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  2. But this feels like passing the service locator of the service locator pattern around. Though, passing the manager is indeed tide. I was thinking about passing only the required members around which can become numerous. Though, passing the manager can still result in some pointer chain. My largest concern while getting rid off globals and passing them as context arguments, is what about scripting? My script components have an update method which could require mouse, keyboard, display configuration, model and texture creation. In order to use all of that, you'll need to provide lots of arguments (the manager/factory to the very least) as user, or the base script class needs all of that as member variables? My largest concern while getting rid off globals and passing them as context arguments, is what about scripting? My script components have an update method which could require mouse, keyboard, display configuration, model and texture creation. In order to use all of that, you'll need to provide lots of arguments (the manager/factory to the very least) as user, or the base script class needs all of that as member variables?
  3. But one immediate per display/rendering system, right?
  4. How would ImGui even do this?
  5. Something that I haven't seen discussed much yet is how you plan to test all of this. Writing unit or integration tests for components which access singletons is... complicated, verging on infeasible. The last project I worked on that made heavy use of singletons, we had to write hooks into each singleton to allow them to be replaced individually with manually mocked-out subclasses, so that you could test classes that referenced them without having to spin up the complete rendering engine...
  6. 2D what am I doing wrong? (concept art 2d)

    your trying to cheat the system. none of that image came from your imagination. none of that image is you. when you make something there will be a flow to it. concept is in the title. but you concepted nonething in there. do not try to reverse engineer art. it has to come from you. a place within you. this is not an environment. but you should be able to look at this. and see what is going on. without me saying anything
  7. Today
  8. Yeah Google is adding ads sometimes in strange places with their new ad tech launched publicly this week that does auto placement. I think I figured those out so hopefully they stop. The mobile ones are still a bit of a problem. I wish it was as easy as "don't load the ad code", but it's not in this case because of the way the system works between the server, DFP, and Adsense and how these particular ads are triggered. I'm thinking on it..
  9. PC Do YOU play Horror Games; if so WHAT is your favourite and WHY?

    I love horror games. I have to admit that I don't actually play a huge number of them, since I'm usually pretty content to watch videos of other people playing them (plus it makes it easier to analyze what works well and why), but if there's one that really stands out I'll make a point of actually playing it myself, preferably before I know too much about it. I couldn't possibly pick just one, but two of my recent favorites are P.T. and Doki Doki Literature Club. I think the thing that impressed me the most about both of these is how well-executed they are. Neither one of them are fully original -- even Doki Doki Literature Club's best twists have mostly already been done before in some form -- but the fact that they fully commit to what they're doing (albeit in different ways) makes them sets them apart. I'm also a big fan of games that do something completely inexplicable, such that it's uncanny and jarring even within the main game world. Players can prepare themselves for monsters/jumpscares/etc. if they're expecting them, so throwing something that's so weird that the player couldn't possibly have expected it can be even more powerful. P.T. had some especially good examples: listen closely at 3:14. I'm not actually sure that the choice of environment matters at all, as long as it fits the game's story and aesthetic. I do not believe that Doki Doki Literature would have been scarier if it had taken place somewhere else, and there's certainly nothing inherently scary about its actual setting. That said, I do think setting is critically important to a good horror experience, but I think most energy should be dedicated to making the world seem interesting, beautiful, and relevant than to making it "scary." Two of my favorite environments are in Riven and INSIDE (neither of which are strictly horror games), since they help tell the story in a very literal way along with being just incredibly good looking. I actually tend to like the classics, e.g. ghosts, aliens, spiders, skeletons etc. and I think now might be the right time to include some of these again, now that they've largely fallen out of favor and are thus no longer boring/predictable. In real life, definitely, but they sometimes don't work quite as well in a video game since it can be frustrating if they're hard to navigate. I think it's generally best to use a maze as something mostly aesthetic (and not too challenging) rather than a challenging gameplay element in itself. I'm also not really a fan of those procedurally generated environments, since I'd rather have a curated experience that someone put deliberate thought into than a randomized maze that turns out just to be the same five models repeated over and over again. Yes, in fact, I think they might be one of the only gameplay mechanics that are particularly suited to a "pure" horror experience, because they leave you completely unable to defend yourself and at the mercy of whoever designed the puzzles in the first place. Plus, they can completely distract you from, for example, something sneaking up on you if you're too focused on solving some puzzle.
  10. In his second talk at PDGC I, Rupert Meghnot continues to provide more advice for project management best practices in game development. Twitter: https://twitter.com/rupertmeghnot
  11. Disabling online mode?

    Have there been many instances historically, where online required, sp games were made unplayable as a result of servers being shut down?
  12. In lieu of audio, this Q&A is a transcript of the discussion in the conference chat. Frankie: I should start by introducing myself - I've been with the Halo franchise for about 13 years now, starting in the middle of Halo 2 production , prior to that, I was in the game journalism business since 1992. So I'm VERY old. Right now I'm the Creative Director for the Halo Franchise, which involves story and other elements across everything we do, from action figures to FPS and beyond. I'm excited and nervous to be here, and happy to answer any questions or just about any topic, as long as it's tangentially related to Halo and gaming - and my opinions will represent my eprsonal opinions, rather than a Microsoft agenda/philsophy etc Those are organic flavor. i wouldn't want to be sterile in the pursuit of text perfection! Wicked: I always wondered, how do you guys keep consistent with the lore? I imagine at a certain point it becomes so complex its very hard to keep track of what happend to who and where etc Frankie: We just got back from Comic Con is San Diego, where we did a couple of panels - I appeared ona Dark Horse comics panel with some peers from Call of Duty, Bioware, Blizzard and more - and we hosted a panel on Halo Wars 2 Consistency is actually pretty straightforward - we have a bible of course, but we also have a massive digital version of that with links to materials, asssets, audio, everything. the tricky part is when we have to solve for inconsistencies - such as why Multiplayer isn't in canon, or when a character changes because a new actor has taken the role, and so on It IS complex, but we organize things in such a way that researching a vehicle for exaample, to makje a successor, is pretty simple - a few clicks or a search and everything related to that vehicle pops right up we call that tool "the Hub" and we're able to share some of it with external partners as needed Wicked: Any specific tools you use for that or is it all tailor made for the Halo franchise? Frankie: We do use some off the shelf archival systems, and it can be accessed in a browser for external partners, but much of it is built custom for our specific needs. Ske: Sounds a lot like a wiki Vistox: That's what I was thinking Wicked: On the wiki part, how 'complete' is the community halo wiki compared to your hub? Frankie: We also respond pretty quickly to bespoke requests - certainly rthe text is wiki-like, but it's also connected to in-game engine assets, everything from shaders to sound effects Ebear: Is "stuff" stored based on certain properties? For searching reasons... Frankie: Community Halo wiki is similar in scale - but obviously they sometimes have to make their own assumptions and so their accuracy is dictated by how much info we release and of course they don't need to connect to in-game elements and materials - Wicked: I guess a better wording would be, is there many story or info that is just on the shelf and hasnt been used or released, or does new content get written when the need arises? Frankie: Yes, everything is flagged - "UNSC/Weapon/Halo3" for example for easy searching and malleability yes, we have lots of unused story that IS canon and will eventually be exercised Zarokh: What was the worst thing of creating universe of Halo? Ebear: So it's all in a "tree"? Frankie: Of course that stuff is subject to change - game design and production realties drive canon as much as storytelling needs Worst thing is an aspect of the above - so if a boat tech, for example is cut for gameplay reasons, that could have a massive effect on story Ske: Is Master Chief a lizard people? Frankie: so it's sometimes not predictable in the way a script can be we almost NEVER ship precisely what was planned initially in terms of story Master HCief is an augmented human. No reptilian aspects beyond green scaly armor... Zaqueo: Hi Frankie! How do you start sketching a "video game universe"? Or how you should start? Wicked: ^ i wanted to ask something similar. Where do you start making a new IP. Ebear: ^^^ Frankie: In the case of Halo, Zaqueo, it was an evolution of multiple ideas - Halo 1 started life as an RTS - and evolved into a shooter over the months of pre-pro, when Charlie Gougfh (Bungie) was playing with camera perspectives and stuck a camera ona unit. They realzied this might make a more compelling action/FPS So the story started warping to fit the design, fill in blanks and so on Zaqueo: πŸ€” Interesting, and Halo universe is quite big So its always evolving VenVen: Hi, I was wondering if Master Chief's face has ever been intended to be revealed? Ebear: So it was more of a branch off of an existing idea? Frankie: Yes - one other tricky aspect is timelines. We've filled in a lot of the "history" but so many events happen in 2552 in our universe, that it looks really clumpy as a visual calendar Wicked: Good call, Halo CE was a legendary lan game back in the day for me. Can't see it having the same effect as a RTS. But who knows how that would have turned out Zaqueo: But im pretty sure you need to have a vision, and stick to it during all the development Frankie: I think if you've played Myth from Bungie, you'd get an idea for how it could have turned out Zaqueo: Yeah! Right Frankie: Myth was really well regarded back in the day, and it would have beena sci fi take on some of those gameplay sysstems and liekly super fun RTS' were also pretty prevalent - but you can safely assume if it had remained an RTS, Microsoft might not have bought the company to port it to Xbox Wicked: Can't say I've ever heard of it. It Halo would have been a RTS, it wouldnt have become one of the (if not THE) spearhead title for the Xbox platform. Considering RTS is still pretty much a PC genre What was the decision behind bringing Halo back as a RTS? Was that because of how it originally was going to be a rts? Frankie: Herzog Zwei and Dune II on genesis are still among the most beloved RTS ever, and both had a controller with just three buttons and no analog Wicked: I'm afraid that was before my time haha Frankie: with regards to HWars RTS - that was part of it - you can see in the makeup of covenant and human tech, that there's kind of a symmetry in "units" that would work great for an RTS, so the demand was there (Halo Wars 1 was at the time the most successful console RTS ever) It's also, ironically, easier to tell a story around an RTS, since there's less direct embroidery of story into gameplay and vice versa Wicked: What do you think is more interesting to work on ? A story for a FPS or Action game or a story of a RTS? Personally I find I'm always way less involved in a story for a RTS game, given you generally play the ;overseer' Sir Toasty: I hope halo wars 2 can be as enjoyable as the first one Zaqueo: about the topic: *Building and sustaining a video game universe*, ❔ Can you explain the idea of "sustaining" a universe? Is it something related to sequels? Frankie: Well, depends on what you want to achieve - FPS is much more challenging - you want the story to be deeply reflected in the action, and RTS means you can have more singular focus on script without having to tear it to bits when a feature or tech changes Wicked: where a few dead troops here or there dont matter so much. Atleast in most games, Dawn of War always did a good job with giving value to a character, althought thats mostly gameplay value not so much emotional value. Alteast for me. Frankie: Sustaining a Universe is a mix of things - some of it just housekeeping/archiving and so on, but we have a multi-billion dollar extended franchise, with books, TV shows, animation, comics and more, so those things primarily help us build a kind of "history" that we can draw from for the games So we make strategic and tactical story decisions to seed ideas for later, or help or help create more properly realized characters and scenarios for the games to pluck from Zaqueo: I see.. and is the community involved in that process? Frankie: Not directly - "the community" isn't monolithic enough to agree with itself on just about anything, but we do pay careful attention to what the communit likes/dislikes or is curious about the latter drives more decisions than you'd expect Zaqueo: I agree πŸ‘ Scnoobi: Do you have a few sideprojects to keep you learning about new things or do you only work with halo? Ebear: I was going to ask about something similar... To what extent is the community considered/valued as far as what kind of content is released and in what order? Like how big is the role of the community in shaping the game Frankie: and of course we occasionally hire folks from our community - not surprising if you think about how engaged our fans are - that also applies to other disciplines beyond stroy or narrative I try to stay engaged in side projects just as a kind of emotional sorbet, but my primary focus is of course Halo Wicked: Do you think there is still a place for games that are not story driven at all? Or is having good lore and a good story a must in todays industry? Frankie: the community is incredibly valuable to our processes, but by the same token, you can't design by comittee - and communities create amplified voices that may actually run coutner to what's needed/wanted in "real" life I think that plenty of games survive admirably with zero story - Geometry wars and so on scalletavito: Hpw did the Halo team come to a decision to make the titles for Xbox and not pc? Because the series has many fans on pc too. Frankie: players can sometimes fill in story using their imagination - and I think that's one of the things that we've lost in some ways from the early days of consoles when you were playing really aesthetically primitive games in the 80s, you tended to fill in the missing narrative and that use of imagination can be compelling Zaqueo: I agree.. Imagination was everything in that time Frankie: I used to create narratives in my head for the blocky characters, or even make my own sound effects while playing 2600 stuff in particular, since its audio was so liited limited sir_dany12: How do you react to commetns like "Halo 5 story was the worst of all the Halo games" Wicked: I feel like a lot of games (fps games primarily) want to have a story like a movie experience, where the player is basically guided through the story. Frankie: Horor movies, great horror movies, often lean on viewer imagination to ratchet up tension Wicked: CoD, Battlefield and Medal of Honor spring to mind. Frankie: things you imagine are often more terrifying than throwing that thing onto the screen And yeah - movie like experiences DO work well in FPS - especially if your main drive is to kind of learn the ropes and then take those skills into multiplayer - that's a typical pattern in fact Wicked: I agree very much there on the horror. Dead Space was not scary at all to me because the 'monster' is shown the first minute of the game. Zaqueo: How is the __process__? I mean.. when you have an idea, you make the narrative, do you document it? or you have a meeting with other ones and they present other ideas and then they vote? Or maybe you have a board and its a great disaster until you understand the idea πŸ˜„ Frankie: dir_dany12 - that kind of negative ffeedback is something that happens with every release. I was first exposed to it in halo 2 - which changed a lot of Halo 1 stuff and "the community" freaked out Wicked: Do you think this is a trend because it provides that good onboarding experience or do you think it's a mentality or preference shift in modern gamers where they would prefer a more linear singleplayer opposed to a more open singleplayer where the player can make their own choices? Frankie: After that, I relaized the community is always fgoing to freak out - and it's our job to figure out what to take away from that - often it's legitimate criticism, other times there may be something else driving a negative reaction - and there's an art to figuring that out, and what to change/keep/improve from next time scalletavito: Sir, How did the Halo team come to a decision to make the titles for Xbox and not pc? Because the series has many fans on pc too. Frankie: Onboarding is a MASSIVE challenge . Our game is easy to learn, but hard to master - so Campaign mode is an essential tool. And getting folks up to speed in terms of skill is a challenge for every developer. Well, Halo Wars 2 IS coming to PC and you've seen Microsoft move further and further into conmitted game releases for PC the original decisojn with Halo 1 was of course to help drives sales of the console Wicked: Since I've grown up playing video games for countless hours and I am pretty tech savvy too I always have a problem with onboarding for the serious games I make. Things that are obvious for me can be completely new to others. Generally every FPS under the sun has somewhat similar core mechanics (WASD, look ,fire, ADS, crouch etc) Jesse "Chime" Collins: How will the unified Windows and XBox affect how Halo is made? Will this mean more Dual launches for both on future titles, and if so, would the servers sync up well? Wicked: Yet its hard for me to identify what is important to include in onboarding and what is not. Frankie: Right - and you can lose players very quickly - especially in hypercompetitive markets like mobile apps. If you pay $60 for a console game, you're commited to it and you'll learn how to play - if you release a free app that's too difficult, there's no relative commitment and the player can just move on to something else with no friction MrEikono: why was it decided to have the name of the original Halo game be "Halo: Combat Evolved" and not just "Halo" sir_dany12: Yeah, community freaks out abouth most of the things. The community thinks H4 and H5 story heavily relies on comic books and that you should have read them to understand the story. Is this a thing you are trying to improve or it's a "personal" decision? Frankie: For simultaneous releases, it kinda depnds on the genre - HW2 is challenging because we need to make sure that PC owners don't feel it's a nerfe experinece, and console owners find it approachable. We're lucky in that halo Wars 1 established some great console aspects - and Creative Assembly knows PC RTS inside out. Both versions will vary slightly in ways that are suittable for those platforms - actions per minute and so on Halo: Combat Evolved naming was a marketing decision. At the time, there was nertvousness that "Halo" might be meaningless, since it was a new IP, new platform and so on. Marketing anted to hint that the game was an FPS, right in the name easy to look back in retrospect and say "don't be daft" but at the time, it was an unproven title Wicked: On the topic of names, What is the process of selecting a name for a title. Frankie: Haha, THAT'S the worst Wicked: Halo 2-3-4 etc are pretty obvious, but how does one come up with ODST or Halo Wars Frankie: everyone has an opinion about names and logos ODST was obviously a spin off, so that was easier. What gets tricky is when you get to four, five and six and so on Wicked: I imagine there is some legality in play as well. Like not being able to call the game : Call of Halo Frankie: does that make potetnial new players recoil because they feel like they're missing context? If you look at something like Final Fantasy, ti's hard for a newcomer to even parse the numbering meaning Wicked: (Which I realise is a terrible example πŸ˜›) Frankie: is this "ten" is this "X?" Is this a sequel to 10 and so on Wicked: Final Fantasy is particularly confusing I must admit. I've never played the games. Zaqueo: Bioshock 1, 2, and then.. Infinite! woow Wicked: ^Hahaha Frankie: Legal is easy - we do trademark checks and "geops" (Geo Poltical Operations) checks to make sure it's available, not offensive in Portugal, etc etc Chimelites: Bringing up Final Fantasy is a really good comparison to that, when I first started playing those games it was difficult to realize which one I should play first, and then adding numbers on numbers (i.e. XIII-2, etc.) Frankie: when those checks raise flags, we adapt or change or sometimes take the "risk" sir_dany12: Portugal as an example. Good one Frankie πŸ˜‰ Zaqueo: *Sidenote: The universe of Bioshock 1 and 2 are very different than Infinite but they feel like one whole universe <3* Frankie: Agree - Bioshock takes a set of ideas and wraps them in the changing bioshock universes, but you know there will be a consistent evolving quality like The Twilight Zone different stories, universes, but tone and invention are always amazing Wicked: Do you prefer working with a existing universe or would you rather make a new IP Frankie: Both are equally appealing to me - existing universes can be comfortable and fun to evolve and of course new universes are exciting and fresh - Wicked: What do you think are some of the key things aspiring developers should keep in mind while creating a universe and narrative for their new titles? Zaqueo: Question: How you .. "save".. everything about a Universe? the narrative, aspects and pictures of the world, characters, story, timelines.. etc Wicked: ^They have a database (lets say a wiki like thing) that contains everything including game assets and all. Frankie covered that at the beginning of the Q&A Session Zaqueo: Thanks @Wicked ! Botwinder.info: @Wicked received a _thank you_ cookie! Wicked: So when a designer wants to create a new vehicle, lets says a upgrade of a previous vehicle, he can simply pull all the info about the vehicle (lore, models ,sound etc) from that database Frankie: Yep. Precisely. Links to videos of it in action, previous usages, dfiferecnes and so on Wicked: Is each designer responsible to update it with his work or is there somebody in charge of keeping 'the hub' in order/ Frankie: The Hub is organized by the Franchise team - who are also resources for folks (consumer products, TV, games etc) to talk to directly Wicked: That makes a lot of sense considering how wide spread the halo franchise is Zaqueo: That is interesting 😦 So.. Which gives more profit? The universe? Or the games? Wicked: Probably the Universe Frankie: Depends on the items. The games are the largest bulk of both income and expenses. Wicked: Thats my guess atleast] Frankie: But there are some items we make for the love of the thing in consumer products,w here we make no, or tiny profits and other items are actuallly surprisingly profitable Wicked: A friend of mine has one of those huge Halo statues of Master Chief Zaqueo: Im quite curious, cause I havent seen the potential of how a video game universe can be profitable until now Wicked: This one http://images.dealtree.net/store/fullsize/DT_60408_1.jpg Frankie: Well, it's like movies. There are a lot of hugely successful franchises and plenty of "box office" duds sir_dany12: Will 343 ever give an detailed explanation of what happened with MCC? Zaqueo: Interesting, yea.. Wicked: Look at Starwars Best example πŸ˜› Lego's , Games. , movies. lightsabers, comics, action figures you name it Frankie: Star Wars obviously dwarfs us But they can dominate stores at movie launch - Star Wars stuff at McDonalds, Star Wars soda, Star Wars fruit, you name it if there's a demand, someone will fill it Wicked: Yea with the launch of the new movie it was insanity , people dressed up in the street. Restaurants having starwars themed meals on the menu Zaqueo: Right Wicked: So do you have some key points that new developers / designers should keep in mind while creating a new universe or narrative for their game I always have the urge to make the game, then make the story but that is probably a horrible habit Frankie: Keep it simple. Keep it clear. Make it surprising and know how it ends. Wicked: Which I get away with because my games are extremely short and simple. Frankie: You don't have to follow that plan to the bitter end - don't be afraid to change directions if story or features demand it, but you should try to know how it ends. Wicked: Work from the end to the front so to speak? Frankie: Not exactly - think of Lost as an example. They had an amazing premise, cast, setup but it became obvious they didn't know where it was going to end Zaqueo: That is right 😦 Frankie: You see that a lot on TV shows - where success is measured by how long you stay alive Zaqueo: *shame..* Frankie: how many seasons you're renewed for and that can negatively affect story Wicked: That makes sense though since that also literally decides your paycheck But that said, how do you work with that and a hero with a lot of sequels take master-chief Frankie: Alright guys - thanks for joining me. This was fun, byut my hour is (more than) up and I have to get back to the grind. Thanks again to Jesse for inviting me and to Discord for the tech Wicked: Alright, thanks a lot for your time Frankie, It's been a pleasure chatting with you πŸ˜ƒ Jesse "Chime" Collins: Thanks so much, Frank! Jesse "Chime" Collins: We all appreciate your insight!
  13. Rupert Meghnot, CXO of Burnout Game Ventures, discusses project management best practices for game development. Includes supplemental documentation (see link below). Twitter: https://twitter.com/rupertmeghnot Additional documentation for presentation: 03 - Rupert Meghnot - Intro to Project Management for Game Development (Visuals) - 2016-07-25.pdf
  14. Renee Gittins, President of Stumbling Cat, discusses approaches to building and managing a development team. Twitter: https://twitter.com/RikuKat
  15. Jesse Collins kicks off the Power-Up Digital Games Conference: Words of Wisdom with the opening ceremonies.
  16. Disabling online mode?

    Unfortunately, game development is a business, and there most likely isn't any money to be made by re-tooling the game to not require servers. Depending on the game, there may be significant work (and therefore cost) involved in doing so. Based on that, it's not something that's likely to be particularly common.
  17. Disabling online mode?

    I'm primarily asking because someone in a non-dev community, said that buying single-player games with online only is a mistake because if a company decides to shut down their servers, the game will no longer be accessible. The counter to that was that the company could just allow the game to be operated in offline mode. Is it unlikely that a company who decides to shut down its servers for whatever reason would make changes to the game to allow its customers to continue playing the game offline?
  18. Hello. I am developing a civ 6 clone set in space and I have a few issues. I am using Lua for the logic and UI of the game and c++ directx 12 for the graphics. I need a way to send information between Lua and c++ occasionally and was wondering what is the best and most flexible (and hopefully fast) way to do this. Don't forget that I also need to send things from c++ back to Lua. I know of a lua extension called "LuaBridge" on github but it is a little old and I am worried that it will not work with directx 12. Has anybody done something similar and knows a good method of sending data back and forth? I am aware that Lua is used more and more in the industry and surely plenty of AAA game programmers know the answer to this. I want a good solution that will hopefully still be viable code in a couple of years...
  19. Thank you very much. Finally understand how it works,and I will try to make such system myself for fun.
  20. If you ever have something like this it's a sure sign that you're violating the Law of Demeter everywhere. An algorithm that binds shader resources only needs access to an interface for binding resources. In D3D that's the device-context, or in abstract terms you'd generally call it a "command list writer" or some such. In older engines you typically have one command list, but in modern engines you can have lots, so you definately don't want them to be global. The simplest version looks something like: void Widget::Draw( CommandList& ctx ) { ctx.BindPsSampler(slot, m_pointSampler); ctx.DrawIndexed(...); } This code doesn't need to know about the engine, or two layers of "managers", just the one interface that it actually cares about. It also doesn't need to know anything about how this object was "located". It's free of unnecessary dependencies. If it keeps each individual bit of code minimalistic (as in the example above) and free of dependencies, then, no, it's really not. Look how clean and simple that example code is above, and how obvious it's dependencies / side-effects are. I would not think of the device and device-context as being paired. The device is basically a thread-safe memory manager for GPU resources. The context is a command-list writer for use by a single thread, and you can create multiple of them if you wish to have multi-threaded command-list creation. In my engine, most drawing functions are passed a device-context as an argument, and most graphics-initialization functions are passed a device as their argument. Sometimes a drawing function will need to do some resource management, so I allow you to fetch a device pointer from a device-context. What if you want to create a second window?
  21. Saving Player Information

    How depending on the requirements of your game and how many players you are thinking of supporting at a time. @hplus0603 already gave some pretty good choices. I am getting a feeling that this might be your first networked game, and by multiplayer, it really is just you and your friends, not the entire Internet. I'd say just pick one, just for the learning experience. You don't know which method is the best for your game. We can tell you the best solution is probably using SQL tables with replications so you can scale your server horizontally, and query individual fields for analytics purposes. You can also optionally go the Key-Value NoSQL route and save them as JSON. But, this is probably too large of a requirement for your game, and also by yourself to support. Not to mention the monetary cost of such architecture. If I were you, I'd just save them into a human-readable format onto disk (a simple `FileOutputStream`), and read it back when you load the game.
  22. Opinion?

    Hope you don't mind my feedback being an industry bystander. I can see how people with ideas for games dupe themselves into thinking their idea has real potential to earn money. I'm one of them, . But then I'm left wondering what sort of individual is going to be serious about making a game that he or she doesn't have the resources to back sufficiently? I imagine those sort of folk well out number the more realistic bunch who are willing to spend money on their own ideas.
  23. Adapting to legacy windowing APIs is literally the one and only place that I sanction use of globals. However, there's absolutely no reason to make it a singleton - you shouldn't ever need to globally access the input event source.
  24. Game Closure are looking for System Software Engineers and Studio Game Engineers to work on mobile and social titles out of offices in California, Oregon, and Tokyo. Relevant qualifications or experience required. Click through to our Job Board for details.
  25. So, I'm kind of struggling with the use of Singletons as well and trying to find a good solution. As an example, in my engine I'm working on (very early stage right now) I have an Input class that wraps GLFW and provides functions for checking mouse/keyboard buttons. It seemed to make sense that this would be a Singleton, since the GLFW library (I believe) only allows a single callback function (i.e. for the keyboard) per window. However, lots of places online are saying Singletons are the spawn of Satan, so I was looking to eliminate them. I did manage to convert the class to be non-Singleton, but I'm not sure it's any better. Now I have to be sure to only create one Input instance (not so hard, but open to mistakes, especially if someone else uses my code) or else the callbacks will be overwritten. This example is probably not the end of the world, but what about for an event system? My project uses events to pass information around to different classes. The event dispatcher (or manager or whatever) is a Singleton and can be called like this: EventGetWindowSize event; Dispatcher::fire(event); resizeSomething(event.width, event.height); For example when the platform window is resized, a "WindowResized" event fires, which could recrate swapchain resources and other things that are dependent on the window size and objects needing to be resized can query the resolution using the "GetWindowSize" event shown above. I also use this same system to obtain the device pointer, which is used by probably a dozen different classes that interact with the graphics API. While I could pass the device pointer to every class that needs it, there are other events that only happen during run-time and are dynamic. The way I have it, the classes only need to import the header file for the event used to pass struct data back and forth and the Singleton Dispatcher. Neither class needs to "know" anything about the other class, or import their header, they only need access to the event data struct (used for input and output). This is especially helpful to avoid circular dependencies. To remove the Singleton would mean that essentially every class could need to be passed in the main Dispatcher object (likely on construction, since they need it to get access to the rest of the system). I could eliminate some of the events by passing object pointers directly in constructors, but many classes would still need Dispatcher access to function. If the point of the Dispatcher is that it's the central hub, and only one should exist, is it the worst thing to have it be Singleton? It would save a lot of boiler-plate code rather than having to pass a pointer to so many other classes in the system. I'm not yet at the point of multi-threading the engine, nor do I have much experience with unit testing, which seem to be the main reasons for not using Singletons. But I don't want to spawn Satan with my code, so I'm open to suggestions if there is a better way to do this.
  26. What are Groups?

    Groups could potentially have any of the features available elsewhere on the site (forums, blogs, galleries, etc.) associated with them - as @khawk mentioned above, we haven't really nailed down any specifics though. Our Discord Chat isn't currently an integrated part of the site (although we are investigating potential ways to bring them together more), so group chats aren't an "out of the box" feature, but they're certainly something we'll consider if there's demand. Also not yet decided, and will really depend on how we decide to use this feature.
  27. Disabling online mode?

    Always-online requirements are typically pitched as a from of DRM. And if it were easy for you to remove the online requirement, it would be easy for anyone looking to crack the DRM as well. In general, if you want to make the online access requirement something that can't be trivially circumvented by the cracking folks, you have to put essential portions of the game logic on the server (and leave those portions out of the client). And that makes removing the online requirement potentially a fair amount of work.
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