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By isu diss
I'm trying to code Rayleigh part of Nishita's model (Display Method of the Sky Color Taking into Account Multiple Scattering). I get black screen no colors. Can anyone find the issue for me?
#define InnerRadius 6320000 #define OutterRadius 6420000 #define PI 3.141592653 #define Isteps 20 #define Ksteps 10 static float3 RayleighCoeffs = float3(6.55e6, 1.73e5, 2.30e5); RWTexture2D<float4> SkyColors : register (u0); cbuffer CSCONSTANTBUF : register( b0 ) { float fHeight; float3 vSunDir; } float Density(float Height) { return exp(Height/8340); } float RaySphereIntersection(float3 RayOrigin, float3 RayDirection, float3 SphereOrigin, float Radius) { float t1, t0; float3 L = SphereOrigin  RayOrigin; float tCA = dot(L, RayDirection); if (tCA < 0) return 1; float lenL = length(L); float D2 = (lenL*lenL)  (tCA*tCA); float Radius2 = (Radius*Radius); if (D2<=Radius2) { float tHC = sqrt(Radius2  D2); t0 = tCAtHC; t1 = tCA+tHC; } else return 1; return t1; } float RayleighPhaseFunction(float cosTheta) { return ((3/(16*PI))*(1+cosTheta*cosTheta)); } float OpticalDepth(float3 StartPosition, float3 EndPosition) { float3 Direction = normalize(EndPosition  StartPosition); float RayLength = RaySphereIntersection(StartPosition, Direction, float3(0, 0, 0), OutterRadius); float SampleLength = RayLength / Isteps; float3 tmpPos = StartPosition + 0.5 * SampleLength * Direction; float tmp; for (int i=0; i<Isteps; i++) { tmp += Density(length(tmpPos)InnerRadius); tmpPos += SampleLength * Direction; } return tmp*SampleLength; } static float fExposure = 2; float3 HDR( float3 LDR) { return 1.0f  exp( fExposure * LDR ); } [numthreads(32, 32, 1)] //disptach 8, 8, 1 it's 256 by 256 image void ComputeSky(uint3 DTID : SV_DispatchThreadID) { float X = ((2 * DTID.x) / 255)  1; float Y = 1  ((2 * DTID.y) / 255); float r = sqrt(((X*X)+(Y*Y))); float Theta = r * (PI); float Phi = atan2(Y, X); static float3 Eye = float3(0, 10, 0); float ViewOD = 0, SunOD = 0, tmpDensity = 0; float3 Attenuation = 0, tmp = 0, Irgb = 0; //if (r<=1) { float3 ViewDir = normalize(float3(sin(Theta)*cos(Phi), cos(Theta),sin(Theta)*sin(Phi) )); float ViewRayLength = RaySphereIntersection(Eye, ViewDir, float3(0, 0, 0), OutterRadius); float SampleLength = ViewRayLength / Ksteps; //vSunDir = normalize(vSunDir); float cosTheta = dot(normalize(vSunDir), ViewDir); float3 tmpPos = Eye + 0.5 * SampleLength * ViewDir; for(int k=0; k<Ksteps; k++) { float SunRayLength = RaySphereIntersection(tmpPos, vSunDir, float3(0, 0, 0), OutterRadius); float3 TopAtmosphere = tmpPos + SunRayLength*vSunDir; ViewOD = OpticalDepth(Eye, tmpPos); SunOD = OpticalDepth(tmpPos, TopAtmosphere); tmpDensity = Density(length(tmpPos)InnerRadius); Attenuation = exp(RayleighCoeffs*(ViewOD+SunOD)); tmp += tmpDensity*Attenuation; tmpPos += SampleLength * ViewDir; } Irgb = RayleighCoeffs*RayleighPhaseFunction(cosTheta)*tmp*SampleLength; SkyColors[DTID.xy] = float4(Irgb, 1); } }

By ccuccherini
I'm running to some issues with a random number generator that I am trying to create to test what type of attack an enemy will use (weapon or magic) and whether or not they land a hit with the attack. What I want it to do is generate a random number number for the type of attack, then generate a separate random number for if the hit lands or not. What actually happens is it is generating a different number each iteration, but the same number for each item. So for instance, if the random number is a 6, both attack type and if it hit is a 6, if it's a 7 both are 7, etc. I'm almost certain the issue is within how I'm using time in conjunction with this, but everything else I've found hasn't been helpful. I've tried doing one function, but had the same issue and switched to two functions in the hopes that would help, but it didn't and now I'm not quite sure what to try next.
Here is the code I have so far:
// Example program #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <stdlib.h> #include <ctime> using namespace std; int getRandAttack(); int getRandHit(); int main() { int randomAttack; int randomHit; randomAttack = getRandAttack(); cout<<randomAttack<<endl; //used to ensure same number isn't given every time //decides what happens based on what number was given if (randomAttack <= 5) { cout<<"Enemy used a weapon!"<<endl; }else if (randomAttack > 5) { cout<<"Enemy used magic!"<<endl; } randomHit = getRandHit(); cout<<randomHit<<endl; //used to ensure same number isn't given every time //decides what happens based on what number was given if (randomHit <= 5) { cout<<"The attack missed!"; }else if (randomHit > 5) { cout<<"The attack hit!"; } } //gets random number to determine enemy attack type int getRandAttack () { int random; srand (time(NULL)); random = rand() % 10 + 1; return random; } //gets random number to determine if enemy attack lands a hit int getRandHit () { int random; srand (time(NULL)); random = rand() % 10 + 1; return random; } I know there is an easier way to do this that involves classes, but the online compiler I'm messing around with right now doesn't seem to support extra files, so I'm making functions work instead. Any help and lead in the right direction would be greatly appreciated.

By khawk
Urho3D 1.7 has been released. The release for the open source, crossplatform 2D/3D game engine includes a number of new features and bug fixes, including new IK support, AppleTV platform support, WebAssembly support, improved font rendering, better integration with Bullet and Box2D, renderer improvements, and more.
Download the release and view the full changelog at https://urho3d.github.io/releases/2017/08/19/urho3d1.7release.html#changelog.
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By khawk
Urho3D 1.7 has been released. The release for the open source, crossplatform 2D/3D game engine includes a number of new features and bug fixes, including new IK support, AppleTV platform support, WebAssembly support, improved font rendering, better integration with Bullet and Box2D, renderer improvements, and more.
Download the release and view the full changelog at https://urho3d.github.io/releases/2017/08/19/urho3d1.7release.html#changelog.

By Endurion
I have a gaming framework with an renderer interface. Those support DX8, DX9 and latest, DX11. Both DX8 and DX9 use fixed function pipeline, while DX11 obviously uses shaders. I've got most of the parts working fine, as in I can switch renderers and notice almost no difference. The most advanced features are 2 directional lights with a single texture
My last problem is lighting; albeit there's documentation on the D3D lighting model I still can't get the behaviour right. My mistake shows most prominently in the dark side opposite the lights. I'm pretty sure the ambient calculation is off, but that one's supposed to be the most simple one and should be hard to get wrong.
Interestingly I've been searching high and low, and have yet to find a resource that shows how to build a HLSL shader where diffuse, ambient and specular are used together with material properties. I've got various shaders for all the variations I'm supporting. I stepped through the shader with the graphics debugger, but the calculation seems to do what I want. I'm just not sure the formula is correct.
This one should suffice though, it's doing two directional lights, texture modulated with vertex color and a normal. Maybe someone can spot one (or more mistakes). And yes, this is in the vertex shader and I'm aware lighting will be as "bad" as in fixed function; that's my goal currently.
// A constant buffer that stores the three basic columnmajor matrices for composing geometry. cbuffer ModelViewProjectionConstantBuffer : register(b0) { matrix model; matrix view; matrix projection; matrix ortho2d; }; struct DirectionLight { float3 Direction; float PaddingL1; float4 Ambient; float4 Diffuse; float4 Specular; }; cbuffer LightsConstantBuffer : register( b1 ) { float4 Ambient; float3 EyePos; float PaddingLC1; DirectionLight Light[8]; }; struct Material { float4 MaterialEmissive; float4 MaterialAmbient; float4 MaterialDiffuse; float4 MaterialSpecular; float MaterialSpecularPower; float3 MaterialPadding; }; cbuffer MaterialConstantBuffer : register( b2 ) { Material _Material; }; // Pervertex data used as input to the vertex shader. struct VertexShaderInput { float3 pos : POSITION; float3 normal : NORMAL; float4 color : COLOR0; float2 tex : TEXCOORD0; }; // Perpixel color data passed through the pixel shader. struct PixelShaderInput { float4 pos : SV_POSITION; float2 tex : TEXCOORD0; float4 color : COLOR0; }; // Simple shader to do vertex processing on the GPU. PixelShaderInput main(VertexShaderInput input) { PixelShaderInput output; float4 pos = float4( input.pos, 1.0f ); // Transform the vertex position into projected space. pos = mul(pos, model); pos = mul(pos, view); pos = mul(pos, projection); output.pos = pos; // pass texture coords output.tex = input.tex; // Calculate the normal vector against the world matrix only. //set required lighting vectors for interpolation float3 normal = mul( input.normal, ( float3x3 )model ); normal = normalize( normal ); float4 ambientEffect = Ambient; float4 diffuseEffect = float4( 0, 0, 0, 0 ); float4 specularEffect = float4( 0, 0, 0, 0 ); for ( int i = 0; i < 2; ++i ) { // Invert the light direction for calculations. float3 lightDir = Light[i].Direction; float lightFactor = max( dot( lightDir, input.normal ), 0 ); ambientEffect += Light[i].Ambient * _Material.MaterialAmbient; diffuseEffect += saturate( Light[i].Diffuse * dot( normal, lightDir ) );// * _Material.MaterialDiffuse; //specularEffect += Light[i].Specular * dot( normal, halfangletolight ) * _Material.MaterialSpecularPower; } specularEffect *= _Material.MaterialSpecular; //ambientEffect.w = 1.0; ambientEffect = normalize( ambientEffect ); /* Ambient effect: (L1.ambient + L2.ambient) * object ambient color Diffuse effect: (L1.diffuse * Dot(VertexNormal, Light1.Direction) + L2.diffuse * Dot(VertexNormal, Light2.Direction)) * object diffuse color Specular effect: (L1.specular * Dot(VertexNormal, HalfAngleToLight1) * Object specular reflection power + L2.specular * Dot(VertexNormal, HalfAngleToLight2) * Object specular reflection power ) * object specular color Resulting color = Ambient effect + diffuse effect + specular effect*/ float4 totalFactor = ambientEffect + diffuseEffect + specularEffect; totalFactor.w = 1.0; output.color = input.color * totalFactor; return output; } Edit: This message editor is driving me nuts (Arrrr!)  I don't write code in Word.

