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How do I test code that only calls other functions or that only draws to the screen

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Currently, I'm working on recreating connect four for a portfolio of simple games. I'm also writing unit tests for all the code I can. Some of my code functions though only call other functions, or only draw to the screen...


def draw_refresh_button_text(self):
	font = pygame.font.Font(None, 24)
	text = font.render("Refresh", True, self.black)
def draw_disks(self):
	for column in self.grid:
		for disk in column:
			pygame.draw.ellipse(self.displaysurf, disk['color'], disk['rect'])
def get_input(self): 

How would I go about writing tests for code like this?

Should code like this even be tested?

Should all code be tested?

I'm using the Python unittest module to test. The code here uses Pygame.

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Personally, I would not test methods like this via unit tests ... because it is not a "contract" you are going to be committing to memory and counting on as you work through other areas of code.

But there is a strategy for testing this kind of thing that is very easy ... and it is good for other cases that do define contracts that matter more.

You would create a "mock"/test object of the input manager, and your mock version would do something like verify that each method was called once during the test, or even that they were called in order ... the methods wouldn't DO anything real in the mock object, they'd just track the calls.

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In Python is very easy to monkey-patch mock functions and objects so you can test without hitting actual system, network, database, or screen draw calls.  Mocking a method of a class by binding a lambda to a side_effect attribute of the MagicMock lets you get away with injecting captive test data into your system from the bottom and then verifying the results returned by your higher-level functions.

Also, thinking about how you're going to mock required dependencies helps you architect your code better.


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(paddle.pos.y + PADDLE_SIZE[1]//2) w = extreme/steps*hit newVec = 0 #This is a unit vector, hehe. if paddle.side == "left": newVec = vector2(-math.cos(w), -math.sin(w)) else: newVec = vector2(math.cos(w), -math.sin(w)) magnitude = self.vel.get_magnitude() * GAME_INTENSIFYING_CONSTANT * -1 self.vel.normalize() newVec = newVec + self.vel #The two vectors can be scalar multiplied by some percentage for different admixtures. newVec.normalize() newVec = newVec * magnitude self.vel = newVec def move(self, time_passed, paddles) -> None: self.pos.x += self.vel.x * time_passed self.pos.y += self.vel.y * time_passed self.horizontal_bar_check_and_adjustment() quick_collision = self.simple_collision_check(paddles) #quick_collision will contain a paddle - or None. if quick_collision: if quick_collision.side != self.last_hit: bounce_sound.play() self.last_hit = quick_collision.side self.collision_handling(quick_collision) def draw(self) -> None: screen.blit(self.surface, (self.pos.x, self.pos.y)) class Scoredrawer: def __init__(self): self.left = 0 self.right = 0 def draw(self, left, right): #Idea for improved performance: Check whether there's a change to a score and then only rendering if so. left_text = font.render(str(left), False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() right_text = font.render(str(right), False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() y_offset = HORIZONTAL_BAR[1] * 1.5 screen.blit(left_text, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - 32 - left_text.get_width(), y_offset)) screen.blit(right_text, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 + 32, y_offset)) def display_winner(winner) -> None: winner_text = font.render( winner.capitalize() + " has won!", False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() screen.blit(winner_text, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - winner_text.get_width()//2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//2 - winner_text.get_height()//2)) pygame.display.update() while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.constants.QUIT: exit() elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN: if event.key == pygame.K_ESCAPE: exit() elif event.key == pygame.K_RETURN: return def play(win_score: int, two_player_mode: bool) -> str: #returns 'left' or 'right' depending on which player won clock = pygame.time.Clock() background = Play_Background() scoredrawer = Scoredrawer() ball = Ball() paddle1 = Paddle(side="left", player=True, up_button=player_one_up, down_button=player_one_down) paddle2 = Paddle(side="right", player=two_player_mode, up_button=player_two_up, down_button=player_two_down) paddles = [paddle1, paddle2] #Left side must go in paddles[0], right side in paddles[1]. while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.constants.QUIT: exit() elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN: if event.key == pygame.K_ESCAPE: exit() time_passed = clock.tick(MAX_FPS) / 1000.0 #time_passed is in seconds background.draw() ball.move(time_passed, paddles) for paddle in paddles: paddle.move(time_passed, ball) scorer = ball.score_check() #Either "left", "right" or None if scorer: score_sound.play() if scorer == "left": paddles[0].score += 1 if paddles[0].score >= win_score: display_winner(scorer) return else: paddles[1].score += 1 if paddles[1].score >= win_score: display_winner(scorer) return ball.reset() scoredrawer.draw(paddles[0].score, paddles[1].score) ball.draw() for paddle in paddles: paddle.draw() pygame.display.update() def display_intro() -> None: display_font = pygame.font.SysFont("mono", SCREEN_SIZE[0]//6) display_text = display_font.render("PongyPong", False, COLOUR, BLACK).convert() display_font2 = pygame.font.SysFont("mono", SCREEN_SIZE[0]//18) display_text2 = display_font2.render("by: Arthur", False, COLOUR, BLACK).convert() for i in range(256): screen.fill(BLACK) display_text.set_alpha(i) screen.blit(display_text, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - display_text.get_width()//2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//2 - display_text.get_height())) pygame.display.update() time.sleep(1/100) for i in range(256): display_text2.set_alpha(i) screen.blit(display_text2, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//2)) pygame.display.update() time.sleep(1/200) time.sleep(0.25) def settings_menu() -> None: def save_settings(dummy): current_settings = {'COLOUR':COLOUR, 'player_one_up':player_one_up, 'player_one_down':player_one_down, 'player_two_up':player_two_up, 'player_two_down':player_two_down, 'points_per_game':points_per_game} with open(SETTINGS_PATH, 'w') as settings_file: json.dump(current_settings, settings_file) def set_key(var): press_message = font.render( "Press the desired key...", False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() screen.blit(press_message, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - press_message.get_width()//2, SCREEN_SIZE[1] - font.get_linesize() * 1.5)) pygame.display.update() pygame.event.clear() while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.constants.QUIT: exit() elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN: if event.key == pygame.K_ESCAPE: exit() if event.key != pygame.K_RETURN: menu_sound.play() globals()[var] = event.key return selection = 0 options = [{'Text': 'Points Per Game: ', 'func': lambda x: None, 'var': 'points_per_game', 'extradraw': ['arrows', 'value']}, {'Text': 'Colour', 'func': lambda x: None, 'var': 'COLOUR', 'extradraw':'arrows'}, {'Text': 'Player One Up: ', 'func': set_key, 'var': 'player_one_up', 'extradraw':'button'}, {'Text': 'Player One Down: ', 'func': set_key, 'var': 'player_one_down', 'extradraw':'button'}, {'Text': 'Player Two Up: ', 'func': set_key, 'var': 'player_two_up', 'extradraw':'button'}, {'Text': 'Player Two Down: ', 'func': set_key, 'var':'player_two_down', 'extradraw':'button'}, {'Text': 'Save Settings', 'func': save_settings, 'var': 'return', 'extradraw': None}] colour_options = [colour_constants.AMBER, colour_constants.LTAMBER, colour_constants.GREEN1, colour_constants.APPLE1, colour_constants.GREEN2, colour_constants.APPLE2, colour_constants.GREEN3] colour_selection = 0 for i, colour in enumerate(colour_options): if colour == COLOUR: colour_selection = i blinker = True while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.constants.QUIT: exit() elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN: if event.key == pygame.K_ESCAPE: exit() elif event.key == pygame.K_RETURN: menu_sound.play() options[selection]['func'](options[selection]['var']) if options[selection]['var'] == 'return': return elif event.key in [pygame.K_DOWN, player_one_down, player_two_down]: menu_sound.play() if selection == len(options) - 1: selection = 0 else: selection += 1 elif event.key in [pygame.K_UP, player_one_up, player_two_up]: menu_sound.play() if selection == 0: selection = len(options) - 1 else: selection -= 1 elif event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT: var = options[selection]['var'] if var == 'COLOUR': menu_sound.play() if colour_selection == len(colour_options) -1: colour_selection = 0 else: colour_selection += 1 globals()[var] = colour_options[colour_selection] elif var == 'points_per_game': menu_sound.play() globals()[var] += 1 elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT: var = options[selection]['var'] if var == 'COLOUR': menu_sound.play() if colour_selection == 0: colour_selection = len(colour_options) - 1 else: colour_selection -= 1 globals()[var] = colour_options[colour_selection] if var == 'points_per_game': menu_sound.play() globals()[var] = max(1, points_per_game - 1) screen.fill(BLACK) DIV = 32 for i in range(len(options)): if i == selection: blinker = not blinker if blinker: continue text = font.render(options[i]['Text'], False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() screen.blit(text, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - text.get_width()//2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//DIV + font.get_linesize() * 1.5 * i)) extradraw = options[i]['extradraw'] if extradraw == 'arrows' or (type(extradraw) == list and 'arrows' in extradraw): h = text.get_height() * 0.75 // 1 arrowsurface = pygame.Surface( (h, h) ) arrowsurface.fill(BLACK) pygame.draw.polygon(arrowsurface, COLOUR, ( (0, h//2), (h//2 - h//8, h//4), (h//2 - h//8, 3*h//4) ) ) pygame.draw.polygon(arrowsurface, COLOUR, ( (h, h//2), (h//2 + h//8, h//4), (h//2 + h//8, 3*h//4) ) ) arrowsurface.convert() screen.blit(arrowsurface, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - text.get_width()//2 - arrowsurface.get_width() - 2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//DIV + font.get_linesize() * 1.5 * i + h//8)) if extradraw == 'value' or (type(extradraw) == list and 'value' in extradraw): valuesurface = font.render( str(globals()[options[i]['var']]), False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() screen.blit(valuesurface, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 + text.get_width()//2 + 2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//DIV + font.get_linesize() * 1.5 * i)) if extradraw == 'button' or (type(extradraw) == list and 'button' in extradraw): buttonsurface = font.render( pygame.key.name(globals()[options[i]['var']]), False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() screen.blit(buttonsurface, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 + text.get_width()//2 + 2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//DIV + font.get_linesize() * 1.5 * i)) pygame.display.update() def main_menu() -> None: def one_player_mode(): play(points_per_game, False) def two_player_mode(): play(points_per_game, True) selection = 0 options = [{'Text': '1-Player', 'func': one_player_mode}, {'Text': '2-Player', 'func': two_player_mode}, {'Text': 'Settings', 'func': settings_menu}, {'Text': 'Exit', 'func': exit}] blinker = True while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == pygame.constants.QUIT: exit() elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN: if event.key == pygame.K_ESCAPE: exit() elif event.key == pygame.K_RETURN: menu_sound.play() options[selection]['func']() elif event.key in [pygame.K_DOWN, player_one_down, player_two_down]: menu_sound.play() if selection == len(options) - 1: selection = 0 else: selection += 1 elif event.key in [pygame.K_UP, player_one_up, player_two_up]: menu_sound.play() if selection == 0: selection = len(options) - 1 else: selection -= 1 screen.fill(BLACK) pseudopaddle = pygame.Surface( (PADDLE_SIZE[0]//2, PADDLE_SIZE[1]//2) ) pseudopaddle.fill(COLOUR) pseudopaddle = pseudopaddle.convert() screen.blit(pseudopaddle, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - PADDLE_SIZE[1], SCREEN_SIZE[1]//10 - PADDLE_SIZE[0]//2)) screen.blit(pseudopaddle, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 + PADDLE_SIZE[1], SCREEN_SIZE[1]//10 + PADDLE_SIZE[0]//2)) pseudoball = pygame.Surface( (BALL_DIAMETER//2, BALL_DIAMETER//2) ) pseudoball.fill(BLACK) pygame.draw.circle( pseudoball, COLOUR, (BALL_DIAMETER//4, BALL_DIAMETER//4), BALL_DIAMETER//4) pseudoball = pseudoball.convert() screen.blit(pseudoball, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 + BALL_DIAMETER//4, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//10 - BALL_DIAMETER//4)) for i in range(len(options)): if i == selection: blinker = not blinker if blinker: continue text = font.render(options[i]['Text'], False, COLOUR).convert_alpha() screen.blit(text, (SCREEN_SIZE[0]//2 - text.get_width()//2, SCREEN_SIZE[1]//4 + font.get_linesize() * 2 * i)) pygame.display.update() def load_settings() -> None: settings_path = Path(SETTINGS_PATH) if settings_path.is_file(): with open(SETTINGS_PATH, 'r') as settings_file: settings = json.load(settings_file) for item in settings: globals()[item] = settings[item] else: default_settings = {'COLOUR':COLOUR, 'player_one_up':player_one_up, 'player_one_down':player_one_down, 'player_two_up':player_two_up, 'player_two_down':player_two_down, 'points_per_game':points_per_game} with open(SETTINGS_PATH, 'w') as settings_file: json.dump(default_settings, settings_file) if __name__ == '__main__': load_settings() display_intro() main_menu()  
    • By Josheir
      I was looking for a library to make a server/clients program.  I was thinking there would be easy tutorials for Javascript or Java.  What I ran across that is interesting is a Python tutorial for teens that looks pretty easy.     https://www.raywenderlich.com/38732/multiplayer-game-programming-for-teens-with-python
      I don't know too much about Python though and I am wondering if the language is worthwhile.  Is it supported?  Also, I am interested in the possible use of a relational database, of which I found :  PostgreSQL.
      If you know Python could you please give me a recommendation.  Its future, use, popularity, IDE, Database suggested?  From what I see it looks like an understandable language.
      One of the highly recommended IDEs called Pycharm has no database support, so I stopped here and thought I'd bring it up in this forum.
      I'm interested in any free versions too,
      EDIT: Pygame is a download needed :   https://www.raywenderlich.com/24252/beginning-game-programming-for-teens-with-python
      Thank you; maybe you have alternate suggestions?
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