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    • By PVS-studio team
      Recently a long-awaited event has happen - Unity Technologies uploaded the C# source code of the game engine, available for free download on Github. The code of the engine and the editor is available. Of course, we couldn't pass up, especially since lately we've not written so many articles about checking projects on C#. Unity allows to use the provided sources only for information purposes. We'll use them exactly in these ways. Let's try out the latest version PVS-Studio 6.23 on the Unity code.

      Introduction
      Previously we've written an article about checking Unity. At that time so much C#-code was not available for the analysis: some components, libraries and examples of usage. However, the author of the article managed to find quite interesting bugs.
      How did Unity please us this time? I'm saying "please" and hope not to offend the authors of the project. Especially since the amount of the source Unity C#-code, presented on GitHub, is about 400 thousand lines (excluding empty) in 2058 files with the extension "cs". It's a lot, and the analyzer had a quite considerable scope.
      Now about the results. Before the analysis, I've slightly simplified the work, having enabled the mode of the code display according to the CWE classification for the found bugs. I've also activated the warnings suppression mechanism of the third level of certainty (Low). These settings are available in the drop-down menu of PVS-Studio in Visual Studio development environment, and in the parameters of the analyzer. Getting rid of the warnings with low certainty, I made the analysis of the Unity source code. As a result, I got 181 warnings of the first level of certainty (High) and 506 warnings of the second level of certainty (Medium).
      I have not studied absolutely all the warnings, because there were quite a lot of them. Developers or enthusiasts can easily conduct an in-depth analysis by testing Unity themselves. To do this, PVS-Studio provides free trial and free modes of using. Companies can also buy our product and get quick and detailed support along with the license.
      Judging by the fact that I immediately managed to find couple of real bugs practically in every group of warnings with one or two attempts, there are a lot of them in Unity. And yes, they are diverse. Let's review the most interesting errors.

      Results of the check
      Something's wrong with the flags
      PVS-Studio warning: V3001 There are identical sub-expressions 'MethodAttributes.Public' to the left and to the right of the '|' operator. SyncListStructProcessor.cs 240
      MethodReference GenerateSerialization() { .... MethodDefinition serializeFunc = new MethodDefinition("SerializeItem", MethodAttributes.Public | MethodAttributes.Virtual | MethodAttributes.Public | // <= MethodAttributes.HideBySig, Weaver.voidType); .... } When combining enumeration flags MethodAttributes, an error was made: the Public value was used twice. Perhaps, the reason for this is the wrong code formatting.
      A similar bug is also made in code of the method GenerateDeserialization:
      V3001 There are identical sub-expressions 'MethodAttributes.Public' to the left and to the right of the '|' operator. SyncListStructProcessor.cs 309 Copy-Paste
      PVS-Studio warning: V3001 There are identical sub-expressions 'format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat' to the left and to the right of the '||' operator. RenderTextureEditor.cs 87
      public static bool IsHDRFormat(RenderTextureFormat format) { Return (format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBHalf || format == RenderTextureFormat.RGB111110Float || format == RenderTextureFormat.RGFloat || format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat || format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat || format == RenderTextureFormat.RFloat || format == RenderTextureFormat.RGHalf || format == RenderTextureFormat.RHalf); } I gave a piece of code, preliminary having formatted it, so the error is easily detected visually: the comparison with RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat is performed twice. In the original code, it looks differently:
      Probably, another value of enumeration RenderTextureFormat has to be used in one of two identical comparisons.
      Double work
      PVS-Studio warning: V3008 CWE-563 The 'fail' variable is assigned values twice successively. Perhaps this is a mistake. Check lines: 1633, 1632. UNetWeaver.cs 1633
      class Weaver { .... public static bool fail; .... static public bool IsValidTypeToGenerate(....) { .... if (....) { .... Weaver.fail = true; fail = true; return false; } return true; } .... } The true value is assigned twice to the value, as Weaver.fail and fail is one and the same static field of the Weaver class. Perhaps, there is no crucial error, but the code definitely needs attention.
      No options
      PVS-Studio warning: V3009 CWE-393 It's odd that this method always returns one and the same value of 'false'. ProjectBrowser.cs 1417
      // Returns true if we should early out of OnGUI bool HandleCommandEventsForTreeView() { .... if (....) { .... if (....) return false; .... } return false; } The method always returns false. Pay attention to the comment in the beginning.
      A developer forgot about the result
      PVS-Studio warning: V3010 CWE-252 The return value of function 'Concat' is required to be utilized. AnimationRecording.cs 455
      static public UndoPropertyModification[] Process(....) { .... discardedModifications.Concat(discardedRotationModifications); return discardedModifications.ToArray(); } When concatenating two arrays discardedModifications and discardedRotationModifications the author forgot to save the result. Probably a programmer assumed that the result would be expressed immediately in the array discardedModifications. But it is not so. As a result, the original array discardedModifications is returned from the method. The code needs to be corrected as follows:
      static public UndoPropertyModification[] Process(....) { .... return discardedModifications.Concat(discardedRotationModifications) .ToArray(); } Wrong variable was checked
      PVS-Studio warning: V3019 CWE-697 Possibly an incorrect variable is compared to null after type conversion using 'as' keyword. Check variables 'obj', 'newResolution'. GameViewSizesMenuItemProvider.cs 104
      private static GameViewSize CastToGameViewSize(object obj) { GameViewSize newResolution = obj as GameViewSize; if (obj == null) { Debug.LogError("Incorrect input"); return null; } return newResolution; } In this method, the developers forgot to consider a situation where the variable objis not equal to null, but it will not be able to cast to the GameViewSize type. Then the variable newResolution will be set to null, and the debug output will not be made. A correct variant of code will be like this:
      private static GameViewSize CastToGameViewSize(object obj) { GameViewSize newResolution = obj as GameViewSize; if (newResolution == null) { Debug.LogError("Incorrect input"); } return newResolution; } Deficiency
      PVS-Studio warning: V3020 CWE-670 An unconditional 'return' within a loop. PolygonCollider2DEditor.cs 96
      private void HandleDragAndDrop(Rect targetRect) { .... foreach (....) { .... if (....) { .... } return; } .... } The loop will execute only one iteration, after that the method terminates its work. Various scenarios are probable. For example, return must be inside the unit if, or somewhere before return, a directive continue is missing. It may well be that there is no error here, but then one should make the code more understandable.
      Unreachable code
      PVS-Studio warning: V3021 CWE-561 There are two 'if' statements with identical conditional expressions. The first 'if' statement contains method return. This means that the second 'if' statement is senseless CustomScriptAssembly.cs 179
      public bool IsCompatibleWith(....) { .... if (buildingForEditor) return IsCompatibleWithEditor(); if (buildingForEditor) buildTarget = BuildTarget.NoTarget; // Editor .... } Two identical checks, following one after another. It is clear that in case of buildingForEditor equality to the true value, the second check is meaningless, because the first method terminates its work. If the value buildingForEditor is false, neither then-brunch nor if operator will be executed. There is an erroneous construction that requires correction.
      Unconditional condition
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'index < 0 && index >= parameters.Length' is always false. AnimatorControllerPlayable.bindings.cs 287
      public AnimatorControllerParameter GetParameter(int index) { AnimatorControllerParameter[] param = parameters; if (index < 0 && index >= parameters.Length) throw new IndexOutOfRangeException( "Index must be between 0 and " + parameters.Length); return param[index]; } The condition of the index check is incorrect - the result will always be false. However, in case of passing the incorrect index to the GetParameter method, the exception IndexOutOfRangeException will still be thrown when attempting to access an array element in the return block. Although, the error message will be slightly different. One has to use || in a condition instead of the operator && so that the code worked the way a developer expected:
      public AnimatorControllerParameter GetParameter(int index) { AnimatorControllerParameter[] param = parameters; if (index < 0 || index >= parameters.Length) throw new IndexOutOfRangeException( "Index must be between 0 and " + parameters.Length); return param[index]; } Perhaps, due to the use of the Copy-Paste method, there is another the same error in the Unity code:
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'index < 0 && index >= parameters.Length' is always false. Animator.bindings.cs 711
      And another similar error associated with the incorrect condition of the check of the array index:
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'handle.valueIndex < 0 && handle.valueIndex >= list.Length' is always false. StyleSheet.cs 81
      static T CheckAccess<T>(T[] list, StyleValueType type, StyleValueHandle handle) { T value = default(T); if (handle.valueType != type) { Debug.LogErrorFormat(.... ); } else if (handle.valueIndex < 0 && handle.valueIndex >= list.Length) { Debug.LogError("Accessing invalid property"); } else { value = list[handle.valueIndex]; } return value; } And in this case, a release of the IndexOutOfRangeException exception is possible.As in the previous code fragments, one has to use the operator || instead of && to fix an error.
      Simply strange code
      Two warnings are issued for the code fragment below.
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-571 Expression 'bRegisterAllDefinitions || (AudioSettings.GetSpatializerPluginName() == "GVR Audio Spatializer")' is always true. AudioExtensions.cs 463
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-571 Expression 'bRegisterAllDefinitions || (AudioSettings.GetAmbisonicDecoderPluginName() == "GVR Audio Spatializer")' is always true. AudioExtensions.cs 467
      // This is where we register our built-in spatializer extensions. static private void RegisterBuiltinDefinitions() { bool bRegisterAllDefinitions = true; if (!m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered) { if (bRegisterAllDefinitions || (AudioSettings.GetSpatializerPluginName() == "GVR Audio Spatializer")) { } if (bRegisterAllDefinitions || (AudioSettings.GetAmbisonicDecoderPluginName() == "GVR Audio Spatializer")) { } m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered = true; } } It looks like an incomplete method. It is unclear why it has been left as such and why developers haven't commented the useless code blocks. All, that the method does at the moment:
      if (!m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered) { m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered = true; } Useless method
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() != HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected' is always false. HolographicEmulationWindow.cs 171
      private void Disconnect() { if (PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() != HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected) PerceptionRemotingPlugin.Disconnect(); } To clarify the situation, it is necessary to look at the declaration of the methodPerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState():
      internal static HolographicStreamerConnectionState GetConnectionState() { return HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected; } Thus, calling the Disconnect() method leads to nothing.
      One more error relates to the same method PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState():
      PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() == HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Connected' is always false. HolographicEmulationWindow.cs 177
      private bool IsConnectedToRemoteDevice() { return PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() == HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Connected; } The result of the method is equivalent to the following:
      private bool IsConnectedToRemoteDevice() { return false; } As we can see, among the warnings V3022 many interesting ones were found. Probably, if one spends much time, he can increase the list. But let's move on.
      Not on the format
      PVS-Studio warning: V3025 CWE-685 Incorrect format. A different number of format items is expected while calling 'Format' function. Arguments not used: index. Physics2D.bindings.cs 2823
      public void SetPath(....) { if (index < 0) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException( String.Format("Negative path index is invalid.", index)); .... } There is no error in code, but as the saying goes, the code "smells". Probably, an earlier message was more informative, like this: "Negative path index {0} is invalid.". Then it was simplified, but developers forgot to remove the parameter index for the method Format. Of course, this is not the same as a forgotten parameter for the indicated output string specifier, i.e. the construction of the type String.Format("Negative path index {0} is invalid."). In such a case, an exception would be thrown. But in our case we also need neatness when refactoring. The code has to be fixed as follows:
      public void SetPath(....) { if (index < 0) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException( "Negative path index is invalid."); .... } Substring of the substring
      PVS-Studio warning: V3053 An excessive expression. Examine the substrings 'UnityEngine.' and 'UnityEngine.SetupCoroutine'. StackTrace.cs 43
      static bool IsSystemStacktraceType(object name) { string casted = (string)name; return casted.StartsWith("UnityEditor.") || casted.StartsWith("UnityEngine.") || casted.StartsWith("System.") || casted.StartsWith("UnityScript.Lang.") || casted.StartsWith("Boo.Lang.") || casted.StartsWith("UnityEngine.SetupCoroutine"); } Search of the substring "UnityEngine.SetupCoroutine" in the condition is meaningless, because before that the search for "UnityEngine." is performed. Therefore, the last check should be removed or one has to clarify the correctness of substrings.
      Another similar error:
      PVS-Studio warning: V3053 An excessive expression. Examine the substrings 'Windows.dll' and 'Windows.'. AssemblyHelper.cs 84
      static private bool CouldBelongToDotNetOrWindowsRuntime(string assemblyPath) { return assemblyPath.IndexOf("mscorlib.dll") != -1 || assemblyPath.IndexOf("System.") != -1 || assemblyPath.IndexOf("Windows.dll") != -1 || // <= assemblyPath.IndexOf("Microsoft.") != -1 || assemblyPath.IndexOf("Windows.") != -1 || // <= assemblyPath.IndexOf("WinRTLegacy.dll") != -1 || assemblyPath.IndexOf("platform.dll") != -1; } Size does matter
      PVS-Studio warning: V3063 CWE-571 A part of conditional expression is always true if it is evaluated: pageSize <= 1000. UNETInterface.cs 584
      public override bool IsValid() { .... return base.IsValid() && (pageSize >= 1 || pageSize <= 1000) && totalFilters <= 10; } Condition for a check of a valid page size is erroneous. Instead of the operator ||, one has to use &&. The corrected code:
      public override bool IsValid() { .... return base.IsValid() && (pageSize >= 1 && pageSize <= 1000) && totalFilters <= 10; } Possible division by zero
      PVS-Studio warning: V3064 CWE-369 Potential division by zero. Consider inspecting denominator '(float)(width - 1)'. ClothInspector.cs 249
      Texture2D GenerateColorTexture(int width) { .... for (int i = 0; i < width; i++) colors[i] = GetGradientColor(i / (float)(width - 1)); .... } The problem may occur when passing the value width = 1 into the method. In the method, it is not checked anyway. The method GenerateColorTexture is called in the code just once with the parameter 100:
      void OnEnable() { if (s_ColorTexture == null) s_ColorTexture = GenerateColorTexture(100); .... } So, there is no error here so far. But, just in case, in the method GenerateColorTexture the possibility of transferring incorrect width value should be provided.
      Paradoxical check
      PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'm_Parent'. EditorWindow.cs 449
      public void ShowPopup() { if (m_Parent == null) { .... Rect r = m_Parent.borderSize.Add(....); .... } } Probably, due to a typo, the execution of such code guarantees the use of the null reference m_Parent. The corrected code:
      public void ShowPopup() { if (m_Parent != null) { .... Rect r = m_Parent.borderSize.Add(....); .... } } The same error occurs later in the code:
      PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'm_Parent'. EditorWindow.cs 470
      internal void ShowWithMode(ShowMode mode) { if (m_Parent == null) { .... Rect r = m_Parent.borderSize.Add(....); .... } And here's another interesting bug that can lead to access by a null reference due to incorrect check:
      PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'objects'. TypeSelectionList.cs 48
      public TypeSelection(string typeName, Object[] objects) { System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(objects != null || objects.Length >= 1); .... } It seems to me that Unity developers quite often make errors related to misuse of operators || and && in conditions. In this case, if objects has a null value, then this will lead to a check of second part of the condition (objects != null || objects.Length >= 1), which will entail the unexpected throw of an exception. The error should be corrected as follows:
      public TypeSelection(string typeName, Object[] objects) { System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(objects != null && objects.Length >= 1); .... } Early nullifying
      PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'm_RowRects'. TreeViewControlGUI.cs 272
      public override void GetFirstAndLastRowVisible(....) { .... if (rowCount != m_RowRects.Count) { m_RowRects = null; throw new InvalidOperationException(string.Format("....", rowCount, m_RowRects.Count)); } .... } In this case, the exception throw (access by the null reference m_RowRects) will happen when generating the message string for another exception. Code might be fixed, for example, as follows:
      public override void GetFirstAndLastRowVisible(....) { .... if (rowCount != m_RowRects.Count) { var m_RowRectsCount = m_RowRects.Count; m_RowRects = null; throw new InvalidOperationException(string.Format("....", rowCount, m_RowRectsCount)); } .... } One more error when checking
      PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'additionalOptions'. MonoCrossCompile.cs 279
      static void CrossCompileAOT(....) { .... if (additionalOptions != null & additionalOptions.Trim().Length > 0) arguments += additionalOptions.Trim() + ","; .... } Due to the fact that the & operator is used in a condition, the second part of the condition will always be checked, regardless of the result of the check of the first part. In case if the variable additionalOptions has the null value, the exception throw is inevitable. The error has to be corrected, by using the operator && instead of &.
      As we can see, among the warnings with the number V3080 there are rather insidious errors.
      Late check
      PVS-Studio warning: V3095 CWE-476 The 'element' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 101, 107. StyleContext.cs 101
      public override void OnBeginElementTest(VisualElement element, ....) { if (element.IsDirty(ChangeType.Styles)) { .... } if (element != null && element.styleSheets != null) { .... } .... } The variable element is used without preliminary check for null. While later in the code this check is performed. The code probably needs to be corrected as follows:
      public override void OnBeginElementTest(VisualElement element, ....) { if (element != null) { if (element.IsDirty(ChangeType.Styles)) { .... } if (element.styleSheets != null) { .... } } .... } In code there are 18 more errors. Let me give you a list of the first 10:
      V3095 CWE-476 The 'property' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 5137, 5154. EditorGUI.cs 5137 V3095 CWE-476 The 'exposedPropertyTable' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 152, 154. ExposedReferenceDrawer.cs 152 V3095 CWE-476 The 'rectObjs' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 97, 99. RectSelection.cs 97 V3095 CWE-476 The 'm_EditorCache' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 134, 140. EditorCache.cs 134 V3095 CWE-476 The 'setup' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 43, 47. TreeViewExpandAnimator.cs 43 V3095 CWE-476 The 'response.job' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 88, 99. AssetStoreClient.cs 88 V3095 CWE-476 The 'compilationTask' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 1010, 1011. EditorCompilation.cs 1010 V3095 CWE-476 The 'm_GenericPresetLibraryInspector' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 35, 36. CurvePresetLibraryInspector.cs 35 V3095 CWE-476 The 'Event.current' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 574, 620. AvatarMaskInspector.cs 574 V3095 CWE-476 The 'm_GenericPresetLibraryInspector' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 31, 32. ColorPresetLibraryInspector.cs 31 Wrong Equals method
      PVS-Studio warning: V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. CurveEditorSelection.cs 74
      public override bool Equals(object _other) { CurveSelection other = (CurveSelection)_other; return other.curveID == curveID && other.key == key && other.type == type; } Overload of the Equals method was implemented carelessly. One has to take into account the possibility of obtaining null as a parameter, as this can lead to a throw of an exception, which hasn't been considered in the calling code. In addition, the situation, when _other can't be cast to the type CurveSelection, will lead to a throw of an exception. The code has to be fixed. A good example of the implementation of Object.equals overload is given in the documentation.
      In the code, there are other similar errors:
      V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. SpritePackerWindow.cs 40 V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. PlatformIconField.cs 28 V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. ShapeEditor.cs 161 V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. ActiveEditorTrackerBindings.gen.cs 33 V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. ProfilerFrameDataView.bindings.cs 60 Once again about the check for null inequality
      PVS-Studio warning: V3125 CWE-476 The 'camera' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 184, 180. ARBackgroundRenderer.cs 184
      protected void DisableARBackgroundRendering() { .... if (camera != null) camera.clearFlags = m_CameraClearFlags; // Command buffer camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeForwardOpaque, m_CommandBuffer); camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeGBuffer, m_CommandBuffer); } When the camera variable is used the first time, it is checked for null inequality. But further along the code the developers forget to do it. The correct variant could be like this:
      protected void DisableARBackgroundRendering() { .... if (camera != null) { camera.clearFlags = m_CameraClearFlags; // Command buffer camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeForwardOpaque, m_CommandBuffer); camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeGBuffer, m_CommandBuffer); } } Another similar error:
      PVS-Studio warning: V3125 CWE-476 The 'item' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 88, 85. TreeViewForAudioMixerGroups.cs 88
      protected override Texture GetIconForItem(TreeViewItem item) { if (item != null && item.icon != null) return item.icon; if (item.id == kNoneItemID) // <= return k_AudioListenerIcon; return k_AudioGroupIcon; } An error, that in some cases leads to an access by a null link. The execution of the condition in the first block if enables the exit from the method. However, if this does not happen, then there is no guarantee that the reference item is non-zero. Here is the corrected version of the code:
      protected override Texture GetIconForItem(TreeViewItem item) { if (item != null) { if (item.icon != null) return item.icon; if (item.id == kNoneItemID) return k_AudioListenerIcon; } return k_AudioGroupIcon; } In the code there are 12 similar errors. Let me give you a list of the first 10:
      V3125 CWE-476 The 'element' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 132, 107. StyleContext.cs 132 V3125 CWE-476 The 'mi.DeclaringType' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 68, 49. AttributeHelper.cs 68 V3125 CWE-476 The 'label' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 5016, 4999. EditorGUI.cs 5016 V3125 CWE-476 The 'Event.current' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 277, 268. HostView.cs 277 V3125 CWE-476 The 'bpst' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 96, 92. BuildPlayerSceneTreeView.cs 96 V3125 CWE-476 The 'state' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 417, 404. EditorGUIExt.cs 417 V3125 CWE-476 The 'dock' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 370, 365. WindowLayout.cs 370 V3125 CWE-476 The 'info' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 234, 226. AssetStoreAssetInspector.cs 234 V3125 CWE-476 The 'platformProvider' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 262, 222. CodeStrippingUtils.cs 262 V3125 CWE-476 The 'm_ControlPoints' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 373, 361. EdgeControl.cs 373 The choice turned out to be small
      PVS-Studio warning: V3136 CWE-691 Constant expression in switch statement. HolographicEmulationWindow.cs 261
      void ConnectionStateGUI() { .... HolographicStreamerConnectionState connectionState = PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState(); switch (connectionState) { .... } .... } The method PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() is to blame here. We have already come across it when we were analyzing the warnings V3022:
      internal static HolographicStreamerConnectionState GetConnectionState() { return HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected; } The method will return a constant. This code is very strange. It needs to be paid attention.

      Conclusions
      I think we can stop at this point, otherwise the article will become boring and overextended. Again, I listed the errors that I just couldn't miss. Sure, the Unity code contains a big number of the erroneous and incorrect constructions, that need to be fixed. The difficulty is that many of the issued warnings are very controversial and only the author of the code is able to make the exact "diagnosis" in each case.
      Generally speaking about the Unity project, we can say that it is rich for errors, but taking into account the size of its code base (400 thousand lines), it's not so bad. Nevertheless, I hope that the authors will not neglect the code analysis tools to improve the quality of their product.
      Use PVS-Studio and I wish you bugless code!
       
    • By Shaarigan
      Hello Designer Community,
      we havent seen for a while but now, as I'm doing some more advanced game design again, I thought visiting you to get some feedback
      [deleted by moderator]
      As I'm in the design phase now need to think about what makes a kind of multiplayer/online/mmo RPG/whatever uses similar mechanics playable besides mob-farming/boss raids (if existing) or PvE, PvP; what makes even small Quests interesting. I now this has been asked a whole time but I decided to ask this again for the background of automated content creation as a desired result for the Spark ecosystem. What kind of quests or quest components could be generated too that are not listed below to make the game more interesting?
      Collect X of Y Carry X to Y (you maybe need to find X first) Kill X of Y Talk to X Kill X As I've played many hours of different RPG's (solo, online, mmo) there are always these five archetypes of core quests or core quest components that may sadly lead to just skipping the often more or less trivial storyline if existing just to raid through the quest for getting the XP and loot items. This isnt fun and even a good story (bad telled) may not keep the longterm gameplay experience very valuable.
      This may also be a bigger problem for auto generated quests so what should the generator also take into account to lead to an acceptable result?
    • By fiyinDaniel
      Hi everyone,
      I'm a very proficient C++ programmer looking to build my portfolio by contributing to projects for free. I have been programming for about 4 years now. I have experience working with OpenGL and I'm willing to adapt to a wide variety of technologies as I learn really fast. I can also give 20 - 25 hrs weekly on the project. Contact me if you have something for me to work on.
      Thanks.
    • By Finalspace
      Hi,
      i wanted to present you my recent project i am working on which is a platform abstraction library.
      This library is designed to be simple, non-bloated, can be included however you want and do not require any thirdparty libraries at all. It will simply abstract away all relevant platform specific things in a simple to use api without hiding any data. The main focus is game/media/simulation development, so you get a window, audio playback and a rendering context.
       
      Why:
      - Moving away from object orienation to handmade programming
      - Most platform abstraction libraries are bloated, have a bad api, cannot be debugged, are slow, has bad memory management
      - I dont want to write platform specific code anymore, just once for each platform with a fixed set of features and thats it.
      - Learning C99 low level programming
       
      Mindset:
      - Its written in C99 but is C++ compatible
      - There is just a single header file you have to include and thats it.
      - C-Runtime support can be disabled
      - The code style is simple and clean
      - Its full open source, so you can use and extend it however you want
      - Uses just the built-in operating system functions/libraries
      - Works well with other libraries as well (ImGUI, Box2D, Glew, STL, etc.)
      - Some features can be compiled out as needed (Window, OpenGL, etc.)
      - Fixed and small memory footprint
      - Easy to use api
      - Can be debugged
       
      Features:
      - Window creation and handling
      - OpenGL legacy and modern rendering context creation
      - Memory allocation and deallocation
      - Timing operations
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Open Source What is expected from a scripting language?

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Hi,

I've been working on extending an existing scripting language which lacks some important features, especially classes and inheritance.

To implement that feature, I have used a approach similar to how they did it with Lua tables. It turned out pretty good. But I wanted more, I want scripted classes to be able to inherit from real classes like a Lua table extending a C++ class. However, I realized that would be impossible or at least take a good amount of time to implement.

I haven't made many games so I can't answer this question myself: Is the ability to inherit from real classes expected from a scripting language?

If not, it would save me plenty of time. And I think, if someone really needs that feature, they are probably write too much in scripts instead of code.

What's your idea on this? Thanks for your time.

TL;DR: Is the ability of scripted classes to inherit from real classes necessary for a scripting language?

 

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Inheritance is hardly important as a linguistic construct. The Epoch language for example has no notion of inheritance, and deliberately so.

If you can do composition and polymorphism, you can eliminate inheritance as a feature entirely. I don't know the specifics of your language implementation, obviously, but I'd venture to guess that getting those two things working is either already done or easy to do.

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3 hours ago, ApochPiQ said:

If you can do composition and polymorphism, you can eliminate inheritance as a feature entirely.

Don't you need inheritance to polymorphism?

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Regarding polymorphism, it can be implemented with anything that allows for indirection, including a collection of function pointers.  All that matters is that you have a way to jump to the code, and a way for that code to switch between one destination or another based on what kind of thing you've got. Function tables (including vtables) to implement polymorphic behavior have been around much longer than the fancy descriptions people give them.

 

Back to the general question, scripting languages aren't a magical tool. They are an alternative additional source code language used to build the game. You get all the struggles of an additional source code, all the pain points of another data source, a bunch of extra stuff to test, all this plus the time to create the code in your new language. Scripting languages tend to only make sense on very large teams. The ability to derive from another class or inherit behavior from another are irrelevant to the nature of a scripting language.  If you write code in the scripting language then it needs to do whatever you need for your game, not what some arbitrary people online said that a language should do or should not do.

Can you create the game you want without adding that functionality?  If so, then don't create it, it is a waste of time. If not, then it is something your product needs and you should get on that.  My hunch is that it is not necessary for the task, otherwise you wouldn't be asking.

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1 hour ago, Alpha_ProgDes said:

Don't you need inheritance to polymorphism?

Duck typing or just compositional objects (like in JS - similar principle) could be used as an easy substitute. In duck typed languages an object will respond to any valid member operation regardless of its type.

For example, in Ruby:

class Dog
  def speak
    puts "Woof!"
  end
end

class Cat
  def speak
    puts "Meow!"
  end
end

ary = [ Dog.new, Cat.new ]

for animal in ary
  animal.speak
end

Output is as expected.

Edited by Khatharr

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9 hours ago, ApochPiQ said:

Inheritance is hardly important as a linguistic construct. The Epoch language for example has no notion of inheritance, and deliberately so.

If you can do composition and polymorphism, you can eliminate inheritance as a feature entirely. I don't know the specifics of your language implementation, obviously, but I'd venture to guess that getting those two things working is either already done or easy to do.

1

Ooh, I see. Thank you for the answer Apoch! Cool to see that you have written your own Epoch language!

Indeed, the language which I'm working on already has composition and polymorphism before I came to add inheritance to it. But now you can create a new script object extending another user-created script object and classes written in code but the only thing is polymorphism doesn't work between script objects and coded classes. I'll just leave it like that unless someone asks for it.

Also thanks to Alpha_ProgDes, frob and Khatharr for discussing polymorphism.

 

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