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• ### Similar Content

• By GytisDev
Hello,
me and few friends are developing simple city building game with unity for a school project, think something like Banished but much simpler. I was tasked to create the path-finding for the game so I mostly followed this tutorial series up to episode 5. Then we created simple working system for cutting trees. The problem is that the path-finding is working like 90% of the time, then it get stuck randomly then there's clearly a way to the objective (tree). I tried looking for some pattern when it happens but can't find anything. So basically I need any tips for how I should approach this problem.
Use this image to visualize the problem.
• By owenjr
Hi there!
I am trying to implement a basic AI for a Turrets game in SFML and C++ and I have some problems.
This AI follows some waypoints stablished in a Bezier Courve.
In first place, this path was followed only by one enemy. For this purpose, the enemy has to calculate his distance between his actual position
to the next waypoint he has to pick.
If the distance is less than a specific value we stablish, then, we get to the next point. This will repeat until the final destination is reached. (in the submitting code, forget about the var m_go)

Okay, our problem gets when we spawn several enemies and all have to follow the same path, because it produces a bad visual effect (everyone gets upside another).
In order to solve this visual problem, we have decided to use a repulsion vector. The calculus gets like this:

As you can see, we calculate the repulsion vector with the inverse of the distance between the enemy and his nearest neighbor.
Then, we get it applying this to the "theorical" direction, by adding it, and we get a resultant, which is the direction that
our enemy has to follow to not "collide" with it's neighbors. But, our issue comes here:

The enemys get sepparated in the middle of the curve and, as we spawn more enemys, the speed of all of them increases dramatically (including the enemies that don't calculate the repuslion vector).
1 - Is it usual that this sepparation occours in the middle of the trajectory?
2 - Is it there a way to control this direction without the speed getting affected?
3 - Is it there any alternative to this theory?

I submit the code below (There is a variable in Spanish [resultante] which it means resultant in English):

if (!m_pathCompleted) { if (m_currentWP == 14 && m_cambio == true) { m_currentWP = 0; m_path = m_pathA; m_cambio = false; } if (m_neighbors.size() > 1) { for (int i = 0; i < m_neighbors.size(); i++) { if (m_enemyId != m_neighbors[i]->GetId()) { float l_nvx = m_neighbors[i]->GetSprite().getPosition().x - m_enemySprite.getPosition().x; float l_nvy = m_neighbors[i]->GetSprite().getPosition().y - m_enemySprite.getPosition().y; float distance = std::sqrt(l_nvx * l_nvx + l_nvy * l_nvy); if (distance < MINIMUM_NEIGHBOR_DISTANCE) { l_nvx *= -1; l_nvy *= -1; float l_vx = m_path[m_currentWP].x - m_enemySprite.getPosition().x; float l_vy = m_path[m_currentWP].y - m_enemySprite.getPosition().y; float l_resultanteX = l_nvx + l_vx; float l_resultanteY = l_nvy + l_vy; float l_waypointDistance = std::sqrt(l_resultanteX * l_resultanteX + l_resultanteY * l_resultanteY); if (l_waypointDistance < MINIMUM_WAYPOINT_DISTANCE) { if (m_currentWP == m_path.size() - 1) { std::cout << "\n"; std::cout << "[GAME OVER]" << std::endl; m_go = false; m_pathCompleted = true; } else { m_currentWP++; } } if (l_waypointDistance > MINIMUM_WAYPOINT_DISTANCE) { l_resultanteX = l_resultanteX / l_waypointDistance; l_resultanteY = l_resultanteY / l_waypointDistance; m_enemySprite.move(ENEMY_SPEED * l_resultanteX * dt, ENEMY_SPEED * l_resultanteY * dt); } } else { float vx = m_path[m_currentWP].x - m_enemySprite.getPosition().x; float vy = m_path[m_currentWP].y - m_enemySprite.getPosition().y; float len = std::sqrt(vx * vx + vy * vy); if (len < MINIMUM_WAYPOINT_DISTANCE) { if (m_currentWP == m_path.size() - 1) { std::cout << "\n"; std::cout << "[GAME OVER]" << std::endl; m_go = false; m_pathCompleted = true; } else { m_currentWP++; } } if (len > MINIMUM_WAYPOINT_DISTANCE) { vx = vx / len; vy = vy / len; m_enemySprite.move(ENEMY_SPEED * vx * dt, ENEMY_SPEED * vy * dt); } } } } } else { float vx = m_path[m_currentWP].x - m_enemySprite.getPosition().x; float vy = m_path[m_currentWP].y - m_enemySprite.getPosition().y; float len = std::sqrt(vx * vx + vy * vy); if (len < MINIMUM_WAYPOINT_DISTANCE) { if (m_currentWP == m_path.size() - 1) { std::cout << "\n"; std::cout << "[GAME OVER]" << std::endl; m_go = false; m_pathCompleted = true; } else { m_currentWP++; } } if (len > MINIMUM_WAYPOINT_DISTANCE) { vx = vx / len; vy = vy / len; m_enemySprite.move(ENEMY_SPEED * vx * dt, ENEMY_SPEED * vy * dt); } } }
¡¡Thank you very much in advance!!
• By SinnedB
Hello,
I am not sure if I phrased the title properly. What I am trying to achieve is the following:
Winning chances:
Red card: 10%
Blue card: 20%
Green card: 15%
Nothing card: 10%
Now a player has the chances above to win those cards but how would that look like in code?

• I'm stuck trying to make a simple ray sphere intersection test. I'm using this tutorial as my guide and taking code from there. As of now, I'm pretty sure I have the ray sorted out correctly. The way I'm testing my ray is by using the direction of the ray as the position of a cube, just to make sure it's in front of me.
cube.transform.position.x = Camera.main.ray.origin.x + Camera.main.ray.direction.x * 4; cube.transform.position.y = Camera.main.ray.origin.y + Camera.main.ray.direction.y * 4; cube.transform.position.z = Camera.main.ray.origin.z + Camera.main.ray.direction.z * 4;
So if I rotate the camera, the cube follows. So it's looking good.

The problem occurs with the actual intersection algorithm. Here are the steps I'm taking, I'll be very brief:
1) I subtract the sphere center with the ray origin:
L.x = entity.rigidbody.collider.center.x - ray.origin.x; L.y = entity.rigidbody.collider.center.y - ray.origin.y; L.z = entity.rigidbody.collider.center.z - ray.origin.z; L.normalize(); 2) I get the dot product of L and the ray direction:
const b = Mathf.dot(L, ray.direction); 3) And also the dot product  of L with itself (I'm not sure if I'm doing this step right):
const c = Mathf.dot(L, L); 4) So now I can check if B is less than 0, which means it's behind the object. That's working very nicely.
L.x = entity.rigidbody.collider.center.x - ray.origin.x; L.y = entity.rigidbody.collider.center.y - ray.origin.y; L.z = entity.rigidbody.collider.center.z - ray.origin.z; const b = Mathf.dot(L, ray.direction); const c = Mathf.dot(L, L); if (b < 0) return false;
Problem starts here
5) I now do this:
let d2 = (c * c) - (b * b); 6) ...and check if d2 > (entity.radius * entity.radius) and if it's greater: stop there by returning false. But it always passes, unless I don't normalize L and d2 ends up being a larger number and then it return false:
const radius2 = entity.rigidbody.collider.radius * entity.rigidbody.collider.radius; if (d2 > radius2) return false; but again, since I'm normalizing, it NEVER stops in that step. Which worries me.
7) I then do this:
let t1c = Math.sqrt(radius2 - d2); ...but it always returns a number in the range of 0.98, 0.97, if I'm standing still. But if I strafe left and right, the number lowers. If I rotate the camera, it makes no difference. Only if I strafe.
So I'm clearly doing something wrong and stopped there. Hopefully I made sense
• By isu diss
I decided to implement light shafts using http://sirkan.iit.bme.hu/~szirmay/lightshaft_link.htm So far I've only managed to implement the shadow map. Can anyone help me to implement this in D3D11? (I mean steps, I can do the rest). I'm new to all these shadow maps and etc.

# Random terrain generation with fixed elevation

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Hi folks, a fellow gamedev here.

So recently I've been trying to make a business simulation games (similar to Holiday Island or Sim City), and start moving on the vital element of the game: terrain generation and manipulation. The terrain is a simple heightmap with a randomly generated height values (I haven't implemented the random generation part, cause of this issue I'm talking about). Basically, in my game the terrain has to have fixed elevation, so when you compare a terrain vertex to its neighbors, they could either:

• have similar height
• have a 0.5m height difference (higher or lower). It must not have more than 0.5m difference.

I need to do that to simplify the terrain manipulation (the game kinda heavily relies on it). I was thinking on simply generate the random height first, and then loop over every vertex to force its offending neighbors to lower/heighten itself accordingly. But alas it just doesn't seem to be the right way. Perhaps any of you ever done similar things in the past? I hope you could give me any advice on this matter. It's been boggling my mind.

basically this is the game that inspires me.

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Midpoint displacement, also called the diamond-square algorithm, is trivially modified to handle that type of thing where you have zones with mandatory heights.

There are more complex algorithms out there which produce more pleasing results, but that one is easy to implement, was used in a bunch of older games, and with a bit of tuning can produce exactly the terrain grids you described.