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After getting "black squares" rendered on my "bloom" post process:

Then i searched my HLSLs programs to find where i could have NaNs.

Found one problem in my point light shader:

float4 posVS = gbPosition_tex.Sample(sampPointClamp, tc);
// this has no effect !
if (IsNAN(posVS))
posVS = float4(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
if (any(isinf(posVS)))
posVS = float4(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);

... //code skipped, nothing else touches posVS
float3 v = normalize(-posVS.xyz);

// but if i uncomment this there is NO more black squares !
//if (IsNAN(v))
//	v = float3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
...// rest of lightning computation

IsNAN is defined like this (i cant use "native" isnan function because i cant set /Gis option inside VS2013 for fxc compiler options):

bool IsNAN(float n)
{
return (n < 0.0f || n > 0.0f || n == 0.0f) ? false : true;
}

bool IsNAN(float2 v)
{
return (IsNAN(v.x) || IsNAN(v.y)) ? true : false;
}

bool IsNAN(float3 v)
{
return (IsNAN(v.x) || IsNAN(v.y) || IsNAN(v.z)) ? true : false;
}

bool IsNAN(float4 v)
{
return (IsNAN(v.x) || IsNAN(v.y) || IsNAN(v.z) || IsNAN(v.w)) ? true : false;
}

wtf is going on?

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can you try:

bool IsNAN(float n)
{
return n != n;
}

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That gives me same results as my code.

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i just looked at the code a little closer:

posVS = float4(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
posVS == (0, 0, 0, 1)
float3 v = normalize(-posVS.xyz);


normalize:

a = abs(sqrt(v.x * v.x + v.y * v.y + v.z * v.z));
a == 0;

v.x = 0/0;
v.y = 0/0;
v.z = 0/0;

v.x == NaN;
v.y == NaN;
v.z == NaN;

IsNAN(v) == true

basically, if posVS has 0 in all three x, y, and z before you try to normalize it, then you'll end up with nans

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22 minutes ago, belfegor said:

That gives me same results as my code.

There is a isnan() intrinsic also ! Also, their is compiler flags that may relax rules over how to deal with math and change the result sometimes. No matter what, normalize of 0 is a bad idea

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@iedoc

We don't know how normalize is implemented in HLSL. But still i thought about that before and i tried even with this :

if (IsNAN(posVS))
posVS = float4(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
if (any(isinf(posVS)))
posVS = float4(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);

rest of the code is the same, but same results.

cant use native isnan:

warning X3577: value cannot be NaN, isnan() may not be necessary.  /Gis may force isnan() to be performed

CANT set /Gis option in VS2013 fxc compiler options

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but what if gbPosition_tex.Sample(sampPointClamp, tc) returns (0, 0, 0, 1) or something (black)?

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Thats it.

float3 v = normalize(-(posVS.xyz + 0.0001f.xxx));

Thank you very much.

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1 minute ago, belfegor said:

Thats it.


float3 v = normalize(-(posVS.xyz + 0.0001f.xxx));

Thank you very much.

and what if posVS.xyz is -0.0001f ? You should probably do better with "float3 v = any(posVS!=0) ? normalize(posVS) : 0;" But how your position can be full zero in the first place ?

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"But how your position can be full zero in the first place ?"

Great question.Because i cleared that texture with 0's. I am thinking now what is better clear value to avoid future problems.

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Hi
Do the atomic operations (InterlockedAdd in my case) should work without any issues on RWByteAddressBuffer and be globaly coherent ?
I'v come back from CUDA world and commited fairly simple kernel that does some job, the pseudo-code is as follows:
(both kernels use that same RWByteAddressBuffer)
first kernel does some job and sets Result[0] = 0;
(using Result.Store(0, 0))
I'v checked with debugger, and indeed the value stored at dword 0 is 0
now my second kernel
RWByteAddressBuffer Result;  [numthreads(8, 8, 8)] void main() {     for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)     {         uint4 v0 = DoSomeCalculations1();         uint4 v1 = DoSomeCalculations2();         uint4 v2 = DoSomeCalculations3();                  if (v0.w == 0 && v1.w == 0 && v2.w)             continue;         //    increment counter by 3, and get it previous value         // this should basically allocate space for 3 uint4 values in buffer         uint prev;         Result.InterlockedAdd(0, 3, prev);                  // this fills the buffer with 3 uint4 values (+1 is here as the first 16 bytes is occupied by DrawInstancedIndirect data)         Result.Store4((prev+0+1)*16, v0);         Result.Store4((prev+1+1)*16, v1);         Result.Store4((prev+2+1)*16, v2);     } } Now I invoke it with Dispatch(4,4,4)
Now I use DrawInstancedIndirect to draw the buffer, but ocassionaly there is missed triangle here and there for a frame, as if the atomic counter does not work as expected
do I need any additional synchronization there ?
I'v tried 'AllMemoryBarrierWithGroupSync' at the end of kernel, but without effect.
If I do not use atomic counter, and istead just output empty vertices (that will transform into degenerated triangles) the all is OK - as if I'm missing some form of synchronization, but I do not see such a thing in DX11.
I'v tested on both old and new nvidia hardware (680M and 1080, the behaviour is that same).

• Hello,
I am, like many others before me, making a displacement map tesselator. I want render some terrain using a quad, a texture containing heightdata and the geometryshader/tesselator.
So far, Ive managed the utilize the texture on the pixelshader (I return different colors depending on the height). I have also managed to tesselate my surface, i.e. subdivided my quad into lots of triangles .

What doesnt work however is the sampling step on the domain shader. I want to offset the vertices using the heightmap.
I tried calling the same function "textureMap.Sample(textureSampler, texcoord)" as on the pixelshader but got compiling errors. Instead I am now using the "SampleLevel" function to use the 0 mipmap version of the input texture.
But yeah non of this seem to be working. I wont get anything except [0, 0, 0, 0] from my sampler.
Below is some code: The working pixelshader, the broken domain shader where I want to sample, and the instanciations of the samplerstates on the CPU side.
Been stuck on this for a while! Any help would be much appreciated!

Texture2D textureMap: register(t0); SamplerState textureSampler : register(s0); //Pixel shader float4 PS(PS_IN input) : SV_TARGET {     float4 textureColor = textureMap.Sample(textureSampler, input.texcoord);     return textureColor; } GS_IN DS(HS_CONSTANT_DATA input, float3 uvwCoord : SV_DomainLocation, const OutputPatch<DS_IN, 3> patch) {     GS_IN output;     float2 texcoord = uvwCoord.x * patch[0].texcoord.xy + uvwCoord.y * patch[1].texcoord.xy + uvwCoord.z *                    patch[2].texcoord.xy;     float4 textureColor = textureMap.SampleLevel(textureSampler, texcoord.xy, 0);      //fill  and return output....  }             //Sampler             SharpDX.Direct3D11.SamplerStateDescription samplerDescription;             samplerDescription = SharpDX.Direct3D11.SamplerStateDescription.Default();             samplerDescription.Filter = SharpDX.Direct3D11.Filter.MinMagMipLinear;             samplerDescription.AddressU = SharpDX.Direct3D11.TextureAddressMode.Wrap;             samplerDescription.AddressV = SharpDX.Direct3D11.TextureAddressMode.Wrap;             this.samplerStateTextures = new SharpDX.Direct3D11.SamplerState(d3dDevice, samplerDescription);             d3dDeviceContext.PixelShader.SetSampler(0, samplerStateTextures);             d3dDeviceContext.VertexShader.SetSampler(0, samplerStateTextures);             d3dDeviceContext.HullShader.SetSampler(0, samplerStateTextures);             d3dDeviceContext.DomainShader.SetSampler(0, samplerStateTextures);             d3dDeviceContext.GeometryShader.SetSampler(0, samplerStateTextures);

• I just finished up my 1st iteration of my sprite renderer and I'm sort of questioning its performance.
Currently, I am trying to render 10K worth of 64x64 textured sprites in a 800x600 window. These sprites all using the same texture, vertex shader, and pixel shader. There is basically no state changes. The sprite renderer itself is dynamic using the D3D11_MAP_WRITE_NO_OVERWRITE then D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD when the vertex buffer is full. The buffer is large enough to hold all 10K sprites and execute them in a single draw call. Cutting the buffer size down to only being able to fit 1000 sprites before a draw call is executed does not seem to matter / improve performance.  When I clock the time it takes to complete the render method for my sprite renderer (the only renderer that is running) I'm getting about 40ms. Aside from trying to adjust the size of the vertex buffer, I have tried using 1x1 texture and making the window smaller (640x480) as quick and dirty check to see if the GPU was the bottleneck, but I still get 40ms with both of those cases.

I'm kind of at a loss. What are some of the ways that I could figure out where my bottleneck is?
I feel like only being able to render 10K sprites is really low, but I'm not sure. I'm not sure if I coded a poor renderer and there is a bottleneck somewhere or I'm being limited by my hardware

Just some other info:
Dev PC specs: GPU: Intel HD Graphics 4600 / Nvidia GTX 850M (Nvidia is set to be the preferred GPU in the Nvida control panel. Vsync is set to off) CPU: Intel Core i7-4710HQ @ 2.5GHz Renderer:
//The renderer has a working depth buffer //Sprites have matrices that are precomputed. These pretransformed vertices are placed into the buffer Matrix4 model = sprite->getModelMatrix(); verts[0].position = model * verts[0].position; verts[1].position = model * verts[1].position; verts[2].position = model * verts[2].position; verts[3].position = model * verts[3].position; verts[4].position = model * verts[4].position; verts[5].position = model * verts[5].position; //Vertex buffer is flaged for dynamic use vertexBuffer = BufferModule::createVertexBuffer(D3D11_USAGE_DYNAMIC, D3D11_CPU_ACCESS_WRITE, sizeof(SpriteVertex) * MAX_VERTEX_COUNT_FOR_BUFFER); //The vertex buffer is mapped to when adding a sprite to the buffer //vertexBufferMapType could be D3D11_MAP_WRITE_NO_OVERWRITE or D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD depending on the data already in the vertex buffer D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE resource = vertexBuffer->map(vertexBufferMapType); memcpy(((SpriteVertex*)resource.pData) + vertexCountInBuffer, verts, BYTES_PER_SPRITE); vertexBuffer->unmap(); //The constant buffer used for the MVP matrix is updated once per draw call D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE resource = mvpConstBuffer->map(D3D11_MAP_WRITE_DISCARD); memcpy(resource.pData, projectionMatrix.getData(), sizeof(Matrix4)); mvpConstBuffer->unmap(); Vertex / Pixel Shader:
cbuffer mvpBuffer : register(b0) { matrix mvp; } struct VertexInput { float4 position : POSITION; float2 texCoords : TEXCOORD0; float4 color : COLOR; }; struct PixelInput { float4 position : SV_POSITION; float2 texCoords : TEXCOORD0; float4 color : COLOR; }; PixelInput VSMain(VertexInput input) { input.position.w = 1.0f; PixelInput output; output.position = mul(mvp, input.position); output.texCoords = input.texCoords; output.color = input.color; return output; } Texture2D shaderTexture; SamplerState samplerType; float4 PSMain(PixelInput input) : SV_TARGET { float4 textureColor = shaderTexture.Sample(samplerType, input.texCoords); return textureColor; }
If anymore info is needed feel free to ask, I would really like to know how I can improve this assuming I'm not hardware limited

• This article uses material originally posted on Diligent Graphics web site.
Introduction
Graphics APIs have come a long way from small set of basic commands allowing limited control of configurable stages of early 3D accelerators to very low-level programming interfaces exposing almost every aspect of the underlying graphics hardware. Next-generation APIs, Direct3D12 by Microsoft and Vulkan by Khronos are relatively new and have only started getting widespread adoption and support from hardware vendors, while Direct3D11 and OpenGL are still considered industry standard. New APIs can provide substantial performance and functional improvements, but may not be supported by older hardware. An application targeting wide range of platforms needs to support Direct3D11 and OpenGL. New APIs will not give any advantage when used with old paradigms. It is totally possible to add Direct3D12 support to an existing renderer by implementing Direct3D11 interface through Direct3D12, but this will give zero benefits. Instead, new approaches and rendering architectures that leverage flexibility provided by the next-generation APIs are expected to be developed.
There are at least four APIs (Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES, Vulkan, plus Apple's Metal for iOS and osX platforms) that a cross-platform 3D application may need to support. Writing separate code paths for all APIs is clearly not an option for any real-world application and the need for a cross-platform graphics abstraction layer is evident. The following is the list of requirements that I believe such layer needs to satisfy:
Lightweight abstractions: the API should be as close to the underlying native APIs as possible to allow an application leverage all available low-level functionality. In many cases this requirement is difficult to achieve because specific features exposed by different APIs may vary considerably. Low performance overhead: the abstraction layer needs to be efficient from performance point of view. If it introduces considerable amount of overhead, there is no point in using it. Convenience: the API needs to be convenient to use. It needs to assist developers in achieving their goals not limiting their control of the graphics hardware. Multithreading: ability to efficiently parallelize work is in the core of Direct3D12 and Vulkan and one of the main selling points of the new APIs. Support for multithreading in a cross-platform layer is a must. Extensibility: no matter how well the API is designed, it still introduces some level of abstraction. In some cases the most efficient way to implement certain functionality is to directly use native API. The abstraction layer needs to provide seamless interoperability with the underlying native APIs to provide a way for the app to add features that may be missing. Diligent Engine is designed to solve these problems. Its main goal is to take advantages of the next-generation APIs such as Direct3D12 and Vulkan, but at the same time provide support for older platforms via Direct3D11, OpenGL and OpenGLES. Diligent Engine exposes common C++ front-end for all supported platforms and provides interoperability with underlying native APIs. It also supports integration with Unity and is designed to be used as graphics subsystem in a standalone game engine, Unity native plugin or any other 3D application. Full source code is available for download at GitHub and is free to use.
Overview
Diligent Engine API takes some features from Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 as well as introduces new concepts to hide certain platform-specific details and make the system easy to use. It contains the following main components:
Render device (IRenderDevice  interface) is responsible for creating all other objects (textures, buffers, shaders, pipeline states, etc.).
Device context (IDeviceContext interface) is the main interface for recording rendering commands. Similar to Direct3D11, there are immediate context and deferred contexts (which in Direct3D11 implementation map directly to the corresponding context types). Immediate context combines command queue and command list recording functionality. It records commands and submits the command list for execution when it contains sufficient number of commands. Deferred contexts are designed to only record command lists that can be submitted for execution through the immediate context.
An alternative way to design the API would be to expose command queue and command lists directly. This approach however does not map well to Direct3D11 and OpenGL. Besides, some functionality (such as dynamic descriptor allocation) can be much more efficiently implemented when it is known that a command list is recorded by a certain deferred context from some thread.
The approach taken in the engine does not limit scalability as the application is expected to create one deferred context per thread, and internally every deferred context records a command list in lock-free fashion. At the same time this approach maps well to older APIs.
In current implementation, only one immediate context that uses default graphics command queue is created. To support multiple GPUs or multiple command queue types (compute, copy, etc.), it is natural to have one immediate contexts per queue. Cross-context synchronization utilities will be necessary.
Swap Chain (ISwapChain interface). Swap chain interface represents a chain of back buffers and is responsible for showing the final rendered image on the screen.
Render device, device contexts and swap chain are created during the engine initialization.
Resources (ITexture and IBuffer interfaces). There are two types of resources - textures and buffers. There are many different texture types (2D textures, 3D textures, texture array, cubmepas, etc.) that can all be represented by ITexture interface.
Resources Views (ITextureView and IBufferView interfaces). While textures and buffers are mere data containers, texture views and buffer views describe how the data should be interpreted. For instance, a 2D texture can be used as a render target for rendering commands or as a shader resource.
Pipeline State (IPipelineState interface). GPU pipeline contains many configurable stages (depth-stencil, rasterizer and blend states, different shader stage, etc.). Direct3D11 uses coarse-grain objects to set all stage parameters at once (for instance, a rasterizer object encompasses all rasterizer attributes), while OpenGL contains myriad functions to fine-grain control every individual attribute of every stage. Both methods do not map very well to modern graphics hardware that combines all states into one monolithic state under the hood. Direct3D12 directly exposes pipeline state object in the API, and Diligent Engine uses the same approach.
Shader Resource Binding (IShaderResourceBinding interface). Shaders are programs that run on the GPU. Shaders may access various resources (textures and buffers), and setting correspondence between shader variables and actual resources is called resource binding. Resource binding implementation varies considerably between different API. Diligent Engine introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encompasses all resources needed by all shaders in a certain pipeline state.
API Basics
Creating Resources
Device resources are created by the render device. The two main resource types are buffers, which represent linear memory, and textures, which use memory layouts optimized for fast filtering. Graphics APIs usually have a native object that represents linear buffer. Diligent Engine uses IBuffer interface as an abstraction for a native buffer. To create a buffer, one needs to populate BufferDesc structure and call IRenderDevice::CreateBuffer() method as in the following example:
BufferDesc BuffDesc; BufferDesc.Name = "Uniform buffer"; BuffDesc.BindFlags = BIND_UNIFORM_BUFFER; BuffDesc.Usage = USAGE_DYNAMIC; BuffDesc.uiSizeInBytes = sizeof(ShaderConstants); BuffDesc.CPUAccessFlags = CPU_ACCESS_WRITE; m_pDevice->CreateBuffer( BuffDesc, BufferData(), &m_pConstantBuffer ); While there is usually just one buffer object, different APIs use very different approaches to represent textures. For instance, in Direct3D11, there are ID3D11Texture1D, ID3D11Texture2D, and ID3D11Texture3D objects. In OpenGL, there is individual object for every texture dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, Cube), which may be a texture array, which may also be multisampled (i.e. GL_TEXTURE_2D_MULTISAMPLE_ARRAY). As a result there are nine different GL texture types that Diligent Engine may create under the hood. In Direct3D12, there is only one resource interface. Diligent Engine hides all these details in ITexture interface. There is only one  IRenderDevice::CreateTexture() method that is capable of creating all texture types. Dimension, format, array size and all other parameters are specified by the members of the TextureDesc structure:
TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
Initializing the Pipeline State
As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
The following is an example of shader initialization:
Creating the Pipeline State Object
After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
// Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
// Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
Invoking Draw Command
The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
Source Code
Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains two samples, asteroids performance benchmark and example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
AntTweakBar sample is Diligent Engine’s “Hello World” example.

Atmospheric scattering sample is a more advanced example. It demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

Future Work
The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows and Android platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and support for more platforms is planned.

• I am currently working on my first iteration of my sprite renderer and I'm trying to draw 2 sprites. They both use the same texture and are placed into the same buffer, but unfortunately only the second sprite is shown on the the screen. I assume I messed something up when I place them into the buffer and that I am overwriting the data of the first sprite.

So how should I be mapping my buffer with an offset?
/* Code that sets up the sprite vertices and etc */ D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE resource = vertexBuffer->map(vertexBufferMapType); memcpy(resource.pData, verts, sizeof(SpriteVertex) * VERTEX_PER_QUAD); vertexBuffer->unmap(); vertexCount += VERTEX_PER_QUAD; I feel like I should be doing something like:
/* Code that sets up the sprite vertices and etc */ D3D11_MAPPED_SUBRESOURCE resource = vertexBuffer->map(vertexBufferMapType); //Place the sprite vertex data into the pData using the current vertex count as offset //The code resource.pData[vertexCount] is syntatically wrong though :( Not sure how it should look since pData is void pointer memcpy(resource.pData[vertexCount], verts, sizeof(SpriteVertex) * VERTEX_PER_QUAD); vertexBuffer->unmap(); vertexCount += VERTEX_PER_QUAD;
Also speaking of offsets can someone give an example of when the pOffsets param for the IASetVertexBuffers call would not be 0

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