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C# Load COLLADA Weigts

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Hello Everyone,

I write COLLADA Importer and my next goal was to import rigged Characters, so check up the file ,but don't understand one step. I see where the joints and the weigts are, but not where the file say which vertex has which weight. So maybe you guys can help me and explain it?

<vertex_weights> has only the indices of the joints and weights :(

Here's a part of my COLLADA file:

<library_controllers>
    <controller id="pCube1Controller">
      <skin source="#pCube1-lib">
        <bind_shape_matrix>1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
</bind_shape_matrix>
        <source id="pCube1Controller-Joints">
          <Name_array id="pCube1Controller-Joints-array" count="18">
 Hip LegL FootL ToeL LegR FootR ToeR Belly ShoulderR ArmR HandR FingerR ShoulderL
ArmL HandL FingerL Neck Head</Name_array>
          <technique_common>
            <accessor source="#pCube1Controller-Joints-array" count="18">
              <param type="name"/>
            </accessor>
          </technique_common>
        </source>
        <source id="pCube1Controller-Matrices">
          <float_array id="pCube1Controller-Matrices-array" count="288">

-0.941340 -0.337461 -0.000000 -0.139955 -0.337461 0.941340 -0.000000 0.371721 0.000000 -0.000000 -1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.248803 -0.968554 -0.000000 -0.585359 -0.968554 0.248803 -0.000000 -0.201095 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.034984 -0.999388 -0.000000 -1.221391 -0.999388 0.034984 -0.000000 -0.474481 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.541746 0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 1.913253 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.248802 0.968554 0.000000 0.585358 -0.968554 -0.248802 -0.000000 0.201094 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.034983 0.999388 0.000000 1.221387 -0.999388 -0.034983 -0.000000 0.474481 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
1.000000 -0.000001 0.000000 -0.541746 -0.000001 -1.000000 -0.000000 -1.913249 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
0.043672 0.999046 0.000000 -0.000137 -0.999046 0.043672 -0.000000 0.003133 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.995861 0.090881 -0.000000 -0.021829 -0.090881 -0.995861 -0.000000 0.184414 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.987330 0.158679 -0.000000 0.470613 -0.158679 -0.987330 -0.000000 0.217060 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-1.000000 0.000001 -0.000000 1.419031 -0.000001 -1.000000 -0.000000 -0.008213 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.941340 0.337462 -0.000000 1.988030 -0.337462 -0.941340 -0.000000 0.703965 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.995861 -0.090881 -0.000000 0.028074 -0.090881 0.995861 0.000000 -0.183843 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.987330 -0.158678 -0.000000 -0.464421 -0.158678 0.987330 0.000000 -0.216064 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-1.000000 -0.000000 -0.000000 -1.412754 -0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.008213 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
-0.941340 -0.337462 -0.000000 -1.982131 -0.337462 0.941340 0.000000 -0.701850 0.000000 0.000000 -1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
0.043673 0.999046 0.000000 -0.483504 -0.999046 0.043673 -0.000000 -0.018032 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
0.043673 0.999046 0.000000 -0.963774 -0.999046 0.043673 -0.000000 -0.039026 -0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000</float_array>
          <technique_common>
            <accessor source="#pCube1Controller-Matrices-array" count="18" stride="16">
              <param type="float4x4"/>
            </accessor>
          </technique_common>
        </source>
        <source id="pCube1Controller-Weights">
          <float_array id="pCube1Controller-Weights-array" count="534">

1.000000 0.446680 0.448446 0.061039 0.006715 0.037120 0.423137 0.341108 0.035586 0.104220 0.095948 0.430593 0.105918 0.018535 0.346667 0.098287
0.446679 0.037120 0.448446 0.061040 0.006715 0.163148 0.388913 0.396025 0.037444 0.014469 0.396151 0.187946 0.014532 0.076902 0.324469 0.394204
0.076828 0.187766 0.328622 0.012580 0.166741 0.388259 0.393852 0.036607 0.014542 0.108793 0.424549 0.424576 0.021527 0.020555 0.255692 0.255431
0.312440 0.153135 0.023302 0.258375 0.311167 0.149047 0.258097 0.023313 0.102002 0.388360 0.388353 0.019283 0.102002 0.174648 0.125476 0.307658
0.306598 0.085620 0.287311 0.159158 0.174218 0.287850 0.091463 0.288312 0.172606 0.159037 0.288857 0.091188 0.177388 0.305490 0.303861 0.126946
0.086316 0.120822 0.069144 0.387268 0.384055 0.038711 0.422697 0.058575 0.073700 0.426612 0.018416 0.426332 0.069409 0.056317 0.430430 0.017513
0.124944 0.385012 0.380074 0.070711 0.039259 0.120822 0.069144 0.387268 0.384055 0.038711 0.422697 0.058575 0.073700 0.426612 0.018416 0.426332
0.069409 0.056317 0.430430 0.017513 0.124944 0.385012 0.380074 0.070711 0.039259 0.174648 0.125476 0.307658 0.306598 0.085620 0.287311 0.159158
0.174218 0.287850 0.091463 0.288312 0.172606 0.159037 0.288857 0.091188 0.177388 0.305490 0.303861 0.126946 0.086316 0.108793 0.424549 0.424576
0.021527 0.020555 0.255692 0.255431 0.312440 0.153135 0.023302 0.258375 0.311167 0.149047 0.258097 0.023313 0.102002 0.388360 0.388353 0.019283
0.102002 0.163148 0.388913 0.396025 0.037444 0.014469 0.396151 0.187946 0.014532 0.076902 0.324469 0.394204 0.076828 0.187766 0.328622 0.012580
0.166741 0.388259 0.393852 0.036607 0.014542 0.446680 0.448446 0.061039 0.006715 0.037120 0.423137 0.341108 0.035586 0.104220 0.095948 0.430593
0.105918 0.018535 0.346667 0.098287 0.446679 0.037120 0.448446 0.061040 0.006715 0.490897 0.501024 0.005129 0.002609 0.780985 0.201682 0.001639
0.008414 0.007279 0.783532 0.008348 0.200106 0.007322 0.490896 0.002609 0.501024 0.005129 0.490897 0.501024 0.005129 0.002609 0.780985 0.201682
0.001639 0.008414 0.007279 0.783532 0.008348 0.200106 0.007322 0.490896 0.002609 0.501024 0.005129 0.072569 0.448896 0.467547 0.008240 0.002747
0.072569 0.448896 0.467547 0.008240 0.002747 0.005633 0.494163 0.494079 0.005633 0.005633 0.494163 0.494079 0.005633 0.069536 0.447783 0.471519
0.008441 0.002721 0.069536 0.447783 0.471519 0.008441 0.002721 0.005428 0.496654 0.496927 0.005428 0.496654 0.496927 0.027277 0.465805 0.466166
0.034322 0.006429 0.032529 0.465155 0.458960 0.027694 0.015662 0.001002 0.524597 0.473182 0.002078 0.496491 0.498270 0.002770 0.015604 0.487493
0.476849 0.013049 0.007005 0.014109 0.482061 0.482639 0.018164 0.003027 0.086141 0.395004 0.392832 0.076562 0.049460 0.072924 0.408978 0.409117
0.086668 0.022313 0.025344 0.009121 0.470943 0.470334 0.024259 0.034082 0.007470 0.455706 0.456255 0.046487 0.007387 0.001314 0.489449 0.491035
0.010816 0.510801 0.489110 0.021297 0.004277 0.471874 0.472667 0.029885 0.010295 0.003391 0.488816 0.487692 0.009806 0.075808 0.021321 0.403240
0.403478 0.096154 0.078335 0.035448 0.405277 0.405075 0.075866 0.101905 0.429125 0.429095 0.016145 0.023730 0.099890 0.407814 0.407384 0.030245
0.054666 0.023975 0.481476 0.479747 0.004706 0.010096 0.023316 0.485651 0.485533 0.002137 0.003363 0.001426 0.503487 0.494347 0.001458 0.499436
0.498840 0.023912 0.481531 0.479799 0.004692 0.010066 0.023254 0.485691 0.485573 0.002130 0.003352 0.023299 0.039289 0.097061 0.420322 0.420031
0.016873 0.022080 0.108912 0.426068 0.426067 0.003085 0.004216 0.033460 0.479621 0.479618 0.002649 0.005089 0.018149 0.487709 0.486404 0.007248
0.495761 0.495752 0.515491 0.484439 0.003078 0.004206 0.033395 0.479662 0.479659 0.002639 0.005071 0.018089 0.487755 0.486447 0.001437 0.495838
0.497206 0.005199 0.001437 0.495838 0.497206 0.005199 0.002118 0.498222 0.493106 0.006148 0.002118 0.498222 0.493106 0.006148 0.001407 0.494389
0.498501 0.005388 0.001407 0.494389 0.498501 0.005388 0.002075 0.495166 0.495968 0.006390 0.002075 0.495166 0.495968 0.006390 0.001348 0.499290
0.499290 0.001654 0.029342 0.484184 0.484184 0.001867 0.499012 0.499012 0.001874 0.030698 0.483368 0.483368 0.001352 0.499287 0.499287 0.001642
0.028780 0.484473 0.484473 0.001859 0.030111 0.483671 0.483671 0.001863 0.499013 0.499013 0.017793 0.003436 0.003494 0.487638 0.487638 0.016776
0.003258 0.003214 0.488376 0.488376 0.016776 0.003258 0.003214 0.488376 0.488376 0.017793 0.003436 0.003494 0.487638 0.487638 0.080146 0.034481
0.036694 0.424340 0.424340 0.079527 0.036205 0.034127 0.425070 0.425070 0.079527 0.036205 0.034127 0.425070 0.425070 0.080146 0.034481 0.036694
0.424340 0.424340 0.106011 0.033886 0.040327 0.409888 0.409888 0.104594 0.039175 0.033170 0.411531 0.411531 0.104594 0.039175 0.033170 0.411531
0.411531 0.106011 0.033886 0.040327 0.409888 0.409888</float_array>
          <technique_common>
            <accessor source="#pCube1Controller-Weights-array" count="534">
              <param type="float"/>
            </accessor>
          </technique_common>
        </source>
        <joints>
          <input semantic="JOINT" source="#pCube1Controller-Joints"/>
          <input semantic="INV_BIND_MATRIX" source="#pCube1Controller-Matrices"/>
        </joints>
        <vertex_weights count="116">
          <input semantic="JOINT" offset="0" source="#pCube1Controller-Joints"/>
          <input semantic="WEIGHT" offset="1" source="#pCube1Controller-Weights"/>
          <vcount>5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5</vcount>
          <v>0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 0 6 1 7 2 8 4 9 7 10 0 11 1 12 2 13 4 14 7 15 0 16 1 17 4 18 5 19 6 20 7 21 12 22 13 23 14 24 17 25 0 26 1 27 2 28 4 29 7 30 0 31 1 32 4 33 7 34 17 35 7 36 8 37 9 38 10 39 17 40 7 41 12 42 13 43 14 44 17 45 7 46 8 47 12 48 13 49 17 50 7 51 8 52 9 53 12 54 17 55 7 56 8 57 9 58 10 59 12 60 7 61 8 62 12 63 13 64 17 65 7 66 8 67 12 68 16 69 17 70 7 71 8 72 12 73 16 74 17 75 7 76 8 77 9 78 12 79 17 80 7 81 8 82 12 83 13 84 17 85 7 86 8 87 12 88 16 89 17 90 7 91 8 92 12 93 16 94 17 95 7 96 8 97 9 98 12 99 17 100 7 101 8 102 12 103 13 104 17 105 7 106 8 107 12 108 16 109 17 110 7 111 8 112 12 113 16 114 17 115 7 116 8 117 9 118 12 119 17 120 7 121 8 122 12 123 13 124 17 125 7 126 8 127 12 128 16 129 17 130 7 131 8 132 12 133 16 134 17 135 7 136 8 137 9 138 12 139 17 140 7 141 12 142 13 143 14 144 17 145 7 146 8 147 12 148 13 149 17 150 7 151 8 152 9 153 12 154 17 155 7 156 8 157 9 158 10 159 12 160 7 161 12 162 13 163 14 164 17 165 0 166 1 167 2 168 4 169 7 170 0 171 1 172 4 173 7 174 17 175 7 176 8 177 9 178 10 179 17 180 0 181 1 182 2 183 3 184 4 185 0 186 1 187 2 188 4 189 7 190 0 191 1 192 2 193 4 194 7 195 0 196 1 197 4 198 5 199 6 200 0 201 1 202 2 203 4 204 0 205 1 206 2 207 4 208 7 209 0 210 1 211 4 212 7 213 0 214 1 215 4 216 5 217 0 218 1 219 2 220 4 221 0 222 1 223 2 224 4 225 7 226 0 227 1 228 4 229 7 230 0 231 1 232 4 233 5 234 7 235 8 236 9 237 10 238 17 239 7 240 8 241 9 242 10 243 17 244 7 245 8 246 9 247 12 248 7 249 8 250 9 251 12 252 7 253 12 254 13 255 14 256 17 257 7 258 12 259 13 260 14 261 17 262 7 263 12 264 13 265 7 266 12 267 13 268 0 269 1 270 2 271 3 272 4 273 0 274 1 275 2 276 3 277 4 278 0 279 1 280 2 281 0 282 1 283 2 284 3 285 0 286 1 287 2 288 3 289 4 290 0 291 1 292 2 293 3 294 4 295 0 296 1 297 2 298 3 299 4 300 0 301 1 302 2 303 3 304 4 305 0 306 1 307 4 308 5 309 6 310 0 311 1 312 4 313 5 314 6 315 0 316 1 317 4 318 5 319 6 320 4 321 5 322 0 323 1 324 4 325 5 326 6 327 0 328 1 329 4 330 5 331 6 332 0 333 1 334 4 335 5 336 6 337 0 338 1 339 4 340 5 341 6 342 1 343 2 344 3 345 4 346 6 347 1 348 2 349 3 350 4 351 6 352 1 353 2 354 3 355 4 356 6 357 1 358 2 359 3 360 4 361 6 362 1 363 2 364 3 365 1 366 2 367 3 368 1 369 2 370 3 371 4 372 6 373 1 374 2 375 3 376 4 377 6 378 1 379 3 380 4 381 5 382 6 383 0 384 3 385 4 386 5 387 6 388 0 389 3 390 4 391 5 392 6 393 1 394 3 395 4 396 5 397 6 398 4 399 5 400 6 401 5 402 6 403 0 404 3 405 4 406 5 407 6 408 1 409 3 410 4 411 5 412 6 413 8 414 9 415 10 416 11 417 8 418 9 419 10 420 11 421 8 422 9 423 10 424 11 425 8 426 9 427 10 428 11 429 12 430 13 431 14 432 15 433 12 434 13 435 14 436 15 437 12 438 13 439 14 440 15 441 12 442 13 443 14 444 15 445 9 446 10 447 11 448 8 449 9 450 10 451 11 452 9 453 10 454 11 455 8 456 9 457 10 458 11 459 13 460 14 461 15 462 12 463 13 464 14 465 15 466 12 467 13 468 14 469 15 470 13 471 14 472 15 473 7 474 8 475 12 476 16 477 17 478 7 479 8 480 12 481 16 482 17 483 7 484 8 485 12 486 16 487 17 488 7 489 8 490 12 491 16 492 17 493 7 494 8 495 12 496 16 497 17 498 7 499 8 500 12 501 16 502 17 503 7 504 8 505 12 506 16 507 17 508 7 509 8 510 12 511 16 512 17 513 7 514 8 515 12 516 16 517 17 518 7 519 8 520 12 521 16 522 17 523 7 524 8 525 12 526 16 527 17 528 7 529 8 530 12 531 16 532 17 533</v>
        </vertex_weights>
      </skin>
    </controller>
  </library_controllers>

Greets

Benjamin

Edited by B. /

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AFAIS:

  • The value of vertex_weight/@count is identical to the count of vertices in the skin mesh. It is also the count of numbers in the vertex_weight/vcount array.
  • For each vertex in the mesh, in the order of the vertices, the value at index n in the vertex_weight/vcount array denotes how many influences are working on the vertex with index n. So in your example the vertex  #0 has 5 influences, the vertex #1 has 5 influence, and so on.
  • The numbers in vertex_weight/v array are to be interpreted as pairs. In your example the sequence of pairs is (0,1), (1,2), (2,3), (3,4), (4,5), (0,6), and so on. The first value of each pair denotes the bone (with the exception that a value -1 denotes the bind shape). The second value of each pair denotes the index into the weights array.
  • Beginning with vertex #0, read the first number from vertex_weight/vcount as n, and then read the first n pairs from vertex_weight/v and interpret them being all influences on vertex #0. 
  • Then the next vertex, read the next number from vertex_weight/vcount as n, and then read the next n pairs from vertex_weight/v and interpret them as all influences on that vertex. Continue this for all remaining vertices. 
Edited by haegarr

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Hello haegarr,

Thank you very much for your explain, you help me a lot :D

Greets

Benjamin

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Hello haegarr,

i had still problems with the Weights/BonesIndices per vertex.

You wrote that "The value of vertex_weight/@count is identical to the count of vertices in the skin mesh"

But in my case, if i export a Model from Maya 2018 with the house owner Collada Exporter or the Open Collada Exporter Plug-In the vertex weights count is only 12 of my mesh (one side of the mesh), but it has total 60 vertices and i had skin every single vertex on the 3 bones elbow. See image.

So the rest vertices, i dont know the weights/boneindices gets the default value by me of weight 1 0 0 0 and bone index 0 0 0 0 (Matrix Idetity Index). But this solution dosen't work in the end for GPU Skinning, the mesh will not draw right.

So can anyone tell me, where the missing 48 vertex influence details are, or to calculate these?

Greets

Benjamin

 

<vertices id="pCube1-VERTEX">
          <input semantic="POSITION" source="#pCube1-POSITION"/>
        </vertices>
        <triangles count="20" material="lambert1"><input semantic="VERTEX" offset="0" source="#pCube1-VERTEX"/><input semantic="NORMAL" offset="1" source="#pCube1-Normal0"/><input semantic="TEXCOORD" offset="2" set="0" source="#pCube1-UV0"/><p> 3 0 3 2 1 2 0 2 0 3 3 3 0 4 0 1 5 1 3 6 3 5 7 5 2 8 2 2 9 2 5 10 5 4 11 4 7 12 7 6 13 6 4 14 4 7 15 7 4 16 4 5 17 5 1 18 9 0 19 8 6 20 6 1 21 9 6 22 6 7 23 7 11 24 17 9 25 14 10 26 16 9 27 14 8 28 15 10 29 16 2 30 2 6 31 12 0 32 0 6 33 12 2 34 2 4 35 13 7 36 10 8 37 15 1 38 1 9 39 14 1 40 1 8 41 15 5 42 11 10 43 16 7 44 10 8 45 15 7 46 10 10 47 16 11 48 17 5 49 11 3 50 3 5 51 11 11 52 17 10 53 16 1 54 1 9 55 14 3 56 3 11 57 17 3 58 3 9 59 14</p></triangles>
      </mesh>
    </geometry>
  </library_geometries>
  <library_controllers>
    <controller id="pCube1Controller">
      <skin source="#pCube1-lib">
        <bind_shape_matrix>1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
</bind_shape_matrix>
        <source id="pCube1Controller-Joints">
          <Name_array id="pCube1Controller-Joints-array" count="3">
 joint1 joint2 joint3</Name_array>
          <technique_common>
            <accessor source="#pCube1Controller-Joints-array" count="3">
              <param type="name"/>
            </accessor>
          </technique_common>
        </source>
        <source id="pCube1Controller-Matrices">
          <float_array id="pCube1Controller-Matrices-array" count="48">

0.999999 0.001040 0.000000 0.375687 -0.001040 0.999999 0.000000 -0.000391 0.000000 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
0.999783 -0.000978 0.020814 -1.665093 0.000978 1.000000 0.000021 -0.003751 -0.020814 -0.000001 0.999783 0.034664 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000
1.000000 0.000000 -0.000000 -3.833521 -0.000000 1.000000 -0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000 -0.045135 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000</float_array>
          <technique_common>
            <accessor source="#pCube1Controller-Matrices-array" count="3" stride="16">
              <param type="float4x4"/>
            </accessor>
          </technique_common>
        </source>
        <source id="pCube1Controller-Weights">
          <float_array id="pCube1Controller-Weights-array" count="33">

1.000000 0.989534 0.009756 0.708022 0.289010 0.002968 0.989518 0.009771 0.708398 0.288669 0.002933 0.989525 0.009771 0.708446 0.288689 0.002866
0.989540 0.009756 0.708070 0.289030 0.002900 0.004697 0.497651 0.497651 0.003326 0.498337 0.498337 0.004704 0.497648 0.497648 0.003331 0.498334
0.498334</float_array>
          <technique_common>
            <accessor source="#pCube1Controller-Weights-array" count="33">
              <param type="float"/>
            </accessor>
          </technique_common>
        </source>
        <joints>
          <input semantic="JOINT" source="#pCube1Controller-Joints"/>
          <input semantic="INV_BIND_MATRIX" source="#pCube1Controller-Matrices"/>
        </joints>
        <vertex_weights count="12">
          <input semantic="JOINT" offset="0" source="#pCube1Controller-Joints"/>
          <input semantic="WEIGHT" offset="1" source="#pCube1Controller-Weights"/>
          <vcount>2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3</vcount>
          <v>0 1 1 2 0 3 1 4 2 5 0 6 1 7 0 8 1 9 2 10 0 11 1 12 0 13 1 14 2 15 0 16 1 17 0 18 1 19 2 20 0 21 1 22 2 23 0 24 1 25 2 26 0 27 1 28 2 29 0 30 1 31 2 32</v>
        </vertex_weights>
      </skin>
    </controller>
  </library_controllers>

 

 

03.jpg

Edited by B. /

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Found the solution, the 12 vertices is linked on the 12 vertices pos array in the geometry_lib :)

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      Frame #0:
      Map constant buffer with discard Write matrix at offset 0, count 64 Unmap VSSetConstantBuffers1(0, 1, buffers, new int[] { offset }, new int[] { count });  // Where offset is the offset above, same with count Draw single triangle Frame #1:
      Map constant buffer with no-overwrite Write matrix at offset 64, count 64. Unmap VSSetConstantBuffers1(0, 1, buffers, new int[] { offset }, new int[] { count });  // Where offset is the offset above, same with count Draw single triangle Etc... it repeats until the end of the buffer, and starts over with a discard when the buffer is full.
      Has anyone ever used these offset cbuffer functions before?  Can you help a brother out?
      Edit:
      I've added screenshots of what I'm seeing the VS 2017 graphics debugger.  As I said before, if I use the old VSSetConstantBuffers method, it works like a charm and I see my triangle.



    • By Armaan Gupta
      Hey There,
      I am a developer and Im working on a blockchain based infinite runner type game. Right now, I am working on releasing the beta version with a couple other game developers, but would love to expand the team and have other talented and bright people contributing. The game portion of the project isnt very complicated, and wouldnt require anyone to pull thier hair out for it.
      If you are interested in joining a project, interested in the idea, or would like some more information, please don't hesitate to ask either by commenting, discord (username: Guppy#7625), or by email (armaangupta01@gmail.com).
      Thank you!
    • By bojanzarnoski@gmx.de
      Hello,
      I want to get into coding again by programming a 2D platformer to get started, but i don't know if i should use Java or C# with the unity engine.
      I am pretty fit with Java, but with c# i have to start from scratch. What do you recommend and why?
    • By SickTwistGames
      Ok, firstly, Hi.
       
      This is my first post on this forum. I am an Indie Dev making my first game so bear with me when I say dumb stuff, I'm on a huge learning curve.
       
      My first question is about inventory systems for unity. I am trying to make a survival type game with crafting. I have purchased Inventory manager pro by devdog from the unity asset store and it seems like a pretty powerful assett but for an intermediate coder its a little tough to use.  I'm beginning to wonder if it was the right purchase.
      So my question is.... does anyone have any experience of inventory plugins / systems for unity and can anyone reccomend a system to me?
      It needs to have the following: Loot system, crafting system, character sheet, blueprint system,  character stats system. Ideally with as little coding as possible.
       
      Thanks
    • By ethancodes
      I've got a bug with my brick breaker style game. The bricks move down one line at a time ever 1.5 seconds. What appears to be happening is occasionally the ball will be just about to hit the brick when the brick moves down a line, and now the ball is behind it. I'm not sure how to fix this. I have two ideas but I'm not sure of implementation. 1 solution would be to check where they were and where they are going to be before rendering the frame. Then if they crossed paths, then register the brick as hit. Solution 2 would be change how the bricks move. I could maybe slide them down line by line, instead of a jump down. I'm not sure of this will fix the issue or not. Any ideas?
    • By Scouting Ninja
      Once again Unity is frustrating me to the point of insanity.
      What I am looking for is a way to find a ray intersect with the edges of the mesh, using Unity's already made collision system. I want to point out that I know how to do a line intersect, what I want to know is if Unity supports this already.

      The image above shows how I sweep a ray,intersecting the mesh. The top green image shows what I want and the red shows what Unity is giving me.
      I want to know if there is some way, to find the edges in Unity without creating a custom line intersection tool.
      Most engines I know don't use rays for this but instead use a plane like this:

      I checked the Unity "Plane intersection" but it is just a ray cast. It will still need me to find the vertices on the collision mesh to cast the ray from; if I am doing that then making my own line intersection tool is better.
       
      I looked online and can find anything on this. Also I don't want to cut the mesh, so I don't need a way to know what side is what.
      Does Unity even have collisions that support edge only detection?
    • By JuliaAxt
      Please help me with this code, this error is currently stopping my project 
      using System.Collections;
      using System.Collections.Generic;
      using UnityEngine;
      [RequireComponent(typeof(Rigidbody2D))]
      public class TapController : MonoBehaviour {
          public float tapForence = 10;
          public float tiltSmooth = 5;
          public Vector3 startPos;
          Rigidbody2D Rigidbody;
          Quaternion downRotation;
          Quaternion forwardRotation;
          private void Start() {
              Rigidbody = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();
              downRotation = Quaternion.Euler(0, 0, -90);
              forwardRotation = Quaternion.Euler(0, 0, 35);
        
          }
          private void Update() {
              if (Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0))
              {
                  transform.rotation = forwardRotation;
                  Rigidbody.AddForce(Vector2.up * tapForce, ForceMode2D.Force);   (The name `tapForce`does not exist in current context)
              }
              transform.rotation = Quaternion.Lerp(transform.rotation, downRotation, tiltSmooth * Time.deltaTime);
          }
      }
          void OnTriggerEnter2D(Collider2D col){
          if (col.gameObject.tag == "scoreZone")
          {
              // register a score event
              // play a sound
          }
          if (col.gameObject.tag == "deadZone")
          {
              Rigidbody.simulated = false;   (`Rigidbody` does not contain a definition for `simulated´) 
              //register a dead event
              //play a sound
          }
           }

      }
       
    • By syedali233
      Hi, I want to pass message back and forth on client and server which are on different scenes, how can I do that in Unity?**
      Following is my Scenario:-
      I have 5 scenes- 
       1. BaseScene (2) OfflineScene (3) OnlineScene (4) ClientOnline (5)
          ServerOnline.
      All these scenes have button having text of the names of the scenes.
      On Base Scene, I have add empty game object on which i have placed "customNetworkScript" which extends from "NetworkManager" script and also placed "Network Manager HUD" on it. Following is the code which i have placed in "customNetworkScript":-
         
      public class customNetworkScript : NetworkManager {                              public override void OnClientSceneChanged(NetworkConnection conn)                 {                     SceneManager.LoadScene("ClientOnline", LoadSceneMode.Single);                     ClientScene.Ready(conn);                     ClientScene.AddPlayer(conn, 0);                 }                              public override void OnServerSceneChanged(string sceneName)                 {                     SceneManager.LoadScene("ServerOnline", LoadSceneMode.Single);                 }         } I have placed "OfflineScene" and "OnlineScene" in the fields, named "Offline Scene" and "Online Scene" in "Network Manager" component. Also have placed an empty prefab in "Spawn Info" in "customNetworkScript" and it has component "Network Identity" on it. Now when i run project, on one instance, I click on "LAN Server only" and on another instance, I click on "LAN Client". And I get my respective scenes on both the instances -> "ServerOnline" appear on instance where I click "LAN Server only" and "ClientOnline" appear on other instance.
      What I want is, when i click on "ServerOnline" button, a message string will pass on to "ClientOnline" scene and same happens in backward direction when i click on "ClientOnline" button. 
      I have tried "Rpc" and "Command" but they only work when I click on "LAN Host" instead of "LAN Server Only".
      I have tried very hard but couldn't find anything useful. It will be a great pleasure if someone explain to me in detail along with the code, how can I achieve this.
      ThankYou Very Much for Your Time.
    • By Sergey Vasiliev
      If you are a software developer working in the video game industry and wondering what else you could do to improve the quality of your product or make the development process easier and you don't use static analysis – it's just the right time to start doing so. You doubt that? OK, I'll try to convince you. And if you are just looking to see what coding mistakes are common with video-game and game-engine developers, then you're, again, at the right place: I have picked the most interesting ones for you.

      Why you should use static analysis
      Although video-game development includes a lot of steps, coding remains one of the basic ones. Even if you don't write thousands of code lines, you have to use various tools whose quality determines how comfortable the process is and what the ultimate result will be. If you are a developer of such tools (such as game engines), this shouldn't sound new to you.
      Why is static analysis useful in software development in general? The main reasons are as follows:
      Bugs grow costlier and more difficult to fix over time. One of the principal advantages of static analysis is detecting bugs at early development stages (you can find an error when code writing). Therefore, by using static analysis, you could make the development process easier both for your coworkers and yourself, detecting and fixing lots of bugs before they become a headache. Static analysis tools can recognize a great variety of bug patterns (copy-paste, typos, incorrect use of functions, etc.). Static analysis is generally good at detecting those defects that defy dynamic analysis. However, the opposite is also true. Negative side effects of static analysis (such as false positives) are usually 'smoothed out' through means provided by the developers of powerful analyzers. These means include various mechanisms of warning suppression (individually, by pattern, and so on), switching off irrelevant diagnostics, and excluding files and folders from analysis. By properly tweaking the analyzer settings, you can reduce the amount of 'noise' greatly. As my colleague Andrey Karpov has shown in the article about the check of EFL Core Libraries, tweaking the settings helps cut down the number of false positives to 10-15% at most. But it's all theory, and you are probably interested in real-life examples. Well then, I've got some.

      Static analysis in Unreal Engine
      If you have read this far, I assume you don't need me telling you about Unreal Engine or the Epic Games company – and if you don't hold these guys in high regard, I wonder whom you do.
      The PVS-Studio team has cooperated with Epic Games a few times to help them adopt static analysis in their project (Unreal Engine) and fix bugs and false positives issued by the analyzer. I'm sure both parties found this experience interesting and rewarding.
      One of the effects of this cooperation was adding a special flag into Unreal Engine allowing the developers to conveniently integrate static analysis into the build system of Unreal Engine projects.
      The idea is simple: the guys do care about the quality of their code and adopt various techniques available to maintain it, static analysis being one of them.

      John Carmack on static analysis
      John Carmack, one of the most renowned video-game developers, once called the adoption of static analysis one of his most important accomplishments as a programmer: "The most important thing I have done as a programmer in recent years is to aggressively pursue static code analysis." The next time you hear someone say that static analysis is a tool for newbies, show them this quote. Carmack described his experience in this article, which I strongly recommend checking out – both for motivation and general knowledge.

      Bugs found in video games and game engines with static analysis
      One of the best ways to prove that static analysis is a useful method is probably through examples showing it in action. That's what the PVS-Studio team does while checking open-source projects.
      It's a practice that everyone benefits from:
      The project authors get a bug report and a chance to fix the defects. Ideally, it should be done in quite a different way, though: they should run the analyzer and check the warnings on their own rather than fix them relying on someone else's log or article. It matters, if only because the authors of articles might miss some important details or inadvertently focus on bugs that aren't much critical to the project. The analyzer developers can use the analysis results as the basis for improving the tool, as well as demonstrating its bug-detecting capabilities. The readers learn about bug patterns, gain experience, and get started with static analysis. So, isn't that proof of the effectiveness of this approach?

      Teams already using static analysis

      While some are pondering introducing static analysis into their development process, others have long been using and benefiting from it! These are, among others, Rocksteady, Epic Games, ZeniMax Media, Oculus, Codemasters, Wargaming (source).

      Top 10 software bugs in video-game industry
      I should point right off that this is not some ultimate top list, but simply bugs which were found by PVS-Studio in video games and game engines and which I found most interesting.
      As usual, I recommend trying to find the bug in each example on your own first and only then go on reading the warning and my comments. You'll enjoy the article more that way.
      Tenth place
      Source: Anomalies in X-Ray Engine
      The tenth place is given to the bug in X-Ray Engine employed by the S.T.A.L.K.E.R game series. If you played them, you surely remember many of funny (and not quite funny) bugs they had. This is especially true for S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Clear Sky, which was impossible to play without patches (I still remember the bug that 'killed' all my saves). The analysis revealed there were many bugs indeed. Here's one of them.
      BOOL CActor::net_Spawn(CSE_Abstract* DC) { .... m_States.empty(); .... } PVS-Studio warning: V530 The return value of function 'empty' is required to be utilized.
      The problem is quite simple: the programmer is not using the logical value returned by the empty method describing whether the container is empty or not. Since the expression contains nothing but a method call, I assume the programmer intended to clear the container but called the empty method instead of clear by mistake.
      You may argue that this bug is too plain for a Top-10 list, but that's the nice thing about it! Even though it looks straightforward to someone not involved in writing this code, 'plain' bugs like that still appear (and get caught) in various projects.
      Ninth place
      Source: Long-Awaited Check of CryEngine V
      Going on with bugs in game engines. This time it's a code fragment from CryEngine V. The number of bugs I have encountered in games based on this engine was not as large as in games based on X-Ray Engine, but it turns out it has plenty of suspicious fragments too.
      void CCryDXGLDeviceContext:: OMGetBlendState(...., FLOAT BlendFactor[4], ....) { CCryDXGLBlendState::ToInterface(ppBlendState, m_spBlendState); if ((*ppBlendState) != NULL) (*ppBlendState)->AddRef(); BlendFactor[0] = m_auBlendFactor[0]; BlendFactor[1] = m_auBlendFactor[1]; BlendFactor[2] = m_auBlendFactor[2]; BlendFactor[2] = m_auBlendFactor[3]; *pSampleMask = m_uSampleMask; } PVS-Studio warning: V519 The 'BlendFactor[2]' variable is assigned values twice successively. Perhaps this is a mistake.
      As we mentioned many times in our articles, no one is safe from mistyping. Practice has also shown more than once that static analysis is very good at detecting copy-paste-related mistakes and typos. In the code above, the values of the m_auBlendFactor array are copied to the BlendFactor array, but the programmer made a mistake by writing BlendFactor[2] twice. As a result, the value at m_auBlendFactor[3] is written to BlendFactor[2], while the value at BlendFactor[3] remains unchanged.
      Eighth place
      Source:  Unicorn in Space: Analyzing the Source Code of 'Space Engineers' 
      Let's change course a bit and take a look at some C# code. What we've got here is an example from the Space Engineers project, a 'sandbox' game about building and maintaining various structures in space. I haven't played it myself, but one guy said in the comments, "I'm not much surprised at the results ". Well, we did manage to find some bugs worth mentioning, and here's two of them.
      public void Init(string cueName) { .... if (m_arcade.Hash == MyStringHash.NullOrEmpty && m_realistic.Hash == MyStringHash.NullOrEmpty) MySandboxGame.Log.WriteLine(string.Format( "Could not find any sound for '{0}'", cueName)); else { if (m_arcade.IsNull) string.Format( "Could not find arcade sound for '{0}'", cueName); if (m_realistic.IsNull) string.Format( "Could not find realistic sound for '{0}'", cueName); } } PVS-Studio warnings:
       V3010  The return value of function 'Format' is required to be utilized.  V3010  The return value of function 'Format' is required to be utilized. As you can see, it's a common problem, both in C++-code and C#-code, where programmers ignore methods' return values. The String.Format method forms the resulting string based on the format string and objects to substitute and then returns it. In the code above, the else-branch contains two string.Format calls, but their return values are never used. It looks like the programmer intended to log these messages in the same way as they did in the then-branch of the if statement using the MySandboxGame.Log.WriteLine method.
      Seventh place
      Source: Analyzing the Quake III Arena GPL project
      Did I tell you already that static analysis is good at detecting typos? Well, here's one more example.
      void Terrain_AddMovePoint(....) { .... x = ( v[ 0 ] - p->origin[ 0 ] ) / p->scale_x; y = ( v[ 1 ] - p->origin[ 1 ] ) / p->scale_x; .... } PVS-Studio warning: V537 Consider reviewing the correctness of 'scale_x' item's usage.
      The variables x and y are assigned values, yet both expressions contain the p->scale_x subexpression, which doesn't look right. It seems the second subexpression should be p->scale_y instead.
      Sixth place
      Source: Checking the Unity C# Source Code
      Unity Technologies recently made the code of their proprietary game engine, Unity, available to the public, so we couldn't ignore the event. The check revealed a lot of interesting code fragments; here's one of them:
      public override bool IsValid() { .... return base.IsValid() && (pageSize >= 1 || pageSize <= 1000) && totalFilters <= 10; } PVS-Studio warning: V3063 A part of conditional expression is always true if it is evaluated: pageSize <= 1000.
      What we have here is an incorrect check of the range of pageSize. The programmer must have intended to check that the pageSize value was within the range [1; 1000] but made a sad mistake by typing the '||' operator instead of '&&'. The subexpression actually checks nothing.
      Fifth place
      Source: Discussing Errors in Unity3D's Open-Source Components
      This place was given to a nice bug found in Unity3D's components. The article mentioned above was written a year prior to revealing Unity's source code, but there already were interesting defects to find there at the time.
      public static CrawledMemorySnapshot Unpack(....) { .... var result = new CrawledMemorySnapshot { .... staticFields = packedSnapshot.typeDescriptions .Where(t => t.staticFieldBytes != null & t.staticFieldBytes.Length > 0) .Select(t => UnpackStaticFields(t)) .ToArray() .... }; .... } PVS-Studio warning: V3080 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 't.staticFieldBytes'.
      Note the lambda expression passed as an argument to the Where method. The code suggests that the typeDescriptions collection could contain elements whose staticFieldBytes member could be null – hence the check staticFieldBytes != null before accessing the Length property. However, the programmer mixed up the '&' and '&&' operators. It means that no matter the result of the left expression (true/false), the right one will also be evaluated, causing a NullReferenceException to be thrown when accessing the Length property if staticFieldBytes == null. Using the '&&' operator could help avoid this because the right expression won't be evaluated if staticFieldBytes == null.
      Although Unity was the only engine to hit this top list twice, it doesn't prevent enthusiasts from building wonderful games on it. Including one(s) about fighting bugs.
      Fourth place
      Source:  Analysis of Godot Engine's Source Code 
      Sometimes we come across interesting cases that have to do with missing keywords. For example, an exception object is created but never used because the programmer forgot to add the throw keyword. Such errors are found both in C# projects and C++ projects. There was one missing keyword in Godot Engine as well.
      Variant Variant::get(const Variant& p_index, bool *r_valid) const { .... if (ie.type == InputEvent::ACTION) { if (str =="action") { valid=true; return ie.action.action; } else if (str == "pressed") { valid=true; ie.action.pressed; } } .... } PVS-Studio warning: V607 Ownerless expression 'ie.action.pressed'.
      In the given code fragment it is obvious that a programmer wanted to return a certain value of the Variant type, depending on the values ie.type and str. Yet only one of the return statements – return ie.action.action; – is written properly, while the other is lacking the return operator, which prevents the needed value from returning and forces the method to keep executing.
      Third place
      Source: PVS-Studio: analyzing Doom 3 code
      Now we've reached the Top-3 section. The third place is awarded to a small code fragment of Doom 3's source code. As I already said, the fact that a bug may look straightforward to an outside observer and make you wonder how one could have made such a mistake at all shouldn't be confusing: there are actually all sorts of bugs to be found in the field...
      void Sys_GetCurrentMemoryStatus( sysMemoryStats_t &stats ) { .... memset( &statex, sizeof( statex ), 0 ); .... } PVS-Studio warning: V575 The 'memset' function processes '0' elements. Inspect the third argument.
      To figure this error out, we should recall the signature of the memset function:
      void* memset(void* dest, int ch, size_t count); If you compare it with the call above, you'll notice that the last two arguments are swapped; as a result, some memory block that was meant to be cleared will stay unchanged.
      Second place
      The second place is taken by a bug found in the code of the Xenko game engine written in C#.
      Source: Catching Errors in the Xenko Game Engine
      private static ImageDescription CreateDescription(TextureDimension dimension, int width, int height, int depth, ....) { .... } public static Image New3D(int width, int height, int depth, ....) { return new Image(CreateDescription(TextureDimension.Texture3D, width, width, depth, mipMapCount, format, 1), dataPointer, 0, null, false); } PVS-Studio warning: V3065 Parameter 'height' is not utilized inside method's body.
      The programmer made a mistake when passing the arguments to the CreateDescription method. If you look at its signature, you'll see that the second, third, and fourth parameters are named width, height, and depth, respectively. But the call passes the arguments width, width, and depth. Looks strange, doesn't it? The analyzer, too, found it strange enough to point it out.
      First place
      Source: A Long-Awaited Check of Unreal Engine 4
      This Top-10 list is led by a bug from Unreal Engine. Just like it was with the leader of "Top 10 Bugs in the C++ Projects of 2017", I knew this bug should be given the first place the very moment I saw it.
      bool VertInfluencedByActiveBone( FParticleEmitterInstance* Owner, USkeletalMeshComponent* InSkelMeshComponent, int32 InVertexIndex, int32* OutBoneIndex = NULL); void UParticleModuleLocationSkelVertSurface::Spawn(....) { .... int32 BoneIndex1, BoneIndex2, BoneIndex3; BoneIndex1 = BoneIndex2 = BoneIndex3 = INDEX_NONE; if(!VertInfluencedByActiveBone( Owner, SourceComponent, VertIndex[0], &BoneIndex1) && !VertInfluencedByActiveBone( Owner, SourceComponent, VertIndex[1], &BoneIndex2) && !VertInfluencedByActiveBone( Owner, SourceComponent, VertIndex[2]) &BoneIndex3) { .... } PVS-Studio warning: V564 The '&' operator is applied to bool type value. You've probably forgotten to include parentheses or intended to use the '&&' operator.
      I wouldn't be surprised if you read the warning, looked at the code, and wondered, "Well, where's the '&' used instead of '&&'?" But if we simplify the conditional expression of the if statement, keeping in mind that the last parameter of the VertInfluencedByActiveBone function has a default value, this will clear it all up:
      if (!foo(....) && !foo(....) && !foo(....) & arg) Take a close look at the last subexpression:
      !VertInfluencedByActiveBone(Owner, SourceComponent, VertIndex[2]) &BoneIndex3 This parameter with the default value has messed things up: but for this value, the code would have never compiled at all. But since it's there, the code compiles successfully and the bug blends in as successfully. It's this suspicious fragment that the analyzer spotted – the infix operation '&' with the left operand of type bool and the right operand of type int32.

      Conclusion
      I hope I have convinced you that static analysis is a very useful tool when developing video games and game engines, and one more option to help you improve the quality of your code (and thus of the final product). If you are a video game industry developer, you ought to tell your coworkers about static analysis and refer them to this article. Wondering where to start? Start with PVS-Studio.
    • By zuhane
      Hello all! Thanks for taking the time to read this post.
      This is a bit of a strange subject, but a very important one nonetheless in my opinion. I've been programming for about 7 years now, and over this duration I've made over 10 small but complete games. Over the past few years, I started working on a bigger project, and this has been through two prototypes. I've noticed that every time one of these prototypes reaches a certain size, the code becomes more and more intertwined and interdependent to the point where productivity slows to a halt and eventually just stops. 
      A lot of people tell me to "create small games" and "see them through to completion", but I have indeed done this, and this problem seems to persist. I'm not working on something overly ambitious or impossible to complete, but it always seems like when I try to create a game with any kind of substance or complexity, coding very quickly becomes this awful chore of backtracking, and progress slows and slows to a halt. I've done lots of research into programming patterns, and I write my code very meticulously with lots of comments and strict formatting, but I can't seem to jump this barrier.
      For the first time ever, recently, I decided to COMPLETELY document every single aspect of my game, so that creating content won't involve me having to over-engineer and future-proof my code in the hope of future additions. This way, I can completely design the architecture around this content and then shut the doors and agree to not add any more content, no matter how tempting it may be. However, I'm not too sure how to go about starting a new project in a way that will ensure quality control and a nice balance of readability/cohesiveness/modularity.
      I wondered if any of you have the same problem, and if so, how do you go about combatting it? Is there a tried and tested way create an architecture which allows the addition of code without causing a rippling echo throughout all existing code? Is there some form of diagramming or pre-planning which can help minimize this risk later down the line?
      I eagerly await your reply!
      Thank you,
      Zuhane
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