply to the other APIs, so it's not time wasted by any means.

 

Now for resources.

 

For Vulkan, right here on GameDev you have a topic about Vulkan resources. You can find it here.

There's also a pretty nice article, also right here on GameDev. You can find it here.

 

For OpenGL, here's a few:

 

http://learnopengl.com/

http://www.opengl-tutorial.org

http://ogldev.atspace.co.uk

 

And of course, you can find many helpful stuff right here on GameDev, both in the forums and in the articles section.

You can also find tons of OpenGL tutorials on Google, so if you get a bit more curious, try it. These are a nice start though.

 

Well, as a last thing, though somewhat unrelated to your question, there's this.

GPU Gems are books that were published back in the day, and are now free to read on NVIDIAs website. 

I know that it doesn't quite relate to your question about APIs (or OpenGL/Vulkan specifically, for that matter), but I just thought I'd share it, because it contains many awesome techniques/stuff about graphics rendering, many of them used in actual commercial games.

Even if you won't need it for your project, it's always a nice read, and a good way to learn about rendering in general (and not-so-general) so, if you get curious, give it a try.

 

Hope it helps.

Edited by __SKYe

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If it's for your thesis and you really want to do something impressive, why don't you make a software renderer? All what you learn with that is API independent and pretty useful to understand how things work.

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If it's for your thesis and you really want to do something impressive, why don't you make a software renderer? All what you learn with that is API independent and pretty useful to understand how things work.

 I think it will be very hard, and I want to learn that I will use in future. 

 

 

Well, first of all OpenGL and openGL ES are pretty much the same thing, with the exception that OpenGL ES is targeted at mobile devices (ES stands for Embedded Systems).

 

Now for choosing between OpenGL and Vulkan.

 

OpenGL is very popular,and has been around for a long time now, so you won't have much of a problem finding resources about how to use it.

 

Vulkan however, if I may put it this way, is the future of OpenGL (and, perhaps, of graphics API in general).

This means, however, that it not only has fewer resources available (since it is pretty recent), but also that it is harder to program, because, unlike other APIs (OpenGL or DirectX), you have (mostly) full responsability of ensuring that everything works correctly (whereas other APIs are more lenient, in that they will not only manage graphics memory for you, but also ensure that your graphics card never crashes your application, etc).

 

I like to think of the difference between the two as somewhat like a managed language (say, C#) and C++.

C++ will allow you to do pretty much anything you want, even if it is detrimental/dangerous/etc to your application, whereas C# (or other similar managed languages) will be safer to program in, at the expense of limiting what you can do.

 

So, in my opinion, I'd advise you to learn OpenGL first, again, mainly because it has the most resources available, and also because it is the easier of the two to learn.

 

Do note that, regardless of what API you choose, most of the things you'll learn will still apply to the other APIs, so it's not time wasted by any means.

 

Now for resources.

 

For Vulkan, right here on GameDev you have a topic about Vulkan resources. You can find it here.

There's also a pretty nice article, also right here on GameDev. You can find it here.

 

For OpenGL, here's a few:

 

http://learnopengl.com/

http://www.opengl-tutorial.org

http://ogldev.atspace.co.uk

 

And of course, you can find many helpful stuff right here on GameDev, both in the forums and in the articles section.

You can also find tons of OpenGL tutorials on Google, so if you get a bit more curious, try it. These are a nice start though.

 

Well, as a last thing, though somewhat unrelated to your question, there's this.

GPU Gems are books that were published back in the day, and are now free to read on NVIDIAs website. 

I know that it doesn't quite relate to your question about APIs (or OpenGL/Vulkan specifically, for that matter), but I just thought I'd share it, because it contains many awesome techniques/stuff about graphics rendering, many of them used in actual commercial games.

Even if you won't need it for your project, it's always a nice read, and a good way to learn about rendering in general (and not-so-general) so, if you get curious, give it a try.

 

Hope it helps.

Thank you for the answer. I hope it will help to me.

Edited by Airat1995

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If you're new to GPU programming, start with D3D11 or OpenGL3 or OpenGL4.

 

If you want to demonstrate low-level GPU programming techniques, use Vulkan or D3D12.

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