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    • By racarate
      Hey everybody!
      I am trying to replicate all these cool on-screen debug visuals I see in all the SIGGRAPH and GDC talks, but I really don't know where to start.  The only resource I know of is almost 16 years old:
      http://number-none.com/product/Interactive Profiling, Part 1/index.html
      Does anybody have a more up-to-date reference?  Do people use minimal UI libraries like Dear ImgGui?  Also, If I am profiling OpenGL ES 3.0 (which doesn't have timer queries) is there really anything I can do to measure performance GPU-wise?  Or should I just chart CPU-side frame time?  I feel like this is something people re-invent for every game there has gotta be a tutorial out there... right?
       
       
    • By Achivai
      Hey, I am semi-new to 3d-programming and I've hit a snag. I have one object, let's call it Object A. This object has a long int array of 3d xyz-positions stored in it's vbo as an instanced attribute. I am using these numbers to instance object A a couple of thousand times. So far so good. 
      Now I've hit a point where I want to remove one of these instances of object A while the game is running, but I'm not quite sure how to go about it. At first my thought was to update the instanced attribute of Object A and change the positions to some dummy number that I could catch in the vertex shader and then decide there whether to draw the instance of Object A or not, but I think that would be expensive to do while the game is running, considering that it might have to be done several times every frame in some cases. 
      I'm not sure how to proceed, anyone have any tips?
    • By fleissi
      Hey guys!

      I'm new here and I recently started developing my own rendering engine. It's open source, based on OpenGL/DirectX and C++.
      The full source code is hosted on github:
      https://github.com/fleissna/flyEngine

      I would appreciate if people with experience in game development / engine desgin could take a look at my source code. I'm looking for honest, constructive criticism on how to improve the engine.
      I'm currently writing my master's thesis in computer science and in the recent year I've gone through all the basics about graphics programming, learned DirectX and OpenGL, read some articles on Nvidia GPU Gems, read books and integrated some of this stuff step by step into the engine.

      I know about the basics, but I feel like there is some missing link that I didn't get yet to merge all those little pieces together.

      Features I have so far:
      - Dynamic shader generation based on material properties
      - Dynamic sorting of meshes to be renderd based on shader and material
      - Rendering large amounts of static meshes
      - Hierarchical culling (detail + view frustum)
      - Limited support for dynamic (i.e. moving) meshes
      - Normal, Parallax and Relief Mapping implementations
      - Wind animations based on vertex displacement
      - A very basic integration of the Bullet physics engine
      - Procedural Grass generation
      - Some post processing effects (Depth of Field, Light Volumes, Screen Space Reflections, God Rays)
      - Caching mechanisms for textures, shaders, materials and meshes

      Features I would like to have:
      - Global illumination methods
      - Scalable physics
      - Occlusion culling
      - A nice procedural terrain generator
      - Scripting
      - Level Editing
      - Sound system
      - Optimization techniques

      Books I have so far:
      - Real-Time Rendering Third Edition
      - 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
      - Vulkan Cookbook (not started yet)

      I hope you guys can take a look at my source code and if you're really motivated, feel free to contribute :-)
      There are some videos on youtube that demonstrate some of the features:
      Procedural grass on the GPU
      Procedural Terrain Engine
      Quadtree detail and view frustum culling

      The long term goal is to turn this into a commercial game engine. I'm aware that this is a very ambitious goal, but I'm sure it's possible if you work hard for it.

      Bye,

      Phil
    • By tj8146
      I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.
      I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this? 
       
      Errors when I build my code:
      1>Renderer.cpp 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std' 1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(28): error C2511: 'bool Game::Rendering::initialize(int,int,bool,std::string)': overloaded member function not found in 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window' 1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED. ========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========  
       
      Renderer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Renderer.h" #include "Timer.h" #include <iostream> namespace Game { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ Rendering::Rendering() { mClock = new Clock; } Rendering::~Rendering() { shutdown(); } bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title) { if (!glfwInit()) { return -1; } /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height); glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1); glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); glLoadIdentity(); glfwSwapInterval(1); glEnable(GL_SMOOTH); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glEnable(GL_BLEND); glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); glLoadIdentity(); return true; } bool Rendering::render() { /* Loop until the user closes the window */ if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) return false; /* Render here */ mClock->reset(); glfwPollEvents(); if (mClock->step()) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glfwSwapBuffers(window); mClock->update(); } return true; } void Rendering::shutdown() { glfwDestroyWindow(window); glfwTerminate(); } GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow() { return window; } } Renderer.h
      #pragma once namespace Game { class Clock; class Rendering { public: Rendering(); ~Rendering(); bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window"); void shutdown(); bool render(); GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow(); private: GLFWwindow * window; Clock* mClock; }; } Timer.cpp
      #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include <time.h> #include "Timer.h" namespace Game { Clock::Clock() : mTicksPerSecond(50), mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond), mMaxFrameSkip(10), mLoops(0) { mLastTick = tick(); } Clock::~Clock() { } bool Clock::step() { if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip) return true; return false; } void Clock::reset() { mLoops = 0; } void Clock::update() { mLastTick += mSkipTics; mLoops++; } clock_t Clock::tick() { return clock(); } } TImer.h
      #pragma once #include "Common.h" namespace Game { class Clock { public: Clock(); ~Clock(); void update(); bool step(); void reset(); clock_t tick(); private: uint mTicksPerSecond; ufloat mSkipTics; uint mMaxFrameSkip; uint mLoops; uint mLastTick; }; } Common.h
      #pragma once #include <cstdio> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime> #include <cstring> #include <cmath> #include <iostream> namespace Game { typedef unsigned char uchar; typedef unsigned short ushort; typedef unsigned int uint; typedef unsigned long ulong; typedef float ufloat; }  
      Game.zip
    • By lxjk
      Hi guys,
      There are many ways to do light culling in tile-based shading. I've been playing with this idea for a while, and just want to throw it out there.
      Because tile frustums are general small compared to light radius, I tried using cone test to reduce false positives introduced by commonly used sphere-frustum test.
      On top of that, I use distance to camera rather than depth for near/far test (aka. sliced by spheres).
      This method can be naturally extended to clustered light culling as well.
      The following image shows the general ideas

       
      Performance-wise I get around 15% improvement over sphere-frustum test. You can also see how a single light performs as the following: from left to right (1) standard rendering of a point light; then tiles passed the test of (2) sphere-frustum test; (3) cone test; (4) spherical-sliced cone test
       

       
      I put the details in my blog post (https://lxjk.github.io/2018/03/25/Improve-Tile-based-Light-Culling-with-Spherical-sliced-Cone.html), GLSL source code included!
       
      Eric
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OpenGL Using different shaders in DirectX

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Hello! 

New to the forum and generally bad at posting straight-forward questions but here I go..

 

So, last semester (im a Technical Artist student) we had a 3D-programming course in which we had an assignment to use DirectX or OpenGL to render a textured quad, spinning around in model-space. All fine and dandy, just used a simple VS and FS.
Now we're starting a project course in which we will be developing a small game. Since we have four Game programmers and two Technical Artists, most of my work will be modeling, texturing and animating, but I really want to understand the programming theory as well.

So here's what I havent learned which seems quite crucial to me:
How are different shaders used within a single project? 
Let's say I have a basic VS and FS for basic drawing of meshes. Alright. Great!

Now, i implement a VS for creating waves on a water mesh/plane. How would that fit together with the other VS? Do we somehow join them together and have some condition to check if the vertex belongs to a water mesh or a basic static mesh? Do we switch shaders between draw-calls? Some other programming magic? 
Not having a somewhat clear idea about how these things are done really hinders my confidence and ability to contribute to our game.

Sorry for the ambiguity, as previously stated I'm not very good at explaining this kind of stuff, but I hope it made some sense.

Thanks in advance ^_^ 
 

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You switch shaders between draw calls, yes.

Dealing with all the various shader combinations and connotations this leads to is considered a bit of an unsolved problem in graphics programming.

Google shader combinations for more info than you could possibly want.

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You switch shaders between draw calls, yes.

Dealing with all the various shader combinations and connotations this leads to is considered a bit of an unsolved problem in graphics programming.

Google shader combinations for more info than you could possibly want.

Thank you so much! I've tried googling before but never found a good phrase to google; yours generated so many good results!  :D

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Now, i implement a VS for creating waves on a water mesh/plane. How would that fit together with the other VS? Do we somehow join them together and have some condition to check if the vertex belongs to a water mesh or a basic static mesh? Do we switch shaders between draw-calls? Some other programming magic? Not having a somewhat clear idea about how these things are done really hinders my confidence and ability to contribute to our game.

The main idea - VS and PS are bound to pipeline. Only [0 or 1] VS and [0 or 1]PS maybe bound.

Each time you do context->PSSetShader, prev PS shader will be unbond, and new will be bound.

RenderScene()
    RenderWater()
        context->VSSetShader(vsWater);
        context->PSSetShader(psWater)
        context->Draw();

    RenderGround()
        context->PsSetShader(psGround)
        context->Draw() //will use vsWater shader, already bound in RenderWater()

    RenderSolders()
        context->VSSetShader(vsSolder); //switch from vsWater
        context->PSSetShader(psSolder)  //switch from psGround
        for (int i = 0; i < solders; ++i)
        {
            <update solder buffer>
            context->Draw();  //Use the same shaders , no need to Set() them again here
        }

m_swapChain->Present();  
Edited by Happy SDE

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Now, i implement a VS for creating waves on a water mesh/plane. How would that fit together with the other VS? Do we somehow join them together and have some condition to check if the vertex belongs to a water mesh or a basic static mesh? Do we switch shaders between draw-calls? Some other programming magic? Not having a somewhat clear idea about how these things are done really hinders my confidence and ability to contribute to our game.

The main idea - VS and PS are bound to pipeline. Only [0 or 1] VS and [0 or 1]PS maybe bound.

Each time you do context->PSSetShader, prev PS shader will be unbond, and new will be bound.

RenderScene()
    RenderWater()
        context->VSSetShader(vsWater);
        context->PSSetShader(psWater)
        context->Draw();

    RenderGround()
        context->PsSetShader(psGround)
        context->Draw() //will use vsWater shader, already bound in RenderWater()

    RenderSolders()
        context->VSSetShader(vsSolder); //switch from vsWater
        context->PSSetShader(psSolder)  //switch from psGround
        for (int i = 0; i < solders; ++i)
        {
            <update solder buffer>
            context->Draw();  //Use the same shaders , no need to Set() them again here
        }

m_swapChain->Present();  

Yeah I do get that. Probably one of the reasons that I questioned this method was that I was told that one "should minimze API calls", which makes perfect sense, but I took it too far. Like, wanting to only needing to set new shaders once or twice during each frame, but I get the sense that it's not that performance impacting.

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GPU are fines running different shaders at the same time, the cost of changing shaders is merely CPU. It can be a problem of course, but to reach the case, you first need hundreds to thousands of shader change a frame with complex behavior and binding.

If you sort your draws per shader, you should be fine unless you draw the equivalent of the most stunning complex games :)

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I was told that one "should minimze API calls", which makes perfect sense, but I took it too far. Like, wanting to only needing to set new shaders once or twice during each frame, but I get the sense that it's not that performance impacting.

Every API call has a direct CPU-side cost, but you should be able to use as many as 10k API calls without blowing the budget (depending on how much cpu time the rest of your game needs). It's good practice to sort your objects into an order that will minimise calls, e.g. drawing objects that share a material at the same time.

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I was told that one "should minimze API calls", which makes perfect sense, but I took it too far. Like, wanting to only needing to set new shaders once or twice during each frame, but I get the sense that it's not that performance impacting.

Every API call has a direct CPU-side cost, but you should be able to use as many as 10k API calls without blowing the budget (depending on how much cpu time the rest of your game needs). It's good practice to sort your objects into an order that will minimise calls, e.g. drawing objects that share a material at the same time.

 

I would add that there is a direct AND indirect CPU cost. With D3D11, a lot of black magic and lazy evaluation will happen, it usually make your Present call a big fat black box. It is better with D3D12 where the API has more defined behavior ( like shader  compilation happen at CreatePSO, nowhere else, ... ).

 

But again, unless you diagnostics a performance issue within your engine or something really dumb and easy to fixm all you are doing is early over optimisation, and this is just a waste of time :)

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I was told that one "should minimze API calls", which makes perfect sense, but I took it too far. Like, wanting to only needing to set new shaders once or twice during each frame, but I get the sense that it's not that performance impacting.

Every API call has a direct CPU-side cost, but you should be able to use as many as 10k API calls without blowing the budget (depending on how much cpu time the rest of your game needs). It's good practice to sort your objects into an order that will minimise calls, e.g. drawing objects that share a material at the same time.

 

I would add that there is a direct AND indirect CPU cost. With D3D11, a lot of black magic and lazy evaluation will happen, it usually make your Present call a big fat black box. It is better with D3D12 where the API has more defined behavior ( like shader  compilation happen at CreatePSO, nowhere else, ... ).

 

But again, unless you diagnostics a performance issue within your engine or something really dumb and easy to fixm all you are doing is early over optimisation, and this is just a waste of time :)

 

Indeed that has been my most prominent problem thus far when it comes to programming; over optimizing and underestimating the power of processing power.  ^_^

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in  your case the standard approach would be to draw all static meshes using one shader, then switch to your water shader, and draw all your water.

 

over optimizing and underestimating the power of processing power.
 

 

always try brute force first.  computers are getting fast enough they can do many things in 3D graphics without resorting to "glory coding" like in the days of quake etc.

FYI, i can routinely do 30K draw calls per render in dx9 no problem.

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