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Use assimp for skeletal animation HELP!

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Guys, I've spent a lot of time to load skeletal animation

but  It is very difficult...

I refer to http://ogldev.atspace.co.uk/www/tutorial38/tutorial38.html

but I didn't get the results I wanted

 

Please Help Me

 

This is my codes

 

void LoadAnimation::BoneTransform(float time, vector<XMFLOAT4X4>& transforms)
{
	XMMATRIX Identity = XMMatrixIdentity();

	float TicksPerSecond = (float)(m_pScene->mAnimations[0]->mTicksPerSecond != 0 ?
		m_pScene->mAnimations[0]->mTicksPerSecond : 25.0f);
	float TimeInTicks = time*TicksPerSecond;
	float AnimationTime = fmod(TimeInTicks, (float)m_pScene->mAnimations[0]->mDuration);


	ReadNodeHeirarchy(AnimationTime, m_pScene->mRootNode, Identity);

	transforms.resize(m_NumBones);


	for (int i = 0; i < m_NumBones; ++i) {
		XMStoreFloat4x4(&transforms[i], m_Bones[i].second.FinalTransformation);
	}
}
void LoadAnimation::ReadNodeHeirarchy(float AnimationTime, const aiNode * pNode, const XMMATRIX& ParentTransform)
{
	string NodeName(pNode->mName.data);

	const aiAnimation* pAnim = m_pScene->mAnimations[0];

	XMMATRIX NodeTransformation = XMMATRIX(&pNode->mTransformation.a1);

	const aiNodeAnim* pNodeAnim = FindNodeAnim(pAnim, NodeName);

	if (pNodeAnim) {
		aiVector3D scaling;
		CalcInterpolatedScaling(scaling, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX ScalingM = XMMatrixScaling(scaling.x, scaling.y, scaling.z);
		ScalingM = XMMatrixTranspose(ScalingM);

		aiQuaternion q;
		CalcInterpolatedRotation(q, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX RotationM = XMMatrixRotationQuaternion(XMVectorSet(q.x, q.y, q.z, q.w));
		RotationM = XMMatrixTranspose(RotationM);

		aiVector3D t;
		CalcInterpolatedPosition(t, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX TranslationM = XMMatrixTranslation(t.x, t.y, t.z);
		TranslationM = XMMatrixTranspose(TranslationM);

		NodeTransformation = TranslationM * RotationM * ScalingM;
	}

	XMMATRIX GlobalTransformation = ParentTransform * NodeTransformation;

	int tmp = 0;
	for (auto& p : m_Bones) {
		if (p.first == NodeName) {
			p.second.FinalTransformation = XMMatrixTranspose(
				m_GlobalInverse *  GlobalTransformation * p.second.BoneOffset);
			break;
		}
		tmp += 1;
	}

	for (UINT i = 0; i < pNode->mNumChildren; ++i) {
		ReadNodeHeirarchy(AnimationTime, pNode->mChildren[i], GlobalTransformation);
	}
}

 

CalcInterp~ function and Find~ function are like a tutorial
(http://ogldev.atspace.co.uk/www/tutorial38/tutorial38.html)

 

I think that I'm doing the multiplication wrong

but I don't know where it went wrong

If you want, i wall post other codes.

 

 here is my result

(hands are stretched, legs are strange)

image.thumb.png.d1ec27dfcae0cd0cbe233a6d7553603c.png

 

and it is ideal result

image.png.b1d33522cada2607144b0e4f8f4cc95e.png

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Implementing skeletal animation can be a hard task the first time around. For easier debugging I suggest you do a very simple animation for a very simple model. Create a test scene with a cylinder animate by two bones or something like this. Also drawing the bone matrices as lines is very helpful.

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Agree with turanszkij, start with really simple cases. In addition, it can also be really helpful to 'go by the numbers', create the simple joint, maybe just with a few verts to be skinned, then output all the translates, quaternions for each bone and the transformed vert positions.

If you can also export the baked animation from blender you can know the 'ground truth' positions that the vertices should be in, if everything is going perfect. Watch for the order of your transforms, and also differences between 'polarities' of things that blender is spitting out compared to your code. Sometimes flipping an axis or similar can fix things. I spent ages debugging where blender had output quaternions as wxyz and I was expecting xyzw or vice versa lol! :)

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I was able to get assimp animation to work in DirectX. I see you followed an opengl tutorial but in DX matrix multiplication order is reverse of opengl order. In DX if you want to first rotate a vertex by XMMATRIX R1 and then translate by XMMATRIX T1 you do 

XMVector3Transform(v, R1 * T1)

Your bone FinalTransformation should be 

p.second.FinalTransformation = p.second.BoneOffset * GlobalTransformation * m_GlobalInverse;

Also make sure you read correctly from aiMatrix4x4 row-major data structure into XMFLOAT4X4 also row-major before loading into XMMATRIX.

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On 2018. 1. 28. at 11:02 AM, Ivan Terziev said:

I was able to get assimp animation to work in DirectX. I see you followed an opengl tutorial but in DX matrix multiplication order is reverse of opengl order. In DX if you want to first rotate a vertex by XMMATRIX R1 and then translate by XMMATRIX T1 you do 


XMVector3Transform(v, R1 * T1)

Your bone FinalTransformation should be 


p.second.FinalTransformation = p.second.BoneOffset * GlobalTransformation * m_GlobalInverse;

Also make sure you read correctly from aiMatrix4x4 row-major data structure into XMFLOAT4X4 also row-major before loading into XMMATRIX.

first Thank you for your answer

I have some questions for you.

 

you told me to count 'BoneOffset * GlobalTransformation * m_blobalInverse'

but if I calculate that equation, the model is completyely broken

image.thumb.png.a94be4eb224c5d4dda9620cf2fa7fa5f.png

 

And I use this function to load XMMATRIX from aiMatirx4x4

XMMATRIX(&pNode->mTransformation.a1);

'pNode->mTransformation' is type aiMatrix4x4

I think it is no ploblem

because XMMATRIX can put the argument values of the array

please, I want you to tell me what method you used

thank you

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On 2018. 1. 26. at 12:20 AM, turanszkij said:

Implementing skeletal animation can be a hard task the first time around. For easier debugging I suggest you do a very simple animation for a very simple model. Create a test scene with a cylinder animate by two bones or something like this. Also drawing the bone matrices as lines is very helpful.

thank you for your answer

I'll take your idea and try to test it wiht a simple model

 

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On 2018. 1. 26. at 1:36 AM, lawnjelly said:

Agree with turanszkij, start with really simple cases. In addition, it can also be really helpful to 'go by the numbers', create the simple joint, maybe just with a few verts to be skinned, then output all the translates, quaternions for each bone and the transformed vert positions.

If you can also export the baked animation from blender you can know the 'ground truth' positions that the vertices should be in, if everything is going perfect. Watch for the order of your transforms, and also differences between 'polarities' of things that blender is spitting out compared to your code. Sometimes flipping an axis or similar can fix things. I spent ages debugging where blender had output quaternions as wxyz and I was expecting xyzw or vice versa lol! :)

First thank for your Idea

 I don't know when quaternion is xyzw or wxyz

Many articles just tell them to be careful

It is very difficult... 

 

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Generally there are three types of transformations scaling, rotation and translation and you should be consistent with the order of multiplication. Usually it is scaling, rotation and translation, which is expressed in DX math as multiplication order S * R * T. So your NodeTransformation should be

NodeTransformation = ScalingM * RotationM * TranslationM;

and you should not be transposing your matrices when your read them from assimp (depending on your hlsl setting you should transpose your world, view and projection matrices). Then calculating final transformation remains 
 

p.second.FinalTransformation = p.second.BoneOffset * GlobalTransformation * m_GlobalInverse;

 

The above equations says the final transformation of a vertex to world space is: transform the vertex to bone space, then transform the vertex to scene space (assuming assimp bone transformations are from bone space to scene space) and finally transform it to world space.

It will be simpler if you test with assimp sceneTransform = identity and without scaling and then add them after the bone hierarchy looks good.

I hope it works!

 

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18 hours ago, Ivan Terziev said:

Generally there are three types of transformations scaling, rotation and translation and you should be consistent with the order of multiplication. Usually it is scaling, rotation and translation, which is expressed in DX math as multiplication order S * R * T. So your NodeTransformation should be


NodeTransformation = ScalingM * RotationM * TranslationM;

and you should not be transposing your matrices when your read them from assimp (depending on your hlsl setting you should transpose your world, view and projection matrices). Then calculating final transformation remains 
 


p.second.FinalTransformation = p.second.BoneOffset * GlobalTransformation * m_GlobalInverse;

 

The above equations says the final transformation of a vertex to world space is: transform the vertex to bone space, then transform the vertex to scene space (assuming assimp bone transformations are from bone space to scene space) and finally transform it to world space.

It will be simpler if you test with assimp sceneTransform = identity and without scaling and then add them after the bone hierarchy looks good.

I hope it works!

 

Thanks for your response

I have some questions

 

First you say that I shouldn't be transposing matrices when read them from assimp,

but I think that assimp is opengl format 

so would i have to do transpose to get the correct col/row ?

Actually, I tried removing transpos function when using assimp to read my model,

but the result is very bad (It was completely disassembled)

 

second I agree that you told me to do S * R * T

because I saw it in my book when i was studying

but strangely the result of S * R * T and T * R * S were same, so i didn't fix it

 

hmmm..... assimp is very useful library to load fbx format

but load anmation, it's very hardly...

 

I don't have enough English skills to read it

so you would be inconvenient to read it

Thank you for your faithful reply!

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Yeah I understand, the problem with linear transformations is that you have to get both the equations and the data right and it is really hard to debug using the standard debugger and on top of this there are the opengl and directx differences. So in my case I only transpose when I read from aiMatrix4x4. I don't transpose when I read quaternions or vectors. 

const aiMatrix4x4& offset = bone.mOffsetMatrix;
XMMATRIX meshToBoneTransform = XMMatrixTranspose(
	XMMATRIX(offset.a1, offset.a2, offset.a3, offset.a4,
			 offset.b1, offset.b2, offset.b3, offset.b4,
			 offset.c1, offset.c2, offset.c3, offset.c4,
			 offset.d1, offset.d2, offset.d3, offset.d4));

Do the same for (transpose) XMMATRIX(&pNode->mTransformation.a1);

If you are sending FinalTransformation matrices to hlsl for skinning on the GPU you may have to transpose them depending on how you calculate your final vertex world position.

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I just noticed you should also reverse the multilcation of GlobalTransformation like

XMMATRIX GlobalTransformation = NodeTransformation * ParentTransform;

 

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I accept the idea of testin with a simple model

so got simple models of two bone

 

first It is ideal result

image.png.c14b9ca27eb80f86301c2695539926a5.png

It has a blue circle with its aixs of rotation

(com up and down around the axis)

but my result ( fix transpos ploblem and GlobalTransformation and etc...) is like this

image.thumb.png.08dba4511fb8bc2c9782f9c2fdb72999.png

the axis is center of the cube

it also come up and down but different axis give completely different results

 

I attach my modified codes

 

1. load bone data

void LoadModel::InitBones(UINT index, const aiMesh* pMesh)
{
	for (UINT i = 0; i < pMesh->mNumBones; ++i) {
		int BoneIndex = -1;
		string BoneName(pMesh->mBones[i]->mName.data);

		int tmpIndex = 0;
		for (const auto& p : m_Bones) { 
			if (p.first == BoneName) {
				BoneIndex = tmpIndex;
				break;
			}
			tmpIndex++;
		}

		if (BoneIndex < 0) { 
			BoneIndex = (int)m_Bones.size();

			Bone bone;
			bone.BoneOffset = aiMatrixToXMMatrix(pMesh->mBones[BoneIndex]->mOffsetMatrix);
			m_Bones.emplace_back(make_pair(BoneName, bone));
		}

		const aiBone* pBone = pMesh->mBones[BoneIndex];
		for (UINT b = 0; b < pBone->mNumWeights; ++b) {
			UINT vertexID = pBone->mWeights[b].mVertexId;
			float weight = pBone->mWeights[b].mWeight;
			m_meshes[index].m_vertices[vertexID].AddBoneData(BoneIndex, weight);
		}
	}
}

 

2.  ReadNodeHeirarchy

void LoadAnimation::ReadNodeHeirarchy(float AnimationTime, const aiNode * pNode, const XMMATRIX& ParentTransform)
{
	string NodeName(pNode->mName.data);

	const aiAnimation* pAnim = m_pScene->mAnimations[0];

	XMMATRIX NodeTransformation = aiMatrixToXMMatrix(pNode->mTransformation);

	const aiNodeAnim* pNodeAnim = FindNodeAnim(pAnim, NodeName);

	if (pNodeAnim) {
		aiVector3D s;
		CalcInterpolatedScaling(s, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX ScalingM = XMMatrixScaling(s.x, s.y, s.z);


		aiQuaternion q;
		CalcInterpolatedRotation(q, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX RotationM = XMMatrixRotationQuaternion(XMVectorSet(q.x, q.y, q.z, q.w));


		aiVector3D t;
		CalcInterpolatedPosition(t, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX TranslationM = XMMatrixTranslation(t.x, t.y, t.z);



		NodeTransformation = ScalingM * RotationM  * TranslationM;

	}

	XMMATRIX GlobalTransformation = NodeTransformation * ParentTransform;

	for (auto& p : m_Bones) {
		if (p.first == NodeName) {
			p.second.FinalTransformation = 
				m_GlobalInverse *  GlobalTransformation * p.second.BoneOffset;
			break;
		}
	}

	for (UINT i = 0; i < pNode->mNumChildren; ++i) {
		ReadNodeHeirarchy(AnimationTime, pNode->mChildren[i], GlobalTransformation);
	}
}

aiMatrixToXMMatrix function is like your(Ivan Terziev) function

 

i want you to take a look at it

very thanks!

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Make it even simpler I think, why is the root bone (which is the root?) moving at all? Put the root bone start from the origin pointing along one axis, and only move the second bone, perhaps at 0 degrees (straight) (should be just a translate, no rotate component), 45 and 90. It kind of looks like the order of translate / rotate might be wrong, but it will be easier to see with more simplified. (I'm not even looking at the code, there's too many permutations for my tiny brain lol). :)

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If it helps this is what I do:

// local bone combined matrix
matBoneLocal = matBoneLocalTrans * matBoneLocalRot;

// global bone matrix is combined with parent matrix
matBone = matParent * matBoneLocal;

// the skinning matrix also combines back transform to get vertices into 'bone space'
matSkin = matBone * matRestInverse;

That last step probably isn't necessary if you store your skin verts in 'bonespace', i.e. pretransform them back to be rooted from the origin and pointing along the default axis. You can find out whether you need this by just drawing the skin with identity matrix and seeing what it looks like, whether it looks like the character in rest pose, or all the bones on top of each other.

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On 2018. 2. 1. at 6:00 PM, lawnjelly said:

Make it even simpler I think, why is the root bone (which is the root?) moving at all? Put the root bone start from the origin pointing along one axis, and only move the second bone, perhaps at 0 degrees (straight) (should be just a translate, no rotate component), 45 and 90. It kind of looks like the order of translate / rotate might be wrong, but it will be easier to see with more simplified. (I'm not even looking at the code, there's too many permutations for my tiny brain lol). :)

You inspired me! thanks

I ignored the animation imported from assimp and just tried rotation the bones

and As a result, I found the axis of rotaion to be strange.

 

As I predicted above, the axis was applied differently from the original (the center of the second mesh)

So many of the advice and functions we've got from above seem to have been inadequately applied

 

And i have one question 

Maybe i misunderstood, Are you telling me not to apply all animations from root node?

 

I think that read all child nodes from the root node and multiply the transformations( rot, scaling, shifting)

and if current node is bone, apply the multiplied transformation value up to now

 

It is wrong???

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Hey Guys

I've completely fixed everything!

 

It's matter about transpos matrix

 

Previously, I applied transpos function to the bone offset and mTranslation of the node
(that is, i applied transpos when I read aiMatrix4x4)

 

but after trying many different things, I found it to be wrong

 

Exactly, there is an aiMatrix4x4 which should apply transpos and aiMatrix4x4 should not apply

 

In my case, I applied transpos only result of transformation

This is my codes

 

void LoadAnimation::ReadNodeHeirarchy(float AnimationTime, const aiNode * pNode, const XMMATRIX& ParentTransform)
{
	string NodeName(pNode->mName.data);
	const aiAnimation* pAnim = m_pScene->mAnimations[0];

	XMMATRIX NodeTransformation = XMMATRIX(&pNode->mTransformation.a1);
	//I just read aiMatrix4x4 (aiMatrix to XMMATRIX format)
	const aiNodeAnim* pNodeAnim = FindNodeAnim(pAnim, NodeName);

	XMMATRIX anim = XMMatrixIdentity();
	if (pNodeAnim) {
		aiVector3D s;
		CalcInterpolatedScaling(s, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX ScalingM = XMMatrixScaling(s.x, s.y, s.z);


		aiQuaternion q;
		CalcInterpolatedRotation(q, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX RotationM = XMMatrixRotationQuaternion(XMVectorSet(q.x, q.y, q.z, q.w));


		aiVector3D t;
		CalcInterpolatedPosition(t, AnimationTime, pNodeAnim);
		XMMATRIX TranslationM = XMMatrixTranslation(t.x, t.y, t.z);



		NodeTransformation = ScalingM * RotationM * TranslationM;
		NodeTransformation = XMMatrixTranspose(NodeTransformation);
     	 	//I applied transpos
	}


	XMMATRIX GlobalTransformation = ParentTransform  *  NodeTransformation;

	for (auto& p : m_Bones) {
		if (p.first == NodeName) {
			p.second.FinalTransformation = 
				m_GlobalInverse *  GlobalTransformation * p.second.BoneOffset;
			break;
		}
	}

	for (UINT i = 0; i < pNode->mNumChildren; ++i) {
		
		ReadNodeHeirarchy(AnimationTime, pNode->mChildren[i], GlobalTransformation);
	}
}

 

If I read bone offset and mTransformation about node(aiMatrix4x4),

I simply transformed it into XMMATRIX format
// XMMATRIX(&aiMatrix4x4.a1)

 

second, If current node is a node belonging to the animation channel, and S R T transformation is performed,
transpos is applied to the transformation

 

The important this is that we don't apply the transpos to the parent nodes matrix
(if parent node conduct transpos function, there is a risk that it will be performed twice)

 

This is the result

image.thumb.png.461a1f2e9e01c9d835311d8d97d222d7.png

 

PS. I hope this post helps people using directX and assimp

assimp library has some bugs that some models using fbx format are broken
I know that the assimp team  is fixing it

I was able to observe that, in general, if the viewer provided by assimp show broken results,
my result are also broken.

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      TextureDesc TexDesc; TexDesc.Name = "My texture 2D"; TexDesc.Type = TEXTURE_TYPE_2D; TexDesc.Width = 1024; TexDesc.Height = 1024; TexDesc.Format = TEX_FORMAT_RGBA8_UNORM; TexDesc.Usage = USAGE_DEFAULT; TexDesc.BindFlags = BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE | BIND_RENDER_TARGET | BIND_UNORDERED_ACCESS; TexDesc.Name = "Sample 2D Texture"; m_pRenderDevice->CreateTexture( TexDesc, TextureData(), &m_pTestTex ); If native API supports multithreaded resource creation, textures and buffers can be created by multiple threads simultaneously.
      Interoperability with native API provides access to the native buffer/texture objects and also allows creating Diligent Engine objects from native handles. It allows applications seamlessly integrate native API-specific code with Diligent Engine.
      Next-generation APIs allow fine level-control over how resources are allocated. Diligent Engine does not currently expose this functionality, but it can be added by implementing IResourceAllocator interface that encapsulates specifics of resource allocation and providing this interface to CreateBuffer() or CreateTexture() methods. If null is provided, default allocator should be used.
      Initializing the Pipeline State
      As it was mentioned earlier, Diligent Engine follows next-gen APIs to configure the graphics/compute pipeline. One big Pipelines State Object (PSO) encompasses all required states (all shader stages, input layout description, depth stencil, rasterizer and blend state descriptions etc.). This approach maps directly to Direct3D12/Vulkan, but is also beneficial for older APIs as it eliminates pipeline misconfiguration errors. With many individual calls tweaking various GPU pipeline settings it is very easy to forget to set one of the states or assume the stage is already properly configured when in fact it is not. Using pipeline state object helps avoid these problems as all stages are configured at once.
      Creating Shaders
      While in earlier APIs shaders were bound separately, in the next-generation APIs as well as in Diligent Engine shaders are part of the pipeline state object. The biggest challenge when authoring shaders is that Direct3D and OpenGL/Vulkan use different shader languages (while Apple uses yet another language in their Metal API). Maintaining two versions of every shader is not an option for real applications and Diligent Engine implements shader source code converter that allows shaders authored in HLSL to be translated to GLSL. To create a shader, one needs to populate ShaderCreationAttribs structure. SourceLanguage member of this structure tells the system which language the shader is authored in:
      SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_DEFAULT - The shader source language matches the underlying graphics API: HLSL for Direct3D11/Direct3D12 mode, and GLSL for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL - The shader source is in HLSL. For OpenGL and OpenGLES modes, the source code will be converted to GLSL. SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_GLSL - The shader source is in GLSL. There is currently no GLSL to HLSL converter, so this value should only be used for OpenGL and OpenGLES modes. There are two ways to provide the shader source code. The first way is to use Source member. The second way is to provide a file path in FilePath member. Since the engine is entirely decoupled from the platform and the host file system is platform-dependent, the structure exposes pShaderSourceStreamFactory member that is intended to provide the engine access to the file system. If FilePath is provided, shader source factory must also be provided. If the shader source contains any #include directives, the source stream factory will also be used to load these files. The engine provides default implementation for every supported platform that should be sufficient in most cases. Custom implementation can be provided when needed.
      When sampling a texture in a shader, the texture sampler was traditionally specified as separate object that was bound to the pipeline at run time or set as part of the texture object itself. However, in most cases it is known beforehand what kind of sampler will be used in the shader. Next-generation APIs expose new type of sampler called static sampler that can be initialized directly in the pipeline state. Diligent Engine exposes this functionality: when creating a shader, textures can be assigned static samplers. If static sampler is assigned, it will always be used instead of the one initialized in the texture shader resource view. To initialize static samplers, prepare an array of StaticSamplerDesc structures and initialize StaticSamplers and NumStaticSamplers members. Static samplers are more efficient and it is highly recommended to use them whenever possible. On older APIs, static samplers are emulated via generic sampler objects.
      The following is an example of shader initialization:
      ShaderCreationAttribs Attrs; Attrs.Desc.Name = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.FilePath = "MyShaderFile.fx"; Attrs.SearchDirectories = "shaders;shaders\\inc;"; Attrs.EntryPoint = "MyPixelShader"; Attrs.Desc.ShaderType = SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL; Attrs.SourceLanguage = SHADER_SOURCE_LANGUAGE_HLSL; BasicShaderSourceStreamFactory BasicSSSFactory(Attrs.SearchDirectories); Attrs.pShaderSourceStreamFactory = &BasicSSSFactory; ShaderVariableDesc ShaderVars[] = {     {"g_StaticTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC},     {"g_MutableTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE},     {"g_DynamicTexture", SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC} }; Attrs.Desc.VariableDesc = ShaderVars; Attrs.Desc.NumVariables = _countof(ShaderVars); Attrs.Desc.DefaultVariableType = SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC; StaticSamplerDesc StaticSampler; StaticSampler.Desc.MinFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MagFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.Desc.MipFilter = FILTER_TYPE_LINEAR; StaticSampler.TextureName = "g_MutableTexture"; Attrs.Desc.NumStaticSamplers = 1; Attrs.Desc.StaticSamplers = &StaticSampler; ShaderMacroHelper Macros; Macros.AddShaderMacro("USE_SHADOWS", 1); Macros.AddShaderMacro("NUM_SHADOW_SAMPLES", 4); Macros.Finalize(); Attrs.Macros = Macros; RefCntAutoPtr<IShader> pShader; m_pDevice->CreateShader( Attrs, &pShader );
      Creating the Pipeline State Object
      After all required shaders are created, the rest of the fields of the PipelineStateDesc structure provide depth-stencil, rasterizer, and blend state descriptions, the number and format of render targets, input layout format, etc. For instance, rasterizer state can be described as follows:
      PipelineStateDesc PSODesc; RasterizerStateDesc &RasterizerDesc = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.RasterizerDesc; RasterizerDesc.FillMode = FILL_MODE_SOLID; RasterizerDesc.CullMode = CULL_MODE_NONE; RasterizerDesc.FrontCounterClockwise = True; RasterizerDesc.ScissorEnable = True; RasterizerDesc.AntialiasedLineEnable = False; Depth-stencil and blend states are defined in a similar fashion.
      Another important thing that pipeline state object encompasses is the input layout description that defines how inputs to the vertex shader, which is the very first shader stage, should be read from the memory. Input layout may define several vertex streams that contain values of different formats and sizes:
      // Define input layout InputLayoutDesc &Layout = PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.InputLayout; LayoutElement TextLayoutElems[] = {     LayoutElement( 0, 0, 3, VT_FLOAT32, False ),     LayoutElement( 1, 0, 4, VT_UINT8, True ),     LayoutElement( 2, 0, 2, VT_FLOAT32, False ), }; Layout.LayoutElements = TextLayoutElems; Layout.NumElements = _countof( TextLayoutElems ); Finally, pipeline state defines primitive topology type. When all required members are initialized, a pipeline state object can be created by IRenderDevice::CreatePipelineState() method:
      // Define shader and primitive topology PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.PrimitiveTopologyType = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TYPE_TRIANGLE; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pVS = pVertexShader; PSODesc.GraphicsPipeline.pPS = pPixelShader; PSODesc.Name = "My pipeline state"; m_pDev->CreatePipelineState(PSODesc, &m_pPSO); When PSO object is bound to the pipeline, the engine invokes all API-specific commands to set all states specified by the object. In case of Direct3D12 this maps directly to setting the D3D12 PSO object. In case of Direct3D11, this involves setting individual state objects (such as rasterizer and blend states), shaders, input layout etc. In case of OpenGL, this requires a number of fine-grain state tweaking calls. Diligent Engine keeps track of currently bound states and only calls functions to update these states that have actually changed.
      Binding Shader Resources
      Direct3D11 and OpenGL utilize fine-grain resource binding models, where an application binds individual buffers and textures to certain shader or program resource binding slots. Direct3D12 uses a very different approach, where resource descriptors are grouped into tables, and an application can bind all resources in the table at once by setting the table in the command list. Resource binding model in Diligent Engine is designed to leverage this new method. It introduces a new object called shader resource binding that encapsulates all resource bindings required for all shaders in a certain pipeline state. It also introduces the classification of shader variables based on the frequency of expected change that helps the engine group them into tables under the hood:
      Static variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_STATIC) are variables that are expected to be set only once. They may not be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. Such variables are intended to hold global constants such as camera attributes or global light attributes constant buffers. Mutable variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_MUTABLE) define resources that are expected to change on a per-material frequency. Examples may include diffuse textures, normal maps etc. Dynamic variables (SHADER_VARIABLE_TYPE_DYNAMIC) are expected to change frequently and randomly. Shader variable type must be specified during shader creation by populating an array of ShaderVariableDesc structures and initializing ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::VariableDesc and ShaderCreationAttribs::Desc::NumVariables members (see example of shader creation above).
      Static variables cannot be changed once a resource is bound to the variable. They are bound directly to the shader object. For instance, a shadow map texture is not expected to change after it is created, so it can be bound directly to the shader:
      PixelShader->GetShaderVariable( "g_tex2DShadowMap" )->Set( pShadowMapSRV ); Mutable and dynamic variables are bound via a new Shader Resource Binding object (SRB) that is created by the pipeline state (IPipelineState::CreateShaderResourceBinding()):
      m_pPSO->CreateShaderResourceBinding(&m_pSRB); Note that an SRB is only compatible with the pipeline state it was created from. SRB object inherits all static bindings from shaders in the pipeline, but is not allowed to change them.
      Mutable resources can only be set once for every instance of a shader resource binding. Such resources are intended to define specific material properties. For instance, a diffuse texture for a specific material is not expected to change once the material is defined and can be set right after the SRB object has been created:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_PIXEL, "tex2DDiffuse")->Set(pDiffuseTexSRV); In some cases it is necessary to bind a new resource to a variable every time a draw command is invoked. Such variables should be labeled as dynamic, which will allow setting them multiple times through the same SRB object:
      m_pSRB->GetVariable(SHADER_TYPE_VERTEX, "cbRandomAttribs")->Set(pRandomAttrsCB); Under the hood, the engine pre-allocates descriptor tables for static and mutable resources when an SRB objcet is created. Space for dynamic resources is dynamically allocated at run time. Static and mutable resources are thus more efficient and should be used whenever possible.
      As you can see, Diligent Engine does not expose low-level details of how resources are bound to shader variables. One reason for this is that these details are very different for various APIs. The other reason is that using low-level binding methods is extremely error-prone: it is very easy to forget to bind some resource, or bind incorrect resource such as bind a buffer to the variable that is in fact a texture, especially during shader development when everything changes fast. Diligent Engine instead relies on shader reflection system to automatically query the list of all shader variables. Grouping variables based on three types mentioned above allows the engine to create optimized layout and take heavy lifting of matching resources to API-specific resource location, register or descriptor in the table.
      This post gives more details about the resource binding model in Diligent Engine.
      Setting the Pipeline State and Committing Shader Resources
      Before any draw or compute command can be invoked, the pipeline state needs to be bound to the context:
      m_pContext->SetPipelineState(m_pPSO); Under the hood, the engine sets the internal PSO object in the command list or calls all the required native API functions to properly configure all pipeline stages.
      The next step is to bind all required shader resources to the GPU pipeline, which is accomplished by IDeviceContext::CommitShaderResources() method:
      m_pContext->CommitShaderResources(m_pSRB, COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES); The method takes a pointer to the shader resource binding object and makes all resources the object holds available for the shaders. In the case of D3D12, this only requires setting appropriate descriptor tables in the command list. For older APIs, this typically requires setting all resources individually.
      Next-generation APIs require the application to track the state of every resource and explicitly inform the system about all state transitions. For instance, if a texture was used as render target before, while the next draw command is going to use it as shader resource, a transition barrier needs to be executed. Diligent Engine does the heavy lifting of state tracking.  When CommitShaderResources() method is called with COMMIT_SHADER_RESOURCES_FLAG_TRANSITION_RESOURCES flag, the engine commits and transitions resources to correct states at the same time. Note that transitioning resources does introduce some overhead. The engine tracks state of every resource and it will not issue the barrier if the state is already correct. But checking resource state is an overhead that can sometimes be avoided. The engine provides IDeviceContext::TransitionShaderResources() method that only transitions resources:
      m_pContext->TransitionShaderResources(m_pPSO, m_pSRB); In some scenarios it is more efficient to transition resources once and then only commit them.
      Invoking Draw Command
      The final step is to set states that are not part of the PSO, such as render targets, vertex and index buffers. Diligent Engine uses Direct3D11-syle API that is translated to other native API calls under the hood:
      ITextureView *pRTVs[] = {m_pRTV}; m_pContext->SetRenderTargets(_countof( pRTVs ), pRTVs, m_pDSV); // Clear render target and depth buffer const float zero[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0}; m_pContext->ClearRenderTarget(nullptr, zero); m_pContext->ClearDepthStencil(nullptr, CLEAR_DEPTH_FLAG, 1.f); // Set vertex and index buffers IBuffer *buffer[] = {m_pVertexBuffer}; Uint32 offsets[] = {0}; Uint32 strides[] = {sizeof(MyVertex)}; m_pContext->SetVertexBuffers(0, 1, buffer, strides, offsets, SET_VERTEX_BUFFERS_FLAG_RESET); m_pContext->SetIndexBuffer(m_pIndexBuffer, 0); Different native APIs use various set of function to execute draw commands depending on command details (if the command is indexed, instanced or both, what offsets in the source buffers are used etc.). For instance, there are 5 draw commands in Direct3D11 and more than 9 commands in OpenGL with something like glDrawElementsInstancedBaseVertexBaseInstance not uncommon. Diligent Engine hides all details with single IDeviceContext::Draw() method that takes takes DrawAttribs structure as an argument. The structure members define all attributes required to perform the command (primitive topology, number of vertices or indices, if draw call is indexed or not, if draw call is instanced or not, if draw call is indirect or not, etc.). For example:
      DrawAttribs attrs; attrs.IsIndexed = true; attrs.IndexType = VT_UINT16; attrs.NumIndices = 36; attrs.Topology = PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLE_LIST; pContext->Draw(attrs); For compute commands, there is IDeviceContext::DispatchCompute() method that takes DispatchComputeAttribs structure that defines compute grid dimension.
      Source Code
      Full engine source code is available on GitHub and is free to use. The repository contains tutorials, sample applications, asteroids performance benchmark and an example Unity project that uses Diligent Engine in native plugin.
      Atmospheric scattering sample demonstrates how Diligent Engine can be used to implement various rendering tasks: loading textures from files, using complex shaders, rendering to multiple render targets, using compute shaders and unordered access views, etc.

      Asteroids performance benchmark is based on this demo developed by Intel. It renders 50,000 unique textured asteroids and allows comparing performance of Direct3D11 and Direct3D12 implementations. Every asteroid is a combination of one of 1000 unique meshes and one of 10 unique textures.

      Finally, there is an example project that shows how Diligent Engine can be integrated with Unity.

      Future Work
      The engine is under active development. It currently supports Windows desktop, Universal Windows, Linux, Android, MacOS, and iOS platforms. Direct3D11, Direct3D12, OpenGL/GLES backends are now feature complete. Vulkan backend is coming next, and Metal backend is in the plan.
    • By francoisdiy
      So I wrote a programming language called C-Lesh to program games for my game maker Platformisis. It is a scripting language which tiles into the JavaScript game engine via a memory mapper using memory mapped I/O. Currently, I am porting the language as a standalone interpreter to be able to run on the PC and possibly other devices excluding the phone. The interpreter is being written in C++ so for those of you who are C++ fans you can see the different components implemented. Some background of the language and how to program in C-Lesh can be found here:

      http://www.codeloader.net/readme.html
      As I program this thing I will post code from different components and explain.
    • By isu diss
      I'm trying to duplicate vertices using std::map to be used in a vertex buffer. I don't get the correct index buffer(myInds) or vertex buffer(myVerts). I can get the index array from FBX but it differs from what I get in the following std::map code. Any help is much appreciated.
      struct FBXVTX { XMFLOAT3 Position; XMFLOAT2 TextureCoord; XMFLOAT3 Normal; }; std::map< FBXVTX, int > myVertsMap; std::vector<FBXVTX> myVerts; std::vector<int> myInds; HRESULT FBXLoader::Open(HWND hWnd, char* Filename, bool UsePositionOnly) { HRESULT hr = S_OK; if (FBXM) { FBXIOS = FbxIOSettings::Create(FBXM, IOSROOT); FBXM->SetIOSettings(FBXIOS); FBXI = FbxImporter::Create(FBXM, ""); if (!(FBXI->Initialize(Filename, -1, FBXIOS))) { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, (wchar_t*)FBXI->GetStatus().GetErrorString(), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } FBXS = FbxScene::Create(FBXM, "REALMS"); if (!FBXS) { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, TEXT("Failed to create the scene"), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } if (!(FBXI->Import(FBXS))) { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, TEXT("Failed to import fbx file content into the scene"), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } FbxAxisSystem OurAxisSystem = FbxAxisSystem::DirectX; FbxAxisSystem SceneAxisSystem = FBXS->GetGlobalSettings().GetAxisSystem(); if(SceneAxisSystem != OurAxisSystem) { FbxAxisSystem::DirectX.ConvertScene(FBXS); } FbxSystemUnit SceneSystemUnit = FBXS->GetGlobalSettings().GetSystemUnit(); if( SceneSystemUnit.GetScaleFactor() != 1.0 ) { FbxSystemUnit::cm.ConvertScene( FBXS ); } if (FBXI) FBXI->Destroy(); FbxNode* MainNode = FBXS->GetRootNode(); int NumKids = MainNode->GetChildCount(); FbxNode* ChildNode = NULL; for (int i=0; i<NumKids; i++) { ChildNode = MainNode->GetChild(i); FbxNodeAttribute* NodeAttribute = ChildNode->GetNodeAttribute(); if (NodeAttribute->GetAttributeType() == FbxNodeAttribute::eMesh) { FbxMesh* Mesh = ChildNode->GetMesh(); if (UsePositionOnly) { NumVertices = Mesh->GetControlPointsCount();//number of vertices MyV = new XMFLOAT3[NumVertices]; for (DWORD j = 0; j < NumVertices; j++) { FbxVector4 Vertex = Mesh->GetControlPointAt(j);//Gets the control point at the specified index. MyV[j] = XMFLOAT3((float)Vertex.mData[0], (float)Vertex.mData[1], (float)Vertex.mData[2]); } NumIndices = Mesh->GetPolygonVertexCount();//number of indices MyI = (DWORD*)Mesh->GetPolygonVertices();//index array } else { FbxLayerElementArrayTemplate<FbxVector2>* uvVertices = NULL; Mesh->GetTextureUV(&uvVertices); int idx = 0; for (int i = 0; i < Mesh->GetPolygonCount(); i++)//polygon(=mostly triangle) count { for (int j = 0; j < Mesh->GetPolygonSize(i); j++)//retrieves number of vertices in a polygon { FBXVTX myVert; int p_index = 3*i+j; int t_index = Mesh->GetTextureUVIndex(i, j); FbxVector4 Vertex = Mesh->GetControlPointAt(p_index);//Gets the control point at the specified index. myVert.Position = XMFLOAT3((float)Vertex.mData[0], (float)Vertex.mData[1], (float)Vertex.mData[2]); FbxVector4 Normal; Mesh->GetPolygonVertexNormal(i, j, Normal); myVert.Normal = XMFLOAT3((float)Normal.mData[0], (float)Normal.mData[1], (float)Normal.mData[2]); FbxVector2 uv = uvVertices->GetAt(t_index); myVert.TextureCoord = XMFLOAT2((float)uv.mData[0], (float)uv.mData[1]); if ( myVertsMap.find( myVert ) != myVertsMap.end() ) myInds.push_back( myVertsMap[ myVert ]); else { myVertsMap.insert( std::pair<FBXVTX, int> (myVert, idx ) ); myVerts.push_back(myVert); myInds.push_back(idx); idx++; } } } } } } } else { hr = E_FAIL; MessageBox(hWnd, TEXT("Failed to create the FBX Manager"), TEXT("ALM"), MB_OK); } return hr; } bool operator < ( const FBXVTX &lValue, const FBXVTX &rValue) { if (lValue.Position.x != rValue.Position.x) return(lValue.Position.x < rValue.Position.x); if (lValue.Position.y != rValue.Position.y) return(lValue.Position.y < rValue.Position.y); if (lValue.Position.z != rValue.Position.z) return(lValue.Position.z < rValue.Position.z); if (lValue.TextureCoord.x != rValue.TextureCoord.x) return(lValue.TextureCoord.x < rValue.TextureCoord.x); if (lValue.TextureCoord.y != rValue.TextureCoord.y) return(lValue.TextureCoord.y < rValue.TextureCoord.y); if (lValue.Normal.x != rValue.Normal.x) return(lValue.Normal.x < rValue.Normal.x); if (lValue.Normal.y != rValue.Normal.y) return(lValue.Normal.y < rValue.Normal.y); return(lValue.Normal.z < rValue.Normal.z); }  
    • By Karol Plewa
      Hi, 
       
      I am working on a project where I'm trying to use Forward Plus Rendering on point lights. I have a simple reflective scene with many point lights moving around it. I am using effects file (.fx) to keep my shaders in one place. I am having a problem with Compute Shader code. I cannot get it to work properly and calculate the tiles and lighting properly. 
       
      Is there anyone that is wishing to help me set up my compute shader?
      Thank you in advance for any replies and interest!
    • By turanszkij
      Hi, right now building my engine in visual studio involves a shader compiling step to build hlsl 5.0 shaders. I have a separate project which only includes shader sources and the compiler is the visual studio integrated fxc compiler. I like this method because on any PC that has visual studio installed, I can just download the solution from GitHub and everything just builds without additional dependencies and using the latest version of the compiler. I also like it because the shaders are included in the solution explorer and easy to browse, and double-click to open (opening files can be really a pain in the ass in visual studio run in admin mode). Also it's nice that VS displays the build output/errors in the output window.
      But now I have the HLSL 6 compiler and want to build hlsl 6 shaders as well (and as I understand I can also compile vulkan compatible shaders with it later). Any idea how to do this nicely? I want only a single project containing shader sources, like it is now, but build them for different targets. I guess adding different building projects would be the way to go that reference the shader source project? But how would they differentiate from shader type of the sources (eg. pixel shader, compute shader,etc.)? Now the shader building project contains for each shader the shader type, how can other building projects reference that?
      Anyone with some experience in this?
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