# C++ A few questions about some c++ code

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A few questions about some c++ code

So I am starting to get back into c++ after about 12 - 14 years away from it (and even back then, my level of knowledge was maybe a little above beginner) to do some game / SDL programming. I was following a tutorial to get at least a basic starting point for an entity component system and it works however there was some code that I don't quite understand even after looking around little.

First pice of code is:

T* component(new T(std::forward<TArguments>(arguments)...));

This seems to be assigning the component with the results of what is in the parentheses though normally I would expect this:

T* component = new T(std::forward<TArguments>(arguments)...);

Is this just syntax preference or does the compiler do something different with the parentheses (it is weird to me as when I see that, I think it is a function call)?

The second piece of code I think I understand the general idea of what it is doing but some of the specific are escaping me:

template <typename T, typename... TArguments>
T* component = new T(std::forward<TArguments>(arguments)...);


So from my understanding, the first line would basically take this:

entity->addComponent<TransformComponent, int, int, int, int>(x, y, width, height);

and take of the first item in the template and assign the to T and then "group" (not sure the correct term) the rest of the items as a collection of some sort and then the ... on the second line would group the arguments (that would need to match the template group) that were passed in. Then the third line is effectively converting the template / passed in arguments to be called like this:

TransformComponent* component = new TransformComponent(x, y, width, height);

The parts that are a bit confusing to me is first the &&. From what I have read (from stack overflow), that symbol means rvalue reference or reference to an argument that is about to be destroyed. Not quite sure what it means by it about to be destroyed.

The second part, which I think related to using &&, is the std::forward<TArguments>. The explainations that I have found so far as are bit confusing to me.

I will continue to try to find the answer to these confusions but I though maybe someone here might have an explanation that might make more sense to me. I would also consider it quite possible that there is some prerequisite knowledge that I might not have (I mean I think I have a decent understanding of pointers and references) so if there is other stuff I should looking into, that would be great too.

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The first code looks like a copy constructor call (or a 'move' call??), which is not the same as an assignment (operator=()).

The '&&' is the 'move' operation, the data is not copied, as with assignment, it is moved from the old to the new spot. It's needed for std::unique_ptr<>, and replaces the hacky 'auto_ptr' (I think it was called?). There are also a few other useful spots for it.

I have no idea what std::forward<> is doing, but en.cppreference.com should know.

You may want to grab a book about C++, and read it. A lot has changed, and is still being changed. It's like a totally new language.

Anything before c++11 isn't worth reading, but there is also c++14 and c++17, so you may want to find something newer than c++11.

Edited by Alberth

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On 5/15/2018 at 12:43 AM, 3dmodelerguy said:

This seems to be assigning the component with the results of what is in the parentheses though normally I would expect this

It invokes the constructor of T* with the result of the call 'new T([...])'. Given that this is a pointer, the arguments of the constructor for it are either none (the pointer is uninitialized) or simply the address of a variable.

On 5/15/2018 at 12:43 AM, 3dmodelerguy said:

Is this just syntax preference or does the compiler do something different with the parentheses (it is weird to me as when I see that, I think it is a function call)?

No, it makes no difference in this context. Both will invoke the constructor with the matching arguments. That might not be too intuitive, given that it will call the assignment operator when the variable was already declared. Take this example:

class Vector
{
public:
Vector() = default;

Vector(const Vector& inOther)
{
std::cout << "Copying from other vector...";
}

Vector& operator=(const Vector& inOther)
{
std::cout << "Clearing and then copying from the other vector...";
return *this;
}
};

int main()
{
Vector vector;
Vector vector2 = vector;
vector2 = vector;
}

Which will print "Copying from other vector..." and then "Clearing and then copying from other vector...".

On 5/15/2018 at 12:43 AM, 3dmodelerguy said:

new T(std::forward<TArguments>(arguments)...)

This part is more interesting. What it does is it forwards the arguments passed the function from which this is invoked, to T. Now @Alberth mentioned this invokes the copy or move constructor, but that's not necessarily the case. The function will likely look like this:

template<typename T, typename... TArguments>
void CreateComponent(TArguments... inArguments)
{
T* component(new T(std::forward<TArguments>(inArguments)...));
}

This means you can pass an arbitrary amount of template arguments to CreateComponent and these are then forwarded to the constructor of type T. This could mean a copy/move constructor is invoked, if inArguments consists of just one instance of type T or whatever else there are copy/move constructors for, but it can also be any other constructor depending on inArguments.

The '...' in the template<[...], typename...[...]> means it is a parameter pack, which you can unpack by calling '...' on it again. This means the pack of 'TArguments' is expanded (unpacked) into the arguments for this function. Then, for each argument, we unpack the call to std::forward and thus forward each individual argument to it. That means each argument is forwarded from inArguments to the constructor. All std forward does is make sure that if any argument is of some reference type, it will keep being a reference once passed to the constructor of T.

On 5/15/2018 at 12:43 AM, 3dmodelerguy said:


template <typename T, typename... TArguments>
T* component = new T(std::forward<TArguments>(arguments)﻿...);﻿


The && here means it's a universal reference, which is like this whole area of move semantics that makes it more confusing. What it basically means is that if I pass a reference value into this, it will retain its reference. That could either be a right-hand-value, or a left-hand-value. Both would retain their properties. This only applies to template arguments. If arguments weren't of a template type such as TArguments, this would be an rvalue-reference: a reference to a right-hand value (like again for example, the result of a function call) and would be used to distinguish between right-hand values and left-hand-values.

On 5/15/2018 at 12:43 AM, 3dmodelerguy said:

So from my understanding, the first line would basically take this:


entity->addComponent<TransformComponent, int, int, int, int>(x

You can generally omit the template arguments other than TransformComponent. The compiler should be able to infer this for you.

On 5/15/2018 at 12:43 AM, 3dmodelerguy said:

Then the third line is effectively converting the template / passed in arguments to be called like this:﻿


TransformComponent* component = new TransformComponent(x, y, wi﻿dth, height);

﻿

This is indeed what it will end up doing.

I agree on Alberth's advise, there's been quite a bit of change. Welcome to C++11

Edited by AthosVG

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Thanks for provide a really nice detailed explanation, it did help clear up some confusion I had

Would you have any good books that you would recommended (ideally something updated to c++17)? I would ideally like a book that skips that very basic of programming that is common to most language (like variables, control flow, function basics, etc) and really focuses on the unique C++ stuff and more advance C++ topics.

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9 hours ago, 3dmodelerguy said:

Would﻿ you have any good books that you would recommended (ideally something updated to c++17)? I would ideally like a book that skips that very basic of programming﻿ that is common to most language (like variables, control flow, function basics, etc) and really ﻿focuses on the unique C++ stuff and more advance C++ ﻿﻿topics﻿﻿.﻿﻿

Effective C++ by Scott Meyers pretty a must-have in that case. It skips pretty much all the basics and has updated revisions tailored around the newest standards (11, 14 and 17)

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I'm learning openGL, and currently i'm making a simple 2D game engine to test what I've learn so far.  In order to not say to much, i made a video in which i'm showing you the behavior of the rendering.
Video:

What i was expecting to happen, was the player moving around. When i render only the player, he moves as i would expect. When i add a second Sprite object, instead of the Player, this new sprite object is moving and finally if i add a third Sprite object the third one is moving. And the weird think is that i'm transforming the Vertices of the Player so why the transformation is being applied somewhere else?

Take a look at my code:
Sprite Class
(You mostly need to see the Constructor, the Render Method and the Move Method)
#include "Brain.h" #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> #include <vector> struct Sprite::Implementation { //Position. struct pos pos; //Tag. std::string tag; //Texture. Texture *texture; //Model matrix. glm::mat4 model; //Vertex Array Object. VertexArray *vao; //Vertex Buffer Object. VertexBuffer *vbo; //Layout. VertexBufferLayout *layout; //Index Buffer Object. IndexBuffer *ibo; //Shader. Shader *program; //Brains. std::vector<Brain *> brains; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; Sprite::Sprite(std::string image_path, std::string tag, float x, float y) { //Create Pointer To Implementaion. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Set the Position of the Sprite object. m_Impl->pos.x = x; m_Impl->pos.y = y; //Set the tag. m_Impl->tag = tag; //Create The Texture. m_Impl->texture = new Texture(image_path); //Initialize the model Matrix. m_Impl->model = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get the Width and the Height of the Texture. int width = m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); int height = m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); //Create the Verticies. float verticies[] = { //Positions //Texture Coordinates. x, y, 0.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y, 1.0f, 0.0f, x + width, y + height, 1.0f, 1.0f, x, y + height, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Create the Indicies. unsigned int indicies[] = { 0, 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 }; //Create Vertex Array. m_Impl->vao = new VertexArray(); //Create the Vertex Buffer. m_Impl->vbo = new VertexBuffer((void *)verticies, sizeof(verticies)); //Create The Layout. m_Impl->layout = new VertexBufferLayout(); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->layout->PushFloat(2); m_Impl->vao->AddBuffer(m_Impl->vbo, m_Impl->layout); //Create the Index Buffer. m_Impl->ibo = new IndexBuffer(indicies, 6); //Create the new shader. m_Impl->program = new Shader("Shaders/SpriteShader.shader"); } //Render. void Sprite::Render(Window * window) { //Create the projection Matrix based on the current window width and height. glm::mat4 proj = glm::ortho(0.0f, (float)window->GetWidth(), 0.0f, (float)window->GetHeight(), -1.0f, 1.0f); //Set the MVP Uniform. m_Impl->program->setUniformMat4f("u_MVP", proj * m_Impl->model); //Run All The Brains (Scripts) of this game object (sprite). for (unsigned int i = 0; i < m_Impl->brains.size(); i++) { //Get Current Brain. Brain *brain = m_Impl->brains[i]; //Call the start function only once! if (brain->GetStart()) { brain->SetStart(false); brain->Start(); } //Call the update function every frame. brain->Update(); } //Render. window->GetRenderer()->Draw(m_Impl->vao, m_Impl->ibo, m_Impl->texture, m_Impl->program); } void Sprite::Move(float speed, bool left, bool right, bool up, bool down) { if (left) { m_Impl->pos.x -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(-speed, 0, 0)); } if (right) { m_Impl->pos.x += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(speed, 0, 0)); } if (up) { m_Impl->pos.y += speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, speed, 0)); } if (down) { m_Impl->pos.y -= speed; m_Impl->model = glm::translate(m_Impl->model, glm::vec3(0, -speed, 0)); } } void Sprite::AddBrain(Brain * brain) { //Push back the brain object. m_Impl->brains.push_back(brain); } pos *Sprite::GetPos() { return &m_Impl->pos; } std::string Sprite::GetTag() { return m_Impl->tag; } int Sprite::GetWidth() { return m_Impl->texture->GetWidth(); } int Sprite::GetHeight() { return m_Impl->texture->GetHeight(); } Sprite::~Sprite() { delete m_Impl; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Sprite::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete texture; delete vao; delete vbo; delete layout; delete ibo; delete program; }
Renderer Class
#include "Renderer.h" #include "Error.h" Renderer::Renderer() { } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::Draw(VertexArray * vao, IndexBuffer * ibo, Texture *texture, Shader * program) { vao->Bind(); ibo->Bind(); program->Bind(); if (texture != NULL) texture->Bind(); GLCall(glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, ibo->GetCount(), GL_UNSIGNED_INT, NULL)); } void Renderer::Clear(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow *window) { /* Swap front and back buffers */ glfwSwapBuffers(window); /* Poll for and process events */ glfwPollEvents(); }
#shader vertex #version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec4 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord; out vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform mat4 u_MVP; void main() { gl_Position = u_MVP * aPos; t_TexCoord = aTexCoord; } #shader fragment #version 330 core out vec4 aColor; in vec2 t_TexCoord; uniform sampler2D u_Texture; void main() { aColor = texture(u_Texture, t_TexCoord); } Also i'm pretty sure that every time i'm hitting the up, down, left and right arrows on the keyboard, i'm changing the model Matrix of the Player and not the others.

Window Class:
#include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }
Brain Class
#include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
#include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }
Main:
#include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }

I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
Brain.cpp
Error.cpp
IndexBuffer.cpp
Input.cpp
Renderer.cpp
Scene.cpp
Sprite.cpp
Texture.cpp
VertexArray.cpp
VertexBuffer.cpp
VertexBufferLayout.cpp
Window.cpp
Brain.h
Error.h
IndexBuffer.h
Input.h
Renderer.h
Scene.h
SpaceShooterEngine.h
Sprite.h
Texture.h
VertexArray.h
VertexBuffer.h
VertexBufferLayout.h
Window.h