# Multiple errors that keep appearing while running my code.

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I have attached my project in a .zip file if you wish to run it for yourself.

I am making a simple 2d top-down game and I am trying to run my code to see if my window creation is working and to see if my timer is also working with it. Every time I run it though I get errors. And when I fix those errors, more come, then the same errors keep appearing. I end up just going round in circles.  Is there anyone who could help with this?

Errors when I build my code:

1>Renderer.cpp
1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2039: 'string': is not a member of 'std'
1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\ucrt\stddef.h(18): note: see declaration of 'std'
1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(15): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'string'
1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.h(9): note: see declaration of 'Game::Rendering'
1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(35): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window'
1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(36): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window'
1>c:\users\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(43): error C2597: illegal reference to non-static member 'Game::Rendering::window'
1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED.
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

Renderer.cpp

#include <GL/glew.h>
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>
#include "Renderer.h"
#include "Timer.h"

#include <iostream>

namespace Game
{
GLFWwindow* window;

/* Initialize the library */

Rendering::Rendering()
{

mClock = new Clock;
}

Rendering::~Rendering()
{
shutdown();
}
bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title)
{
if (!glfwInit()) {
return -1;
}

/* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */
window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL);
if (!window)
{
glfwTerminate();
return -1;
}

/* Make the window's context current */
glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);

glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height);
glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1);

glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);

glfwSwapInterval(1);
glEnable(GL_SMOOTH);
glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glEnable(GL_BLEND);
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL);
glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST);
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);

return true;
}

bool Rendering::render()
{
/* Loop until the user closes the window */
if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window))
return false;
/* Render here */
mClock->reset();

glfwPollEvents();

if (mClock->step())
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

glfwSwapBuffers(window);

mClock->update();
}

return true;
}

void Rendering::shutdown()
{

glfwDestroyWindow(window);
glfwTerminate();
}

GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow()
{
return window;
}

}

Renderer.h

#pragma once

namespace Game
{
class Clock;

class Rendering
{
public:
Rendering();
~Rendering();

bool initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title = "Rendering window");
void shutdown();

bool render();

GLFWwindow* getCurrentWindow();

private:
GLFWwindow * window;
Clock* mClock;

};
}

Timer.cpp

#include <GL/glew.h>
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>
#include <time.h>

#include "Timer.h"

namespace Game
{

Clock::Clock()
: mTicksPerSecond(50),
mSkipTics(1000 / mTicksPerSecond),
mMaxFrameSkip(10),
mLoops(0)
{
mLastTick = tick();
}

Clock::~Clock()
{
}

bool Clock::step()
{
if (tick() > mLastTick && mLoops < mMaxFrameSkip)
return true;

return false;
}

void Clock::reset()
{
mLoops = 0;
}

void Clock::update()
{
mLastTick += mSkipTics;
mLoops++;
}

clock_t Clock::tick()
{
return clock();
}
}

TImer.h

#pragma once

#include "Common.h"

namespace Game
{
class Clock
{
public:
Clock();
~Clock();

void update();
bool step();
void reset();
clock_t tick();

private:
uint mTicksPerSecond;
ufloat mSkipTics;
uint mMaxFrameSkip;
uint mLoops;
uint mLastTick;
};
}

Common.h

#pragma once
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <ctime>
#include <cstring>
#include <cmath>

#include <iostream>

namespace Game
{

typedef unsigned char uchar;
typedef unsigned short ushort;
typedef unsigned int uint;
typedef unsigned long ulong;
typedef float ufloat;

}

Game.zip

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Posted (edited)

You are using std::string in Renderer.h but don't include Common.h (or "cstring")

Edited by satanir

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Posted (edited)

Thank you.

I now have one error left to deal with.. Would this error be because I have no main() function?

Error:

1>Renderer.cpp
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(31): warning C4305: 'return': truncation from 'int' to 'bool'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(40): warning C4305: 'return': truncation from 'int' to 'bool'
1>Timer.cpp
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(15): warning C4244: 'initializing': conversion from 'Game::uint' to 'Game::ufloat', possible loss of data
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(28): warning C4018: '>': signed/unsigned mismatch
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(41): warning C4244: '+=': conversion from 'Game::ufloat' to 'Game::uint', possible loss of data
1>Generating Code...
1>LINK : fatal error LNK1561: entry point must be defined
1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED.
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

Edited by tj8146

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Yes, you need either main() (if this is a console application) or WinMain (if this a windows application)

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Posted (edited)

I am using GLFW and GLEW frameworks.

I have implemented the WinMain function as this is a windows application in Renderer.cpp:

#include <GL/glew.h>
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>
#include "Renderer.h"
#include "Timer.h"
#include "Windows.h"

#include <iostream>
int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPWSTR lpCmdLine, int nShowCmd)
{
namespace Game
{
GLFWwindow* window;

/* Initialize the library */

Rendering::Rendering()
{

mClock = new Clock;
}

Rendering::~Rendering()
{
shutdown();
}
bool Rendering::initialize(uint width, uint height, bool fullscreen, std::string window_title)
{
if (!glfwInit()) {
return -1;
}

/* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */
window = glfwCreateWindow(640, 480, "Hello World", NULL, NULL);
if (!window)
{
glfwTerminate();
return -1;
}

/* Make the window's context current */
glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);

glViewport(0, 0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height);
glOrtho(0, (GLsizei)width, (GLsizei)height, 0, 1, -1);

glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);

glfwSwapInterval(1);
glEnable(GL_SMOOTH);
glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
glEnable(GL_BLEND);
glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL);
glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST);
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);

return true;
}

bool Rendering::render()
{
/* Loop until the user closes the window */
if (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window))
return false;
/* Render here */
mClock->reset();

glfwPollEvents();

if (mClock->step())
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

glfwSwapBuffers(window);

mClock->update();
}

return true;
}

void Rendering::shutdown()
{

glfwDestroyWindow(window);
glfwTerminate();
}

GLFWwindow* Rendering::getCurrentWindow()
{
return window;
}

}
}

I however have multiple errors again as a result:

1>------ Build started: Project: Game, Configuration: Debug Win32 ------
1>Renderer.cpp
1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\shared\minwindef.h(130): warning C4005: 'APIENTRY': macro redefinition
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\dependencies\glfw\include\glfw\glfw3.h(98): note: see previous definition of 'APIENTRY'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(10): error C2731: 'WinMain': function cannot be overloaded
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(9): note: see declaration of 'WinMain'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): error C2870: 'Game': a namespace definition must appear either at file scope or immediately within another namespace definition
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(18): error C2653: 'Rendering': is not a class or namespace name
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(19): error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(19): error C2601: 'Game::Rendering': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(26): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(27): error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(27): error C2601: 'Game::Rendering': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(30): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(30): error C2065: 'uint': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(30): error C2146: syntax error: missing ')' before identifier 'width'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(31): error C2143: syntax error: missing ';' before '{'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(31): error C2447: '{': missing function header (old-style formal list?)
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(67): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(68): error C2601: 'Game::render': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(89): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(90): error C2601: 'Game::shutdown': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(96): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(97): error C2601: 'Game::getCurrentWindow': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'Clock'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(24): warning C4508: 'Game::Rendering': function should return a value; 'void' return type assumed
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(29): warning C4508: 'Game::Rendering': function should return a value; 'void' return type assumed
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(73): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(73): error C2227: left of '->reset' must point to class/struct/union/generic type
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(73): note: type is 'unknown-type'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(77): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(77): error C2227: left of '->step' must point to class/struct/union/generic type
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(77): note: type is 'unknown-type'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(83): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(83): error C2227: left of '->update' must point to class/struct/union/generic type
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(83): note: type is 'unknown-type'
1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED.
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

Edited by tj8146

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1 hour ago, tj8146 said:

I however have multiple errors again as a result:


1>------ Build started: Project: Game, Configuration: Debug Win32 ------
1>Renderer.cpp
1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\shared\minwindef.h(130): warning C4005: 'APIENTRY': macro redefinition
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\dependencies\glfw\include\glfw\glfw3.h(98): note: see previous definition of 'APIENTRY'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(10): error C2731: 'WinMain': function cannot be overloaded
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(9): note: see declaration of 'WinMain'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): error C2870: 'Game': a namespace definition must appear either at file scope or immediately within another namespace definition
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(18): error C2653: 'Rendering': is not a class or namespace name
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(19): error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(19): error C2601: 'Game::Rendering': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(26): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(27): error C4430: missing type specifier - int assumed. Note: C++ does not support default-int
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(27): error C2601: 'Game::Rendering': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(30): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(30): error C2065: 'uint': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(30): error C2146: syntax error: missing ')' before identifier 'width'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(31): error C2143: syntax error: missing ';' before '{'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(31): error C2447: '{': missing function header (old-style formal list?)
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(67): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(68): error C2601: 'Game::render': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(89): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(90): error C2601: 'Game::shutdown': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(96): error C2510: 'Rendering': left of '::' must be a class/struct/union
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(97): error C2601: 'Game::getCurrentWindow': local function definitions are illegal
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(12): note: this line contains a '{' which has not yet been matched
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2061: syntax error: identifier 'Clock'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(24): warning C4508: 'Game::Rendering': function should return a value; 'void' return type assumed
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(29): warning C4508: 'Game::Rendering': function should return a value; 'void' return type assumed
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(73): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(73): error C2227: left of '->reset' must point to class/struct/union/generic type
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(73): note: type is 'unknown-type'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(77): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(77): error C2227: left of '->step' must point to class/struct/union/generic type
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(77): note: type is 'unknown-type'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(83): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(83): error C2227: left of '->update' must point to class/struct/union/generic type
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(83): note: type is 'unknown-type'
1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED.
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

When you're getting these warnings and errors you need to work from the top down. I wont go over the warnings, but your first error is telling you that: error C2731: 'WinMain': function cannot be overloaded

You problem looks like you're using WinMain and trying to have LPWSTR which means 'long pointer to wide string'. If you look up WinMain it doesn't accept this type. WinMain takes a char* for lpCmdLine, you'll need to use wWinMain which takes wchar_t* as LPWSTR (typedef wchar_t* LPWSTR, *PWSTR;)

Based on what I've seen in your other thread and this one, I would strongly suggest picking up a good C++ book before moving forward in Game Programming. You're going to be running into problem after problem if you don't have a solid foundation.

C++ Primer

Accelerated C++

Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++

I wish you the best in your learning.

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I removed namespace after adding the new wWinMain() and those errors went away. However, I now have some more error.

I understand that the top error is due to the fact mClock is undeclared and that the error has come about as a result of me removing namespace from all my .cpp and .h 's.

How would I go about fixing this? Would I use an example given in the link below?

Error:

1>------ Build started: Project: Game, Configuration: Debug Win32 ------
1>Renderer.cpp
1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\shared\minwindef.h(130): warning C4005: 'APIENTRY': macro redefinition
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\dependencies\glfw\include\glfw\glfw3.h(98): note: see previous definition of 'APIENTRY'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2059: syntax error: ';'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(33): warning C4305: 'return': truncation from 'int' to 'bool'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(42): warning C4305: 'return': truncation from 'int' to 'bool'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(101): error C2059: syntax error: '}'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(101): error C2143: syntax error: missing ';' before '}'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(102): error C2143: syntax error: missing ';' before '}'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(102): error C2059: syntax error: '}'
1>Timer.cpp
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(14): warning C4244: 'initializing': conversion from 'uint' to 'ufloat', possible loss of data
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(27): warning C4018: '>': signed/unsigned mismatch
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(40): warning C4244: '+=': conversion from 'ufloat' to 'uint', possible loss of data
1>Generating Code...
1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED.
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

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6 hours ago, tj8146 said:

I removed namespace after adding the new wWinMain() and those errors went away. However, I now have some more error.

I understand that the top error is due to the fact mClock is undeclared and that the error has come about as a result of me removing namespace from all my .cpp and .h 's.

How would I go about fixing this? Would I use an example given in the link below?

Error:


1>------ Build started: Project: Game, Configuration: Debug Win32 ------
1>Renderer.cpp
1>c:\program files (x86)\windows kits\10\include\10.0.16299.0\shared\minwindef.h(130): warning C4005: 'APIENTRY': macro redefinition
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\dependencies\glfw\include\glfw\glfw3.h(98): note: see previous definition of 'APIENTRY'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(23): error C2059: syntax error: ';'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(33): warning C4305: 'return': truncation from 'int' to 'bool'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(42): warning C4305: 'return': truncation from 'int' to 'bool'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(101): error C2059: syntax error: '}'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(101): error C2143: syntax error: missing ';' before '}'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(102): error C2143: syntax error: missing ';' before '}'
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\renderer.cpp(102): error C2059: syntax error: '}'
1>Timer.cpp
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(14): warning C4244: 'initializing': conversion from 'uint' to 'ufloat', possible loss of data
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(27): warning C4018: '>': signed/unsigned mismatch
1>c:\users\jack\documents\opengl\game\game\timer.cpp(40): warning C4244: '+=': conversion from 'ufloat' to 'uint', possible loss of data
1>Generating Code...
1>Done building project "Game.vcxproj" -- FAILED.
========== Build: 0 succeeded, 1 failed, 0 up-to-date, 0 skipped ==========

Your first error: error C2065: 'mClock': undeclared identifier is because you have: mClock = new Clock; This is not how you declare a new class object because mClock has nothing associated with it. Before using any pointers you should have an understanding about new and delete, as well as dynamic memory allocation. You can also look into shared_ptr.

The rest of your errors are self explanatory from the description provided in your compiler log.

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• ### Similar Content

• Hi again,  After some looking around I have decided to base my game directly on Direct X rather than using an existing game engine.  Because of the nature of the stuff I'm doing it just didn't seem to fit very well and I kept running into road blocks.  At this point I have a big blob of code for doing fractal world generation and some collision code,  and I'm trying to put it into some form that resembles a game engine.  Since I've never used one before It's a bit alien to me ..... so can someone direct me to a book, website, article, whatever... that covers this?  I'm mainly looking for stuff that covers C++ library design. I'm not adverse to using 3rd party tools for stuff I can used them for.
• By mmmax3d
Hi everyone,
I would need some assistance from anyone who has a similar experience
or a nice idea!
I have created a skybox (as cube) and now I need to add a floor/ground.
The skybox is created from cubemap and initially it was infinite.
Now it is finite with a specific size. The floor is a quad in the middle
of the skybox, like a horizon.
I have two problems:
When moving the skybox upwards or downwards, I need to
sample from points even above the horizon while sampling
from the botton at the same time.  I am trying to create a seamless blending of the texture
at the points of the horizon, when the quad is connected
to the skybox. However, I get skew effects. Does anybody has done sth similar?
Is there any good practice?
Thanks everyone!
• By mmmax3d
Hi everyone,
I would need some assistance from anyone who has a similar experience
or a nice idea!
I have created a skybox (as cube) and now I need to add a floor/ground.
The skybox is created from cubemap and initially it was infinite.
Now it is finite with a specific size. The floor is a quad in the middle
of the skybox, like a horizon.
I have two problems:
When moving the skybox upwards or downwards, I need to
sample from points even above the horizon while sampling
from the botton at the same time.  I am trying to create a seamless blending of the texture
at the points of the horizon, when the quad is connected
to the skybox. However, I get skew effects. Does anybody has done sth similar?
Is there any good practice?
Thanks everyone!

• I'm trying to implement PBR into my simple OpenGL renderer and trying to use multiple lighting passes, I'm using one pass per light for rendering as follow:
1- First pass = depth
2- Second pass = ambient
3- [3 .. n] for all the lights in the scene.
I'm using the blending function glBlendFunc(GL_ONE, GL_ONE) for passes [3..n], and i'm doing a Gamma Correction at the end of each fragment shader.
But i still have a problem with the output image it just looks noisy specially when i'm using texture maps.
Is there anything wrong with those steps or is there any improvement to this process?
• By chiffre
Introduction:
In general my questions pertain to the differences between floating- and fixed-point data. Additionally I would like to understand when it can be advantageous to prefer fixed-point representation over floating-point representation in the context of vertex data and how the hardware deals with the different data-types. I believe I should be able to reduce the amount of data (bytes) necessary per vertex by choosing the most opportune representations for my vertex attributes. Thanks ahead of time if you, the reader, are considering the effort of reading this and helping me.
I found an old topic that shows this is possible in principal, but I am not sure I understand what the pitfalls are when using fixed-point representation and whether there are any hardware-based performance advantages/disadvantages.
(TLDR at bottom)
The Actual Post:
To my understanding HLSL/D3D11 offers not just the traditional floating point model in half-,single-, and double-precision, but also the fixed-point model in form of signed/unsigned normalized integers in 8-,10-,16-,24-, and 32-bit variants. Both models offer a finite sequence of "grid-points". The obvious difference between the two models is that the fixed-point model offers a constant spacing between values in the normalized range of [0,1] or [-1,1], while the floating point model allows for smaller "deltas" as you get closer to 0, and larger "deltas" the further you are away from 0.
To add some context, let me define a struct as an example:
struct VertexData { float[3] position; //3x32-bits float[2] texCoord; //2x32-bits float[3] normals; //3x32-bits } //Total of 32 bytes Every vertex gets a position, a coordinate on my texture, and a normal to do some light calculations. In this case we have 8x32=256bits per vertex. Since the texture coordinates lie in the interval [0,1] and the normal vector components are in the interval [-1,1] it would seem useful to use normalized representation as suggested in the topic linked at the top of the post. The texture coordinates might as well be represented in a fixed-point model, because it seems most useful to be able to sample the texture in a uniform manner, as the pixels don't get any "denser" as we get closer to 0. In other words the "delta" does not need to become any smaller as the texture coordinates approach (0,0). A similar argument can be made for the normal-vector, as a normal vector should be normalized anyway, and we want as many points as possible on the sphere around (0,0,0) with a radius of 1, and we don't care about precision around the origin. Even if we have large textures such as 4k by 4k (or the maximum allowed by D3D11, 16k by 16k) we only need as many grid-points on one axis, as there are pixels on one axis. An unsigned normalized 14 bit integer would be ideal, but because it is both unsupported and impractical, we will stick to an unsigned normalized 16 bit integer. The same type should take care of the normal vector coordinates, and might even be a bit overkill.
struct VertexData { float[3] position; //3x32-bits uint16_t[2] texCoord; //2x16bits uint16_t[3] normals; //3x16bits } //Total of 22 bytes Seems like a good start, and we might even be able to take it further, but before we pursue that path, here is my first question: can the GPU even work with the data in this format, or is all I have accomplished minimizing CPU-side RAM usage? Does the GPU have to convert the texture coordinates back to a floating-point model when I hand them over to the sampler in my pixel shader? I have looked up the data types for HLSL and I am not sure I even comprehend how to declare the vertex input type in HLSL. Would the following work?
struct VertexInputType { float3 pos; //this one is obvious unorm half2 tex; //half corresponds to a 16-bit float, so I assume this is wrong, but this the only 16-bit type I found on the linked MSDN site snorm half3 normal; //same as above } I assume this is possible somehow, as I have found input element formats such as: DXGI_FORMAT_R16G16B16A16_SNORM and DXGI_FORMAT_R16G16B16A16_UNORM (also available with a different number of components, as well as different component lengths). I might have to avoid 3-component vectors because there is no 3-component 16-bit input element format, but that is the least of my worries. The next question would be: what happens with my normals if I try to do lighting calculations with them in such a normalized-fixed-point format? Is there no issue as long as I take care not to mix floating- and fixed-point data? Or would that work as well? In general this gives rise to the question: how does the GPU handle fixed-point arithmetic? Is it the same as integer-arithmetic, and/or is it faster/slower than floating-point arithmetic?
Assuming that we still have a valid and useful VertexData format, how far could I take this while remaining on the sensible side of what could be called optimization? Theoretically I could use the an input element format such as DXGI_FORMAT_R10G10B10A2_UNORM to pack my normal coordinates into a 10-bit fixed-point format, and my verticies (in object space) might even be representable in a 16-bit unsigned normalized fixed-point format. That way I could end up with something like the following struct:
struct VertexData { uint16_t[3] pos; //3x16bits uint16_t[2] texCoord; //2x16bits uint32_t packedNormals; //10+10+10+2bits } //Total of 14 bytes Could I use a vertex structure like this without too much performance-loss on the GPU-side? If the GPU has to execute some sort of unpacking algorithm in the background I might as well let it be. In the end I have a functioning deferred renderer, but I would like to reduce the memory footprint of the huge amount of vertecies involved in rendering my landscape.
TLDR: I have a lot of vertices that I need to render and I want to reduce the RAM-usage without introducing crazy compression/decompression algorithms to the CPU or GPU. I am hoping to find a solution by involving fixed-point data-types, but I am not exactly sure how how that would work.