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    • By Thiago Monteiro
      Hi all,
      I'm new to the forums and hope this is the correct place to ask this.
      I've lately been going over some ideas on how to develop a (hopefully) profitable game from beginning to end. I do have a small amount of money to invest on this, and professional experience in programming and project management, although not in programming games. This would be fine for a hobby project, I suppose, but if I want to make a product, I'd say a team and some more funds are required. The way I think, it's either try to find a publisher or go for crowdfunding. Here are some of my thoughts about this and I hope I can get some input from you also:
      A) The most important point I see at the moment is to prove that giving me money to finish the game is a good idea. The most obvious way I thought was to build a demo of what I intend to build. Not a proof-of-concept, mind you, but really something you could play for a couple to few hours. Then I'd use this demo as a pitch of sorts. 
      B) The publisher path - I don't think publishers would waste so much time evaluating something. I expect then to go with a kind of 'professional gut feeling', to know what to look for very quickly. In this sense, I think investing less in assets and more in, say, video editing and concept art a wiser course. Gameplay length could even be abbreviated for this purpose. (Possibly interesting link relating to this https://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/309088/Video_30_things_to_avoid_when_pitching_your_game_to_a_publisher.php)
      C) Crowdfunding path -  I think people are a bit weary of game crowdfunding at the moment. It is very tricky to stand out and it's very important to give confidence that the project will be finished. Here I believe it's very important to give a more or less polished advanced Alpha type of build that would entice people to pledge.
      I neither plan on making anything near AAA games nor RpgMaker type of game. I'm thinking thinking about a Diablo-like game, with some twists to mechanics and setting. 
      So, what would be your take on this? Feasible?
    • By GameDev.net
      Japheth Dillman, co-founder and CEO of YetiZen, discusses funding for indie startups.
      LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/japhethdillman

    • By Orymus3
      Been a while since I had the chance to start a topic on here... so I figured it was about time I did:
      I'm not really one to second guess myself much, but in the interest of not becoming an intolerable human being, I try to gather some feedback from time to time when I feel I may learn from the process and somehow do 'better next time'.
      Last year, I founded my own C-corp and went full-time. Things have been doing amazingly well since, for which I feel blessed and am very thankful. We've had amazing projects, and we're really getting traction. Suffice it to say that, as far as the 'indie scene' is concerned, we're probably in the top 20-30% right now (studios that actually have a change to survive more than 5 years). We make our own games, and we work with aspiring indies that want to get their games on the market and are not sure where to start. I know how that sounds, but you'd be surprised by the amount of dedicated individuals that turn out to be much MUCH more than the 'idea guys', and what they can bring to the table.
      That being said, there's a recurring problem I've come across the past... (25 years?) that's refusing to go away, and I know it's a broken record to a lot of people around here. Let me first say that I am not against hobby rev-share projects. I have (and had) my own too. That's fine. What I am deliberately opposed to is people taking their hobby rev-share projects so seriously they feel everyone should agree to these terms. You know, people with a day job that are not taking any significant risk, but somehow expect you/me to. Most times, I just ignore them, as I find it better to do so than to jump in an argument, but today was the 'one-too-many' and I felt like venting (the canadian way, so no cursing!).
      Here's what this individual actually sent:
      This is the integral transcript, so apologies for the typos and lack of opening or closure... (the original post didn't have any bold).
      Here's what the 7-lines short ad he referenced actually had to say about rev-share:
      I'm sorry, what's that? but surely... you must be ok with rev-share right?
      Therefore, I went ahead and replied:
      I'm not seeking validation here and though I feel that reopening the whole 'biz vs hobby' discussion is pointless, I'm actually interested in finding strategies to avoid having to get that sort of mail which, frankly, is kind of insulting when you consider what they're saying:
      I don't have 10k to spend, and I'm not going to bother to do anything about this, but here's a cool idea, you get to make it and maybe we split it 50/50.
      I mean, how much more of that crap can a man take?
      And, where are these people taking this idea from? I remember being green and wanting to make a rev-share game more than once (heck, if you look hard enough, you'll likely find a few of these posts on here!), but I don't recall going straight to people who did this for a living and asking them to do it for rev-share because I didn't have 10k on me...
      I made it my business' mission to help out aspiring entrepreneurs and indies so that fresh games would get made, so I'm DEFINITELY NOT AGAINST people trying to make it out there.
      Hopefully that doesn't stir some PR mess... I had to get it out of my system, and if anyone wishes to contribute constructively, I'm all ears.
    • By Philomena Schwab

      On the 2nd of November 2017 we launched a Kickstarter campaign for our game Nimbatus - The Space Drone Constructor, which aimed to raise $20,000. By the campaign’s end, 3000 backers had supported us with a total of $74,478. All the PR and marketing was handled by our indie developer team of four people with a very low marketing budget. Our team decided to go for a funding goal we were sure we could reach and extend the game’s content through stretch goals. The main goal of the campaign was to raise awareness for the game and raise funds for the alpha version.
      Part 1 - Before Launch
      Is what we believed when we launched our first Kickstarter campaign in 2016. For this first campaign, we had built up a very dedicated group of people before the Kickstarter’s launch. Nimbatus also had a bit of a following before the campaign launched:
      ~ 300 likes on Facebook
      ~ 1300 followers on Twitter
      ~ 1000 newsletter subs
      ~ 3500 followers on Steam
      However, there had been little interaction between players and us previous to the campaign's launch. This made us unsure whether or not the Nimbatus Kickstarter would reach its funding goal.
      A few weeks prior to launch, we started to look for potential ways to promote Nimbatus during the Kickstarter. We found our answer in social news sites. Reddit, Imgur and 9gag all proved to be great places to talk about Nimbatus. More about this in Part 3 - During the campaign.
      As with our previous campaign, the reward structure and trailer were the most time-consuming aspects of the page setup. We realised early that Nimbatus looks A LOT better in motion and therefore decided that we should show all features in action with animated GIFs.
      Two examples:


      In order to support the campaigns storytelling, “we built a ship, now we need a crew!”, we named all reward tiers after open positions on the ship.

      We were especially interested how the “Navigator” tier would do. This $95 tier would give backers free digital copies of ALL games our company EVER creates.

      We decided against Early Bird and Kickstarter exclusive rewards in order avoid splitting backers into “winners and losers”, based on the great advice from Stonemaier Game’s book A Crowdfunder’s Strategy Guide (EDS Publications Ltd. (2015). Their insights also convinced us to add a $1 reward tier because it lets people join the update loop to build up trust in our efforts. Many of our $1 backers later increased their pledge to a higher tier.
      Two of our reward tiers featured games that are similar to Nimbatus. The keys for these games were provided by fellow developers. We think that this is really awesome and it helped the campaign a lot! A huge thanks to Avorion, Reassembly , Airships and Scrap Galaxy <3
      Youtubers and streamers are important allies for game developers. They are in direct contact with potential buyers/backers and can significantly increase a campaign’s reach. We made a list of content creators who’d potentially be interested in our game. They were selected mostly by browsing Youtube for “let’s play” videos of games similar to Nimbatus. We sent out a total of 100 emails, each with a personalized intro sentence, no money involved. Additionally, we used Keymailer . Keymailer is a tool to contact Youtubers and streamers. At a cost of $150/month you can filter all available contacts by games they played and genres they enjoy. We personalized the message for each group. Messages automatically include an individual Steam key. With this tool, we contacted over 2000 Youtubers/Streamers who are interested in similar games.
      How it turned out
      - About 10 of the 100 Youtubers we contacted manually ended up creating a video/stream during the Kickstarter. Including some big ones with 1 million+ subscribers.
      - Over 150 videos resulted from the Keymailer outreach. Absolutely worth the investment!

      Another very helpful tool to find Youtubers/Streamers is Twitter. Before, but also during the campaign we sent out tweets , stating that we are looking for Youtubers/Streamers who want to feature Nimbatus. We also encouraged people to tag potentially interested content creators in the comments. This brought in a lot of interested people and resulted in a couple dozen videos. We also used Twitter to follow up when people where not responding via email, which proved to be very effective.
      In terms of campaign length we decided to go with a 34 day Kickstarter. The main reason being that we thought it would take quite a while until the word of the campaign spread enough. In retrospective this was ok, but we think 30 days would have been enough too.
      We were very unsure whether or not to release a demo of Nimbatus. Mainly because we were unsure if the game offered enough to convince players in this early state and we feared that our alpha access tier would potentially lose value because everyone could play already. Thankfully we decided to offer a demo in the end. More on this topic in Part 3 - During the campaign.
      Since we are based in Switzerland, we were forced to use CHF as our campaign’s currency. And while the currency is automatically re-calculated into $ for American backers, it was displayed in CHF for all other international backers. Even though CHF and $ are almost 1:1 in value, we believed this to be a
      hurdle. There is no way to tell for us how many backers were scared away because of this in the end.
      Part 2: Kickstarter Launch

      We launched our Kickstarter campaign on a Thursday evening (UTC + 1) which is midday in the US. In order to celebrate the launch, we did a short livestream on Facebook. We had previously opened an event page and invited all our Facebook friends to it. Only a few people were watching and we were a bit stressed out.

      In order to help us spread the word we challenged our supporters with community goals. We promised that if all these goals were reached, each backer above $14 would receive an extra copy of Nimbatus. With most of the goals reached after the first week, we realized that we should have made the challenge a bit harder.
      The first few days went better than expected. We announced the Kickstarter on Imgur, Reddit, 9gag, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, in some forums, via our Newsletter and on our Steam page. If you plan to release your game on Steam later on, we’d highly recommend that you set up your Steam page before the Kickstarter launches. Some people might not be interested in backing the game but will go ahead and wishlist it instead.
      Part 3: During The Campaign

      We tried to keep the campaign’s momentum going. This worked our mostly thanks to the demo we had released.
      In order to download the Nimbatus demo, people needed to head over to our website and enter their email address. Within a few minutes, they received an automated email, including a download link for the demo. We used Mailchimp for this process.

      We also added a big pop up in the demo to inform players about the Kickstarter.

      At first we were a bit reluctant to use this approach, it felt a bit sneaky. But after adding a line informing players they would be added to the newsletter and adding a huge unsubscribe button in the demo download mail, we felt that we could still sleep at night.
      For our previous campaign we had also released a demo. But the approach was significantly different. For the Nimbatus Kickstarter, we used the demo as a marketing tool to inform people about the campaign. Our previous Kickstarters’ demo was mainly an asset you could download if you were already checking out the campaign’s page and wanted to try the game before backing.
      We continued to frequently post on Imgur, Twitter, 9Gag and Facebook. Simultaneously, people streamed Nimbatus on Twitch and released videos on Youtube. This lead to a lot of demo downloads and therefore growth of our newsletter. A few hundred subs came in every day. Only about 10% of the people unsubscribed from the newsletter after downloading the demo.
      Whenever we updated the demo or reached significant milestones in the campaign, such as being halfway to our goal, we sent out a newsletter. We also opened a Discord channel, which turned out a be a great way to stay in touch with our players.
      We were quite surprised to see a decent opening and link click rate. Especially if you compare this to our “normal” newsletter, which includes mostly people we personally met at events. Our normal newsletter took over two years to build up and includes about 4000 subs. With the Nimbatus demo, we gathered 50’000 subs within just 4 weeks and without travelling to any conferences.

      (please note that around 2500 people subscribed to the normal newsletter during the Kickstarter)
      On the 7th day of the campaign we asked a friend if she would give us a shoutout on Reddit. She agreed and posted it in r/gaming. We will never forget what happened next. The post absolutely took off! In less than an hour, the post had reached the frontpage and continued to climb fast. It soon reached the top spot of all things on Reddit. Our team danced around in the office. Lots of people backed, a total of over $5000 came in from this post and we reached our funding goal 30 minutes after hitting the front page.

      We couldn’t believe our luck. Then, people started to accuse us of using bots to upvote the post. Our post was reported multiple times until the moderators took the post down.
      We were shocked and contacted them. They explained that they would need to investigate the post for bot abuse. A few hours later, they put the post back up and stated to have found nothing wrong with it and apologized for the inconvenience. Since the post had not received any upvotes in the past hours while it was taken down it very quickly dropped off the front page and the money flow stopped. While this is a misunderstanding we can understand and accept, people’s reactions hit us pretty hard. After the post was back up, many people on Reddit continued to accuse us and our friend. In the following days, our friend was constantly harassed when she posted on Reddit. Some people jumped over to our companies Twitter and Imgur account and kept on blaming us, asking if we were buying upvotes there too. It’s really not cool to falsely accuse people.
      Almost two weeks later we decided to start posting in smaller subreddits again. This proved to be no problem. But when we dared to do another post in r/gaming later, people immediately reacted very aggressive. We took the new post down and decided to stop posting in r/gaming (at least during the Kickstarter).
      After upgrading the demo with a new feature to easily export GIFs, we started to run competitions on Twitter. The coolest drones that were shared with #NimbatusGame would receive a free Alpha key for the game. Lots of players participated and helped to increase Nimbatus’ reach by doing so. We also gave keys to our most dedicated Youtubers/streamers who then came up with all kinds of interesting challenges for their viewers.
      All these activities came together in a nice loop:
      People downloaded the Nimbatus demo they heard about on social media/social news sites or from Youtubers/Streamers. By receiving newsletters and playing the demo they learned about the Kickstarter. Many of them backed and participated in community goals/competitions which brought in more new people.

      Not much happened in terms of press. RockPaperShotgun and PCGamer wrote articles, both resulting in about $500, which was nice. A handful of small sites picked up the news too. We sent out a press release when Nimbatus reached its funding goal, both to manually picked editors of bigger sites and via gamespress.com.

      Part 4: Last Days
      Every person that hit the “Remind me” button on a Kickstarter page receives an email 48 hours before a campaign ends. This helpful reminder caused a flood of new pledges. We reached our last stretch goal a few hours before our campaign ended. Since we had already communicated this goal as the final one we withheld announcing any further stretch goals.

      We decided to do a Thunderclap 24 hours before the campaign ends. Even after having done quite a few Thunderclaps, we are still unsure how big of an impact they have.
      A few minutes before the Kickstarter campaign was over we cleaned up our campaign page and added links to our Steam page and website. Note that Kickstarter pages cannot be edited after the campaign ends!
      The campaign ended on a Tuesday evening (UTC + 1) and raised a total of $75’000, which is 369% of the original funding goal. After finishing up our “Thank you” image and sending it to our backers it was time to rest.

      Part 5: Conclusion
      We are very happy with the campaign’s results. It was unexpected to highly surpass our funding goal, even though we didn’t have an engaged community when the campaign started. Thanks to the demo we were able to develop a community for Nimbatus on the go. The demo also allowed us to be less “promoty” when posting on social news sites. This way, interested people could get the demo and discover the Kickstarter from there instead of us having to ask for support directly when posting. This, combined with the ever growing newsletter, turned into a great campaign dynamic. We plan to use this approach again for future campaigns.
      300 ------------------> 430 Facebook likes
      1300 -----------------> 2120 Twitter followers
      1000 -----------------> 50’000 Newsletter signups
      3500 -----------------> 10’000 Followers on Steam
      0 ---------------------> 320 Readers of subreddit
      0 ---------------------> 468 People on Discord
      0 ---------------------> 300 Members in our forum
      More data
      23% of our backers came directly from Kickstarter.
      76% of our backers came from external sites.
      For our previous campaign it was 36/64.
      The average pledge amount of our backers was $26.
      94 backers decided to choose the Navigator reward, which gives them access to all games our studio will create in the future. It makes us very happy to see that this kind of reward, which is basically an investment in us as a game company, was popular among backers.
      Main sources of backers
      Link inside demo / Newsletter 22’000 Kickstarter 17’000 Youtube 15’000 Google 3000 Reddit 2500 Twitter 2000 Facebook 2000  
      Keymailer is awesome, but also contact big Youtubers/streamers via email. Most money for the Kickstarter came in through the demo. Social news sites (Imgur, 9Gag, Reddit, …) can generate a lot of attention for a game. It’s much easier to offer a demo on social news sites than to ask for Kickstarter support. Collecting newsletter subs from demo downloads is very effective. It’s possible to run a successful Kickstarter without having a big community beforehand.  
      We hope this insight helps you plan your future Kickstarter campaign. We believe you can do it and we wish you all the best.
      About the author:
      Philomena Schwab is a game designer from Zurich, Switzerland. She co-founded Stray Fawn Studio together with Micha Stettler. The indie game studio recently released its first game, Niche - a genetics survival game and is now developing its second game Nimbatus - The Space Drone Constructor. Philomena wrote her master thesis about community building for indie game developers and founded the nature gamedev collective Playful Oasis. As a chair member of the Swiss Game Developers association she helps her local game industry grow.
      Related Reading:
      Algo-Bot: Lessons Learned from our Kickstarter failure.
    • By Lightness1024
      It's not really related to gaming, but many games nowadays include an economy a la second life, with their own token/coin and downloadable contents. There even exists a token that has been designed just for games: enjin coin
      I personally don't believe in this, I think we should have a unified currency that has so much volume that the value becomes stable. fragmenting currencies into 3000 coins like today creates volatility.
      I thought there were so many problems in general with cryptocurrencies I had to write a long rant, I made a full fledged article about issues here:
      So, 'd love to hear your thoughts about its content and if there are points you disagree and stuff.
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Financial Crowdfunding experience(s), anyone?

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Well, people keep telling me to mold my work on games towards crowdfunding, but while I of course know what crowdfunding is, 'molding my work for it' is not within my experience. Does anyone know what one should work on (in a game) if crowdfunding is being considered? Any advice is welcome, I don't know funding, I just code :)

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The main thing about crowdfunding is that you need a crowd for it to work. You need the crowd before you start the funding. You will get some reach just by being on Kickstarter (and less so for Indiegogo, GoFundMe, etc) but rarely will it be sufficient.

The other thing is that 'Kickstarter' is a misnomer these days. Rightly or wrongly, established teams use it to raise additional funds for their projects or just as a convenient pre-order system, which means you're competing against them in terms of the quality of your presentation and marketing materials. The days of expecting Kickstarter to literally kickstart a new project into life are over; you need (in almost all cases) to be able to show good progress towards your goal before you even launch your campaign. Many gamers basically expect you to be at the Alpha stage (not feature complete, but playable with many assets in place) before they'll consider backing it.

If the subtext of your question is "I want to make a game, and to find a full team for it, which means paying them, which means crowdfunding", then your process should be a bit like this:

  • develop your barebones prototype yourself, make sure that it works, and get a coherent design together
  • pay someone to do concept art, ideally someone who's worked on a Kickstarter before
  • find (or, more likely, pay) someone to consult on your Kickstarter to ensure you're doing the right things, offering the right rewards, have a feasible project plan and expenses breakdown that you can share, etc
  • plan your shiny and polished Kickstarter page as well as a PR campaign of material to drive people to that page
  • Crowdfund!
  • ...
  • Maybe profit.

Oh, and somewhere in there you need to find time and resources to work on the actual game.

Yes, you do need to spend money before you crowdfund to have a decent chance of raising enough money to carry your project to completion. It's a shame, but that's the state of the market.

All that sounds perfectly reasonable! I don't think I am anywhere near that stage, though, and I was worrying more about the presentation, which you mention. I could probably get some pretty art done and will of course not move until I have something playable, but the question is, what pretty art and how playable? Are crowdfunding websites these days full-on professional designs, or can they be more basic and informative? Is a game that shows the main gameplay but has bugs and crashes acceptable, or are we talking "fake alpha", i.e. a game that is only called an alpha to allow changes to be made before release, but actually plays fully already? I have been looking for examples to guide me, but dangit crowdsourcing has evolved since I last helped crowdfund a project :o

EDIT: Also, stretchgoals and rewards are basically Russian to me. No, more bizarre; I can grasp how Russian works, at least! I have no idea how to promise things without promissing them outright, it just seems loopy to me. But it seems to be all the craze!

Edited by Embassy of Time

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Well, people keep telling me to mold my work on games towards crowdfunding, but while I of course know what crowdfunding is, 'molding my work for it' is not within my experience. Does anyone know what one should work on (in a game) if crowdfunding is being considered?

Build a time machine and go back to 2013? ;P

Are crowdfunding websites these days full-on professional designs, or can they be more basic and informative? Is a game that shows the main gameplay but has bugs and crashes acceptable

If no one gets to see it crash, is it really buggy? :D
You need to be able to get the concept and vision across to the players. You'd basically want to be able to put together a gameplay trailer, so you need most of the game mechanics done and maybe one level's worth of fully polished graphics. To do this, you'll probably be forced to write as much duct-taped-together bug-ridden horrible code as possible, just to fake it. So as for tailoring your game -- work on the gameplay features that will get people excited when they watch a one minute trailer, and get enough art so that when you show off that one minute of gameplay features, it looks professional.
Personally, I would not back anything that doesn't look professional. A professional is someone who makes money from their work. If you don't look like you belong in that league, why would I gamble my money on a risky pre-order deal? It's got to excite me and give me confidence that it will actually come into existence one day.
As for press, the press are over crowdfunding. They don't care. I've heard people actually call crowdfunding "cancer" to your press coverage - using the word "kickstarter" will immediately make them tune out and ignore you... So in the lead up to your crowdfunding campaign, you need to send out press-releases in a way that will get people to write about your game without telling them that you're about to do a kickstarter. They want a story, an angle, and they don't get paid enough to do research into no-name indies to find those stories... so you basically have to write it for them. Read the work of as many journalists as possible and take notes as to the kinds of stories that they like. Bend the story of your own project to fit their mold, write a press release in a way that tells the story they want to hear, complete with quotes that they would use verbatim, and send it to those authors personally. This is a hell of a lot of work, but it establishes credibility ahead of your kickstarter...
The indies I know who have crowdfunding and succeeded have: consulted with a publisher/agency to help plan everything (games-specific marketing/PC consulting firms are a thing), hired someone to make their trailer / or spent about a month on it themselves (for a 60 second trailer, that's about 2-3 hours of work per second of final trailer footage :o ), spent about a month planning their campaign, spent the entire kickstarter month working full time on supporting the campaign... and spent long enough on development beforehand to have a vertical slice of their game.

EDIT: Also, stretchgoals and rewards are basically Russian to me. No, more bizarre; I can grasp how Russian works, at least! I have no idea how to promise things without promissing them outright, it just seems loopy to me. But it seems to be all the craze!

In a sane world:
Trim your game down to the minimum viable product, create a schedule for it, and then budget that schedule. Build a vertical slice of the game so that you can demo it. Now plan out the crowdfunding campaign to raise the rest of the budget.
Now add on some of the features that you would like to had, but had to cut in order to get a feasible MVP plan. Schedule and budget those features. Add them to the crowdfunding campaign as stretch goals.
Back in reality though, you've got companies making games with $3M budgets, asking kickstarter for $100k in order to prove to investors that market demand exists, so they can get their real investment... Meanwhile, your game $50k game is competing against those guys, and Joe Public is asking you why you need half as much money as Mr AAA over there where your game is only 5% the size of his...

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You can browse through projects on Kickstarter right now to see what sort of professionalism is required. Easier than me trying to explain it to you. :) Look at medium level projects asking for between $10k and $100k, and which met their goal, to get an idea of what degree of polish is needed.

The reason concept art is important is because it does a lot to convey the feeling of the final game without having to create all the assets first. As for gameplay, ideally you need to be able to show something in action. Nobody's going to be playing it, so crashes are fine, but you'll want screenshots and videos usually.

Rewards and stretch goals are complex and you'll want to talk to someone experienced about them. It's important to spread your rewards out, so that people of all incomes are able to contribute. It's useful to make rewards as intangible as possible, so that they're not a drag on your bottom line. (You will want to price them up either way, and factor them into the budget.) It's probably useful to make them limited, so that people's fear of missing out makes them more likely to sign up. As for stretch goals, you'll want to plan them before you launch, thinking about anything you'd like to do but which isn't essential - but hold them back until the campaign is under way, because revealing them can inspire new backers to join in and for existing backers to increase their pledge.

Essential reading (while acknowledging the advice is a year or two old):



Edited by Kylotan

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Wow, it's clear that things have changed since I last partook in crowdfunding. I think I'll sit that one out, the work needed to even get in the door is better spent enjoying actually making the game, it seems!

Thanks for the warning signs, maybe one day in the future, who knows :)

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Yeah, it's not easy anymore.  Jupiter Hell which is the only game to date that John Carmack has backed barely met it's fairly low funding requirements to be honest.

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