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Hi, is there any available prewritten code that focuses on bringing most common stl features to angelscript? I'm mostly thinking of template containers (list, vector, map, queue, stack, set ...), algorithm, string, possibly iterators. Did anyone do a comprehensive stl register .h/.cpp, is anyone working on it, or i'll be the one to do it? I whish not the last one because i found out about angelscript right now...

Need pathfinding idea feedback
conditi0n replied to pathfinding's topic in General and Gameplay Programming
Are you referring to walkable areas/nonwalkable areas within world space? certainly. you can store every walkable tile as an index in a hash table. or, you can create a navigation mesh out of a collection of tiles and assume they're walkable, then store them all in a hash table (which might be a bit harder to do  a graph might be better for this). my point is that, to render these things, using a 2d camera system, and to calculate collision, and do calculations of the entities that are "upstairs" or "downstairs", and calculate whatever other procedural elements you have in your world. you are not going to want to create several heightlayers to such a large world without custom culling code that has to remove the other layers, when you can simply remove them yourself using a level system. 
Michael Marchesan joined the community
 Today

Hey guys hope you're all doing well New to this group and decided to join due to lack of motivation to work on side projects by myself. I got a comp sci degree, 2 years of coding/game dev experience in Unity and 1 year proffesional experience in mobile dev for both Android and IOS in my current job. I would be glad to work on 2D, preferably small scope projects just so we're more confident we can bring it to a nice finish. Unfortunately, I dont have a formal portfolio but I'm leaving below a) A Unity game I completed by myself from start to finish (worked on game/level design, animations, some graphics, coding, promo, publication) and b) a demo of my uni dissertation where I worked on the mechanics of the game and integration of the vr functionality and motion detection algorithm. a) https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.OneMinuteGames.BallBros&hl=en b) If there are any teams out there looking for help with their 2d games drop me a message. Thanks for reading (and watching) guys, happy devving!

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you have not seen this code in action, there isn't anything like it anywhere ,not even close after you start it up you type c for one dimention and for drawing on the next temple with respect to 0.00 type a z x as needed all drawing done with mouse all code is glut and opengl compatble and was code on visual c ansi style you can create a movable world of stars all in 3D what i wanted to do is create a game where triangler star ships that battle as they mov in a big figure 8 and they shoot as they go, it would take a while to get used to it but code can be added that can handle steering also thx for the tips all my best to ya :> james says peace Y out by the way none of your code runs in any kind of compiler not to mention you don't direct the person to what it was coded on for compiler, see everyone got eyes hehehe hohohoho
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Deal with multithreaded communication between the Main thread and the client thread
Lazy_Evaluation posted a topic in Networking and Multiplayer
Hello guys! I'm programming with a friend a basic 2d videogame with C++ and SFML. We're using a very basic mainthread in the server that updates every entity etc., and one thread per client that handles the communication with tcpsockets. However, when I tried to program a multiplayer game in the past, I encountered a common problem with multithreading: my client thread tried to read a main thread variable (like a coordinate) while it was modifying it/deleting it, resulting in a SIGSEGV. In the past, I've resolved this using a list of game snapshots and atomic variables, every time the main thread updated the game it was pushed in a game_snapshot list, creating a list of "game states", the client had just to take the head of the list, convert and send it, while the main thread deleted all the object behind the 100th node (only if one clientthread was not using it). Is that method correct? We're not currently right now thinking to change the "communication method" (like changing the main thread and one thread per client for something more efficient like async multiplexing), since this is a very basic project done to learn game dev in c++, but the "snapshot method" seems pretty inefficient to me. 100 instances of the same game seems pretty heavy to me. P.s. No, mutex is not a solution. If a client lags and blocks the access to the game, the game freezes for every one. Same if the client has, for example, 1000+ clients, with every thread trying to mute the variables of the main thread. We're obviously never getting to have more han 4 clients, but this project has been created to learn the basics. Thanks you so much! Sorry for any spelling mistake, I'm not really good in English :( 
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Each pipeline step run's in parallel or each pipeline process?
babaliaris replied to babaliaris's topic in For Beginners's Forum
This answer helped me a lot!!! Thanks! 
Each pipeline step run's in parallel or each pipeline process?
DerTroll replied to babaliaris's topic in For Beginners's Forum
Somehow, but most of the substeps can run in parallel and you can also have multiple pipelines being executed at the same time. Imagine rendering a triangle. It consists of 3 vertices. Transforming each of them to screen space in a vertex shader can be done in parallel since they don't depend on each other. After they have been placed, the rasterizer figures out, how many pixels on the screen are affected by the new triangle. This can only be done if all vertex shaders have run. For each pixel, a fragment shader is started, also in parallel. Of course, the fragment shader of the current triangle can only be executed after its vertex shader, but usually, you have more than one triangle to render, so while the fragment shader of your first triangle is executed, there might be some other triangles vertex and fragment shaders, that are also executed at the same time. Yep, they are great. Can't wait until the author finishes ihisVulkan tutorials 
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Each pipeline step run's in parallel or each pipeline process?
Green_Baron replied to babaliaris's topic in For Beginners's Forum
Yes, each single pipeline stage can only work on the data of the previous stage, but there are thousands of pipelines running in parallel. Embarrassing, isn't it ? 🙂 Edit: oh, by the way, those tutorials you linked really helped me a lot. 
Yes, static variables that are never constructed are also never deconstructed  but in that case, the variable doesn't really "exist" (i.e. have a lifetime) at all, so my short statement is still basically correct. The rules for determining which static variables actually get constructed, in which order and at which point in the program, are actually quite complicated with lots of special cases to consider.

Looking pretty sweet in here

Unless you have a very specific reason not to, you should put your PlayerPrefs.Save calls AFTER the SetFloat calls.

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Why am I getting all these edefinition errors when I try to introduce OOP to my game engine?
fleabay replied to Alio's topic in For Beginners's Forum
This is the absolute worst book I have ever read about game dev. Had I not found the thread below, I would have quit programming altogether. (I was just learning) https://cboard.cprogramming.com/cplusplusprogramming/160170sdlimagewantloadbecausefollowingcode.html Start reading from post 10 and pay attention to all posts by Alpo. Thanks Alpo if you ever read this!!! 
OpenGL Each pipeline step run's in parallel or each pipeline process?
babaliaris posted a topic in For Beginners's Forum
Hello! I'm reading these tutorials and in some point it says: I'm confused here. How can each step require the output of the previous step as it's input but they can also run in parallel? I mean, while the vertex shader is running how can the fragment shader for example run at the same time? It must wait until all the previous steps in the pipeline has finished in order to to get the input from the rasterizer and then run. Does he mean that each pipeline process can run in parallel but each process must finish in a linear way step by step? This is the only that make sense to me. Until now I was imagining that each draw call is actually instantiating a new pipeline process and each of these processes can run in parallel. Also I was imagining gl draw calls (like glDrawElements() ) like non blocking calls. So which one is the truth? Thank you 
bkucera joined the community

I want to save the highest time and spend it, but somehow only the time before that is saved and spent. Maybe someone can help me?

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r1ckparker earned a Badge Side Scrolling Arcade Shooter

lawnjelly earned a Badge Side Scrolling Arcade Shooter

A sound but possibly limited puzzle type. I recommend Separating an initial tutorial with explanations from the "actual" challenging levels. The initial impact is that if a snake game is not realtime it must have challenging puzzles; easy levels are "puzzling". Adding enemies to avoid, hunt, or herd into doing something. and interesting items Adding various snake actions with command keys, like laying eggs (which could reduce snake length but create a target for monsters), spitting at or biting other creatures, activating or dropping items. In a significant portion of the puzzles, nontrivially different solutions Nicer graphics, Even Pacman is more detailed. An undo command to reduce boredom, and a redo command to use it without anxiety.

Professional Game Developer Looking To Build Up Team For Cool Game Idea
SanDesign replied to IncredibleMonk's topic in Hobby Project Classifieds
Hi! I am sound designer / foley artist. If you need any audio for the game I am more than happy to help you. You will find my portfolio attatched to the signature. Thanks! 
Why am I getting all these edefinition errors when I try to introduce OOP to my game engine?
Green_Baron replied to Alio's topic in For Beginners's Forum
From a short check, in order to inherit methods, they must be declared virtual in the base class. Also, class Player is declared in GameObject.h as well as in Player.h. Declarations may only occur once. Outline: #pragma once class GameObject { private: ....... protected: virtual void draw(); } class Player : protected GameObject { private: ........ public: virtual void draw() override; } Edit: and i suggest to exchange the compiler switch fpermissive with Wall. Allways good to know where there might be potential problems in the code. 
May 26 2018 3dBook Update Nearly six months have passed since updating this blog; a time spent getting the 3dBookReader code ready for github. https://github.com/3dBookguy/Proj3dBook I'm not sure how well I succeeded. I can say: The code is there and it is much cleaner than it was at the end of last year. It builds and runs in my environment, which is VS 2017 on Windows 10. It also builds and runs on my older laptop VS 2012 on Windows 8. I hope it will do the same for anyone cloning it. See doc\ building.txt. Along with the source code( Win32 C++ ), there are some "books" for it to read. What good is a reader without something to read? Why the quotes around books? Well, the longest title "Rendering the Platonic Solids" is some 30 pages, and the rest are just a few pages. So maybe short essays or some such. However if a picture is worth a thousand words, then perhaps a three dimensional rendering is worth ten thousand. And a thirty page offering is not such a trifle. These 3dBookReader "books" are Unicode files with the .tdr extension. They are lightly formatted so the 3dBookReader can respond to the text, and links in the text, to interact with the reader. What the heck is the 3dBookReader anyway? Good question! A Windows program with a "text" window and an Open GL window. So you can have a book with full 3d graphics. You really need to build it and use it to know. Ex: You could have the text to a game in one window and the game running in the other. Why the quotes around text? This "text" window is really the directWrite  direct2D window. So it has all the features of those two powerful API's. One a typesetting engine and one a 2D graphics API. So developing the 3dBookReader means developing the books it reads and graphics it presents along with it. And yes: It is as much fun as it sounds! You may feel like Magister Ludi Joseph Knecht in Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game". "Rendering the Platonic Solids" doesn't just write about and present code for rendering the solids: It actually renders them in the graphics window step by step  interacting with the text and reader. Interaction:That really is the development emphasis and challenge. As promised: The octahedron and dodecahedron Platonic solids have been added to complete the library on the five Platonic solids. If you can get the 3dBookReader source to compile and run; all the Platonic solids are rendered, step by step, in "Rendering the Platonic Solids". This file is in \doc\platonic.tdr. Or you can just read the file itself; it's a Unicode file, formatted for the 3dBookReader, but readable by a human. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8  2018 Original Post After a break of several years the 3D book project is back on. A few short words now on what this blog is about. I have to deliver my wife to the bus station in a few minutes, then a week alone so may have the time then to explain things. But the 3D book is something I started in 014 and put several years into, then the break, now on again. A win32 app with a text window and an ogl window. I just remembered I had something written on this so here it is I write to see if anyone in this community of game developers, programmers, enthusiasts, may be interested in a project I have been developing[off and on] for several years now. So follows a short description of this project, which I call the 3DBook project. The 3DFormat Reader: A new format of media. Imagine opening a book, the left page is conventional formatted text  on the right page a 3D animation of the subject of the text on the left hand page. The text page with user input from mouse and keyboard, the 3D page with user input from a game pad. An anatomy text for a future surgeon, with the a beating heart in 3D animation. A children's story adventure book with a 3D fantasy world to enter on the right page. ... Currently 3DFormat Reader consists of a C++ Windows program: Two "child" windows in a main window frame. Two windows: a text2D rendering window and a 3Drendering window. The text2D window, as its' name implies, displays text and 2D graphics; it is programmed using Microsoft's DirectWrite text formatting API and Microsoft's Direct2D API for 2D graphics. The 3Drendering window uses the OpenGL API. A 3DEBook page is formatted in one of two possible modes: DW_MODE or GL_MODE. In GL_MODE both windows are shown; the text2D rendering window is on the left and the 3D OpenGL window is on the right. In DW_MODE, only the text2D rendering window is shown, the OpenGL window is hidden (Logically it is still there, it has just been given zero width). The 3DFormat Reader reads text files, which consists of the text of the book, control character for the formatting of text, (bold, underline, ...), display of tables, loading of images(.jpg .png ...), and control of 2D and 3D routines. 3DReader programming is based on a ModelViewController (MVC) architecture. The MVC design is modular: The Controller component handles user input from the operating system , the Model component processes the input, and the View component sends output back to the user on the display. Typical ParentChild windows programs have multiple "call back" window procedures(winProcs): One for the parent window and one for child window. The MVC model, simplifies message routing by using a callback window procedure which receives Windows messages for the main window, the text2D window and the OGL window. A sample MVC program by Song Ho Ahn was used as a template for the 3DEReader. Rushed for time now, so a hasty sign off and thanks for reading.  8  21 18 I spent the last few days working on procedural mesh generation. First looking to find a bit of code to do what I had in mind. Which begs the question: What did I have in mind? I just wanted a cube mesh generator such that... Requirements Input: An integer n = units from origin to cube face. Output: The vertices for a unit cube centered on the origin. 8n² triangles per cube face. 3 times 8n² verts in clockwise winding order (from the outside of the cube) ready for the rendering pipeline. Screenshot of some cubes generated with the procedural cube mesh generator. That was about it for the output requirements. I did not want to hand code even a single vertex and did not want to load a mesh file. I was sure the code was out there somewhere, but was not finding it. So, a bit reluctantly at first, I started coding the mesh generator. I started enjoying creating this thing and stopped searching for the "outtheresomewhere" code; although still curious how others did this. Analysis First question: How do we number the verts? It would be great to conceive of some concise algorithm to put out the cube face verts all in clockwise order for the outside faces of the cube directly. That seemed beyond me so I plodded along step by step. I decided to just use a simple nested loop to generate the cube face verts and number them in the order they were produced. The hope(and the presumption) was: The loop code was in some order, running thru the x y and z coordinates in order, from n to +n, therefore the output would be a recognizable pattern. The simple nested loop vert generator did not let us down: It gave us a recognizable pattern, at least for this face. It turned out (as expected now) that all six faces have similar recognizable patterns. Plotting the first row or two of verts you can easily see how to run the rest of the pattern. Plot of the first(of six) cube faces verts output by the vert generator: Input of n: There are (2n+1)² verts per cube face, or 25 verts for n = 2. This is looking at the x = n face from the outside of the cube. To simplify the math it helps to define s = 2n. Then there are (s + 1)² verts, or 25 for s = 4 s² cells on the face, or 16 for 4 = 2. We are going divide each cell into 2 triangles, so there are 2s² triangles per face, or 32 for s = 4. Second question: What pattern for the triangles? How to number the 2s² = 32 triangles? What we want in the end is a bit of code such that... for triangles T[0] thru T[2s²1] or T[0] thru T[31]( for n = 4), we have T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N). Where f0(N) gives the first vertex of T[N] as a function of N. and f1 and f2 give the second and third verts, all in CW winding order looking into the cube of course. Here the choice is a bit arbitrary, but it would seem to make things easier if we can manage to have the order of triangles follow the order of verts to a degree. Numbering the triangles. And now the problem becomes: Look at the triangle vert list, T0  T8...T31 in the image, and try to discern some pattern leading us to the sought after functions f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) where N is the number of the triangle, 0 thru 2s²1. This really is the holy grail of this whole effort; then we have T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) and that list of verts can be sent directly to the rendering pipeline. Of course we want these functions to work for all six faces and all 12s² triangles to cover the cube. But first let's see if we can just do this one face, 0 thru 2s²1.. Thru a bit of trial and error the 32 triangles(T0  T31) were ordered as shown. Now we have an ordered list of the triangles and the verts from our loop. T0 = 0 5 6 T1 = 6 1 0 T2 = 1 6 7 T3 = 7 2 1 T4 = 2 7 8 T5 = 8 3 2 T6 = 3 8 9 T7 = 9 4 3 T8 = 5 10 11 ... T30 T31. If we can find a pattern in the verts on the right side of this list; we can implement it in an algorithm and the rest is just coding. Pattern recognition: It appears T2 = T0 with 1 added to each component T3 = T1 with 1 added to each component In general T[N+2] = T[N] with 1 added to each component, until we come to T8 at least. Also it is hard to recognize a relation between the even and odd triangles,To see what is happening here it helps to look at an image of the generalized case where n can take on any integer value n > 0. Looking for patterns in this generalized(for any n) vert plot we see... We have defined s = 2n. The 4 corner coordinates(+n,+n) of the x =  n cube face, one at each corner (+n,+n). There are (s+1)² verts/face numbered (0 thru (s+1)² 1). There are 2s² triangles/face numbered (0 thru 2s² 1). They are indicated in red. It's not as bad as it looks iff you break it down. Let's look at the even triangles only and just the 0th vert of these triangles. For any row we see the number of that first vert of the even triangles just increases by one going down the row. We can even try a relation such as T[N].0 = N/2. Here T[N].0 denotes the 0th vert of th Nth triangle. Which works until we have to jump to the next row. Every time we jump a row we T[N+1].0 = T[N].0 + 2 for the first triangle in the higher row. So we need a corrective term to the T[N].0 = N/2 relation that adds 1 every time we jump a row. We can use computer integer division to generate such a term and N/2s is such a term. It only changes value when we jump rows and we get our first function ... f0(N) = N/2 + N/2s. (even triangles) Remember the integer division will discard any remainder from the terms and check this works for the entire cube face, but only for the even triangles. What about the odd triangles? Going back to the triangle vs vert list for the specific case n = 2, s = 4 for the first row; we see for the odd triangles T[N].0 = T[N1].0 + s + 2. And adding this term, s + 2 to the formula for the even triangle 0th vert we get f0[N] for the odd triangles. f0(N) = N/2 + N/2s + s + 2. (odd triangles) Continuing this somewhat tedious analysis for the remaining functions f1(N), f2(N) we eventually have these relations for the x = n cube face triangles. for N = 0 thru N = 2s²  1. defining m = N/2 + N/2s. T[N] = m, m + s + 1, m + s + 2 T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N). (even N) T[N] = m + s + 2, m + 1, m T[N] = f0'(N), f1'(N), f2'(N) (odd N) So it turns out we have two sets of functions for the verts, fn(N) for the even triangles and fn'(N) for the odd. To recap here; we now have formulae for all the T[N] verts as functions of N and the input parameter n: Input: An integer n = units from origin to cube face. But this is only for the first face x = n, we have five more faces to determine. So the question is: Do these formulae work for the other faces? And the answer is no they do not, but going through a similar analysis for the remaining face gives similar T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) for them. There is still the choice of how to number the remaining triangles and verts on the remaining five faces, and the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) will depend on the somewhat arbitrary choice of how we do the numbering. For the particular choice of a numbering scheme I ended up making, it became clear how to determine the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) for the remaining faces. It required making generalized vert plots for the remaining five face similar to the previous image. Then these relation emerged... For face x = n T[N] N(0 thru 2²1) we have the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N), even and odd For face x = n T[N] N(2s² thru 4s²1) add (s+1)² to the x=n face components and reverse the winding order For face y = n T[N] N(4s² thru 6s²1) add 2(s+1)² to the x=n face components and reverse the winding order For face y = n T[N] N(6s² thru 8s²1) add 3(s+1)² to the x=n face components For face z = n T[N] N(8s²0 thru 10s²1) add 4(s+1)² to the x=n face components For face z = n T[N] N(10s²0 thru 12s²1) add 5(s+1)² to the x=n face components and reverse the winding order And these are enough to allow us to write explicit expressions for all 12n² triangles for all 6 faces T[N] and what remains to be done is to implement these expression in code. Which turned out to be a much simpler task than finding the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) and resulted in a surprisingly short bit of code. Implementation I have attempted to make this C++ snippet of code as generic as possible and have removed any devplatform specific #includes and the like. GLM, a C++ mathematics library for graphics developed by Christophe Riccio is used. It is a header only library. https://github.com/gtruc/glm/releases/download/0.9.9.0/glm0.9.9.0.zip That is the only outside dependency. // Procedural cube face verticies generator #include <vector> #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> struct Triangle { glm::vec3 vert[3]; // the three verts of the triangle }; /* std::vector<Triangle> cube_Faces(int n) Input: integer 'n'; the units from origin to cube face. Output: vector<Triangle> glTriangle; container for the 12*(2*n)² triangles covering the 6 cube faces. */ std::vector<Triangle> cube_Faces(int n){ size_t number_of_triangles(12*(2*n )*(2*n)); size_t number_of_face_verts(6*(2*n +1 )*(2*n+1)); std::vector<glm::vec3> face_verts(number_of_face_verts); std::vector<Triangle> glTriangle(number_of_triangles); // Generate the 6*(2n +1 )² face verts  int l(0); for(int i = 0; i < 6; i++){ for(int j = n; j <= n; j++){ for(int k = n; k <= n; k++){ // Below "ifS" strip out all interior cube verts. if( i == 0){ // do yz faces face_verts[l].x = (float)(n); //x face_verts[l].y = (float)j; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 1){ // do yz faces face_verts[l].x = (float)(n); //x face_verts[l].y = (float)j; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 2){ // do zx faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)(n); //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 3){ // do zx faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)(n); //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 4){ // do xy faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)k; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)(n);}//z if( i == 5){ // do xy faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)k; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)(n);}//z l++; } } } // Generate the 12*(2*n)² triangles from the face verts  int s = 2*n; int q = 2*s*s; int a = (s+1)*(s+1); int f(0); int r(0); int h(0); for( int N=0; N < number_of_triangles; ){ // triangles already in CW winding if( N < q  N < 5*q && N > 3*q  1 ){ // do the even indicies f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (Nf)/2 + (Nf)/(2*s) + r; glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[s + 1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (Nf)/2 + (Nf)/(2*s) + r; // do the odd indicies glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[ 1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (Nf)/2 + (Nf)/(2*s) + r; } // triangles needing reverse order for CW winding if( N > 5*q  1  N < 3*q && N > q  1 ){ // do the even indicies glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[s + 1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (Nf)/2 + (Nf)/(2*s) + r; // do the odd indicies glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (Nf)/2 + (Nf)/(2*s) + r; } } // Normalize the cube to side = 1  for(int i = 0; i < number_of_triangles; i++){ glTriangle[i].vert[0].x = glTriangle[i].vert[0].x/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[0].y = glTriangle[i].vert[0].y/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[0].z = glTriangle[i].vert[0].z/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[1].x = glTriangle[i].vert[1].x/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[1].y = glTriangle[i].vert[1].y/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[1].z = glTriangle[i].vert[1].z/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[2].x = glTriangle[i].vert[2].x/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[2].y = glTriangle[i].vert[2].y/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[2].z = glTriangle[i].vert[2].z/(2.0*(float)n); }; return glTriangle; } The rendering was done using OpenGl. // OGL render call to the cube mesh generator  PSUEDOCODE int n(2); int cube_triangle_Count = (12*(2*n)*(2*n)); std::vector<Triangle> cube_Triangles(cube_triangle_Count); cube_Triangles = cube_Faces(n); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, uiVBO[0]); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, cube_Triangles.size()*sizeof(Triangle), &cube_Triangles[0], GL_STATIC_DRAW); glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 3*sizeof(float), 0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); glDrawArray(GL_TRIANGLES,0,3*cube_triangle_Count); This just gets the position attribute of the cube face triangle verts; for the color and other attributes there are a couple of options: Use separate GL_ARRAY_BUFFERS for the color and other attributes. Or add attributes to the Triangle struct... struct Triangle { glm::vec3 vert[3]; // the three verts of the triangle attribute1; attribute2; ... }; Screenshot of the spherified cube. What's next? Now that we have the cube mesh what we can do with with it practically unlimited. The first thing I did was turn it into a sphere. Playing with tesselating the cube or sphere or stellating it with different patterns; might do. Ended up trying a few matrix transformations on the cube mesh. These are shown in the image below. These shapes are result short bits of code like the code for the column shape below. //Column for(int i = 0; i < number_of_triangles; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ if( glTriangle[i].vert[j].y < 0.5f && glTriangle[i].vert[j].y > 0.5f ){ float length_of_v = sqrt((glTriangle[i].vert[j].x * glTriangle[i].vert[j].x) + (glTriangle[i].vert[j].z * glTriangle[i].vert[j].z)); glTriangle[i].vert[j].x = 0.5f*glTriangle[i].vert[j].x/length_of_v; glTriangle[i].vert[j].z = 0.5f*glTriangle[i].vert[j].z/length_of_v; } } } Doing this; the blacksmith at his forge analogy soon presents. The mesh is the ingot, hammer matrices stretch, round and bend it against the fixed geometry of the anvil  coordinate system. I am the smith. Tetrahedron The tetrahedron is the platonic solid with the least number of faces(4), edges(6), and verts(4). In antiquity it was associated with the element of fire due to its' sharp vertices. The algorithm for the tetrahedron mesh was developed in a similar way to the cube, but here it seemed simpler to get a routine for just one face  an equilateral triangle  and use matrix translations and rotations to form the complete tetrahedron. So more like origami or tinsmithing than blacksmithing. Procedural tetrahedron screenshot. The n = 4 and the general case To get an routine for the general case, n an integer > 0, a bit of what I think is known as mathematical induction was used. PSUEDOCODE Algorithm to generate equilateral triangle face with unit side composed of n² "subtriangle" in the xy plane. std::vector<Triangle> equilateral(int n){ std::vector<Triangle> tri_Angle(n²); // Create the seed triangle in xy plane . // This is triangle "0" in the image above. // This is in the xy(z=0) plane so all the // tri_Angle.vert[0 thrue n 1 ].z = 0. // We just work with the x and y verts. tri_Angle[all].vert[all].z = 0; // The seed triangle tri_Angle[0].vert[0].x = 0; tri_Angle[0].vert[0].y = 0; tri_Angle[0].vert[1].x = 1/2n; tri_Angle[0].vert[1].y = sin(π/3)/n; tri_Angle[0].vert[2].x = 1/n; tri_Angle[0].vert[2].y = 0; // Build the equilateral triangle face. int count(0); for(int row = 0; row < n; row++){ count = 0; Spin = glmRotateMatrix( π/3, zaxis ); // The magic happens here! for(int i = 2*n*row  row*row; i < 2*n*row  row*row + 2*n  2*row  1; i++) { if (count % 2 == 0 ) // Triangle is even in the row  just translate { // more magic. x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tri_Angle[i].vert[0] = x_Lat* tri_Angle[0].vert[0]; tri_Angle[i].vert[1] = x_Lat* tri_Angle[0].vert[1]; } else // Triangle is odd in the row  rotate then translate { //and more magic. x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row + 1)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tri_Angle[i].vert[0] = x_Lat*Spin*tri_Angle[0].vert[0]; tri_Angle[i].vert[1] = x_Lat*Spin*tri_Angle[0].vert[1]; } } count++; } return tri_Angle; } This is the psuedocode version of the routine which generates the verts for the n² triangles in a face. Getting this algorithm was a bit of a brain drain but looking for patterns in the image of the face allowed it to happen. We use a "seed" triangle, which is triangle 0 on the lower left of the figure. The verts of this one triangle are input; the rest of the n² triangles verts are generated by translating and rotating this seed triangle. Notice: There are n rows, every row has 2 less triangles than the row below. If we number the triangles from 0 to 2n  2*row  2, where the rows run 0 to n; the even triangles just need to be translated ... in the x direction by (count + row)/2n where count = their position in the row 0 to 2n  2*row  2. in the y direction by row*height. height = height of seed triangle. The odd triangles need to be rotated pi/3 = 60 degrees around the z axis then translated ... in the x direction by (count + row + 1)/2n where count = their position in the row 0 to 2n  2*row  2. in the y direction by row*height. height = height of seed triangle. Now we have a single face for the tetrahedron, to join the four faces together we need the angle between the faces called the dihedral angle. Dihedral Angle Each of the five platonic solids has a characteristic called the dihedral angle. This is the angle between the faces. For the cube it is 90 degrees or pi/2 radians. For the tetrahedron it is 70.528779° = arccos(1/3) = atan(2*sqrt(2)); The tetrahedron, with just four faces, is the simplest of the platonic solids. The simplest way I can think of to build it: Start with the four face stacked one on another, edges aligned. Imagine the top three faces each hinged to the bottom face along one edge. Then rotate each face around then hinged edge by arccos(1/3), the dihedral angle. That is the method of the bit of code shown below. vector<Triangle> tetrahedron(int N){ std::vector<Triangle> tetra(4n²); tetra[all].vert[all].z = 0; // The seed triangle tetra[0].vert[0].x = 0; tetra[0].vert[0].y = 0; tetra[0].vert[1].x = 1/2n; tetra[0].vert[1].y = sin(π/3)/n; tetra[0].vert[2].x = 1/n; tetra[0].vert[2].y = 0; //  The first face  // generate the first equilateral triangle face with unit side // composed of n² "subtriangle" in the xy(z=0) plane. int count(0); for(int row = 0; row < n; row++) { count = 0; Spin = glmRotateMatrix( π/3, zaxis ); for(int i = 2*n*row  row*row; i < 2*n*row  row*row + 2*n  2*row  1; i++) { if (count % 2 == 0 ) // Triangle is even in the row  just translate { x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tetra[i].vert[0] = x_Lat* tetra[0].vert[0]; tetra[i].vert[1] = x_Lat* tetra[0].vert[1]; } else // Triangle is odd in the row  rotate then translate { x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row + 1)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tetra[i].vert[0] = x_Lat*Spin*tetra[0].vert[0]; tetra[i].vert[1] = x_Lat*Spin*tetra[0].vert[1]; } } count++; } //  The second face  // generate the second equilateral face from the first // by rotating around the X axis by the dihedral angle. float tetra_Dihedral = atan(2*sqrt(2)); Spin = glmRotateMatrix( tetra_Dihedral, xaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[n² + i].vert[j] = Spin*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } //The rotation gives CCW verts so need need to make them CW again for(int i = n²; i < 2n²; i++) { swap(tetra[i].vert[0]  with  tetra[i].vert[2]; } //  The third face  // For the second face we rotated the first triangle around its' // base on the X  axis. For the third face we rotate the first // triangle around its' edge along the vector ( 0.5, 0.866025, 0.0 ). Spin = glmRotateMatrix( tetra_Dihedral ,glm::vec3(0.5f,0.866025f,0.0f)); for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[2n² + i].vert[j] = Spin*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } //need to make it CW again for(int i = 2n²; i < 3n²; i++) { swap(tetra[i].vert[0]  with  tetra[i].vert[2]; } //  The forth face  // For the forth face we first translate the original face along the // X axis so it right edge vector (0.5f, 0.866025f, 0.0f) passes thru the origin. // Then we rotate the first triangle around the that vector by the dihedral angle. x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f)); Spin = glmRotateMatrix( tetra_Dihedral, glm::vec3(0.5f,0.866025f,0.0f)); for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[3n² + i].vert[j] = Spin*x_Lat*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } //need to make it CW again for(int i = 3n²; i < 4n²; i++) { swap(tetra[i].vert[0]  with  tetra[i].vert[2]; } // We now have the complete tetrahedron, tetra(4n²), but its' base // is not horizontal so let's make is so. // put the base in the xz plane // rotate 90  dihedral angle around X axis. Spin = glm::rotate( tetra_Dihedral  half_PI, xaxis); for(int i = 0; i < 4n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[i].vert[j] = Spin*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } // We now have the complete tetrahedron, tetra(4n²), sitting with its' // base on the xz(y=0) plane, let's put its' center at the origin. // For this we need another Platonic Solid attribute: The radius of // the tetrahedrons circumscribed sphere which is sqrt(3/8). So the // center of the tet is this vertical distance down from its' apex. // To put the center at the origin we need to translate down this // distance along the Y axis. We need also to xlat along the Z axis // by 1/2(sqrt(3)) = 0.28867; the distance from the center of a face // to the center of a side. // Finally we need to center along the X axis( xlat .5) x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(0.5f, sqrt(3/8), sqrt(3)/2); for(int i = 0; i < 4n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } return tetra; } Notes: Oops: Left out std::vector<Triangle> tri_Angles(4*n*n); Should be the first line of the function body! Corrections to the corrections: First line of function definition vector<Triangle> tetrahedron(int N){ should be vector<Triangle> tetrahedron(int n){ Those last two for loops could and probably should be combined to do a translate*rotate*triangle in one statement, but I have not tried it. All distances are for a tetrahedron with unit side. The sign of the dihedral angle in the rotations was usually determined by trial and error. I.e.; I tried one sign, compiled the code and rendered the tet. If it was wrong I just reversed the sign. The end result is a tetrahedron with its' center at the origin, its' base in the xz plane, and one edge parallel to the X axis. Of the five platonic solids; three (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron) are composed of equilateral triangle faces. One of square faces (cube). And one of pentagon faces (dodecahedron). Two tetrahedrons fit nicely in a cube. 111618: Corrections to code blocks for equilateral triangle and tetrahedron. 111818: More corrections. Icosahedron Two faces = Icosahedron Petal Five petals in this flower = 10 faces = half of the icosahedron 12518 Understanding the icosahedron's 3d form via 2d images is difficult; we need to make a small, palm sized, 3d model. It takes nineteen paper triangles and some tape. The vertices of five equilateral triangles must come together at each vertex of the icosahedron. The icosahedron has 20 faces and 12 verts, but leaving one face off the model allows us to look in side. Besides; when where done we'll have a neat little icosahedron basket. You don't really need to make a model to code the icosahedron; but it helped me to see some properties which simplified its' construction. Symmetries are important to the mathematician and perhaps even more so to the physicist. They say something has a certain symmetry if you perform a certain operation on it and the world remains unchanged. Unchanged in the sense that you can not even detect something has been done to it. Example: Rotate a square 90 degrees around its center in the plane; the square has that type of rotational symmetry. The square also has an inversion symmetry; if you take every point on the square and invert it through the origin you end up with the same square you started with. Inversion is simply negating all the coordinates. The center must be at the origin of course. This is true for the cube, but not for the tetrahedron. Symmetries simplify the construction (coding) of an object. Going back to the cube; it might have been easier to do three faces and then just invert them thru the origin to get the other three. For the tetrahedron simple inversion is not a symmetry, but I am pretty sure inversion together with a rotation is. If so; we could do two faces and then perform an inversion  rotation on them in one step. And inversion in Cartesian coordinates just means to negate all the verts  easy! Toying with our icosahedron model; holding it gently with our thumb on one vertex and our middle finger on the opposite vertex, lazily twirling it around an imaginary axis through those two vertices; we are struck with a thought: We are toying with our icosahedron model twirling it around an axis through  Eureka!  two opposite vertices: The icosahedron has inversion symmetry. This is great  our work has just been cut in half. We can code half of the icosahedron's verts and just invert(negate) to get the rest. Thank you inversion symmetry. But let's not stop now, we are on a roll (no pun intended); let's see if we can find more symmetries to make our work easier. Looking intently; holding our model as before, but still, not rotating. Then slowly rotating about the axis we see another symmetry. After one fifth of a revolution(2π/5 radians) the universe looks the same as when we started rotating it. The icosahedron has a 2π/5 rotational symmetry. Can we use this to cut our work load? You bet we can. First we need to clear up a few points about something central to our construction efforts: The axis of symmetry. (Sorry, the puns just keep coming.) An axis of symmetry is a line passing thru two opposite vertices and the center of the icosahedron. The icosahedron has six of them: We only need one. We will use the Z axis. Dihedral angle: To be precise, it is the angle between the normals of two adjacent faces. The images: Looking at the images we see a flower shape with five "petals". A petals is just two faces joined along a side. The angle between the two petal faces is the icosa's dihedral angle; arccos( √5/3) radians. Five petals make a "flower" , which is ten faces, so it is half of the icosahedron. Once we have five petals joined to make this flower, we just copy/invert all its' verts to get the other half: We have our icosahedron. The Plan: Refer to the figures 1.) Make a petal. 2.) Attach one tip of the petal the axis of symmetry. (Oriented properly of course.) 3.) Copy/rotate the petal around the axis of symmetry by 2π/5 radians four times to get five petals = a flower. We are using the 2π/5 radians rotational symmetry here. 4.) Copy/invert( r > r ) our fivepetaltenface flower to get our 20 face icosahedron. Using inversion symmetry here. So just four steps; sounds simple enough. Each step has its own steps of course, but they are mostly intuitive common sense things we must do to get the result. Constants: Before we get to the code we need four constants. 1.) The dihedral angle between two faces, the dihedral_angle. dihedral_angle. = arccos( √5/3) = 46.06322 radians = 138.18969°. 2.) The angle between the Z axis and the normal of a face of a petal at the vertex. 0.652351 radians 3.) The radius of a circumscribed sphere(A sphere that touches all 12 verts). In other words the distance from the icosahedron center to a vertex. Also called the circumradius. R = sin(2π/5). 4.) The rotational symmetry: 2π/5 radians Let's not do a blow by blow, or should say, a bend by bend, description of the code. If a picture is worth a thousand words, it seems safe to assume an animated 3D image is worth even more. I suggest we compile the code and render to the display step by step. In fact this is how the code was developed; with a projection matrix and a rotation around the Z axis. Compile  Render the first face: F0. " " the first petal: P0 from F0 and F1. " " the second petal P1. " " the third petal P2. " " the fourth petal P3. " " the fifth petal P4. We now have the flower. Compile  Render the inversion of the flower. Done. The icosahedron pseudocode. struct Triangle { glm::vec3 vert[3]; // the three verts of the triangle }; //PSUEDOCODE ICOSAHEDRON /* input: integer n  number of triangles along icosahedron edge. output: std::vector<Triangle> icosahedron  mesh with 20n² triangles. */ std::vector<Triangle> icosahedron( int n ){ const float dihedral_Angle = acos((sqrt(5.0f)/3.0f)); const float dihedral_Comp = π  dihedral_Angle; std::vector<Triangle> T_icosahedron(20n²); // Create the seed triangle T. Triangle T; T.vert[0].x = 0; T.vert[0].y = 0; T.vert[0].z = 0; T.vert[1].x = 1/2n; T.vert[1].y = sin(π/3); T.vert[1].z = 0; T.vert[2].x = 1/n; T.vert[2].y = 0; T.vert[2].z = 0; //  F0  // Create the first face; "F0" in the xy(z=0) plane // from the seed triangle T. int count(0); for(int row = 0; row < n; row++){ count = 0; for(int i = 2*n*row  row*row; i < 2*n*row  row*row + 2*n  2*row  1; i++){ if (count % 2 == 0 ){ // Triangle is even in the row  just translate . x_Lat = glm::translate(count+row)/2n, row*sin(π/3), 0); for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*T.vert[j]; } } else{ // Triangle is odd in the row  rotate then translate. x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3((count+1+row)/2n, row*sin(π/3), 0)); Spin = glm::rotate( π/3, zaxis ); for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*Spin*T.vert[j]; } } count++; } } // At this point comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render F0 to the display. //  P0  // Create the first petal "P0" in the xy(z=0) plane. glm::vec3 axis(0.5f, sin(π/3), 0.0f); Spin = glm::rotate( π/3, zaxis ); //just rotate Spin2 = glm::rotate( dihedral_Comp, axis ); for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[n² + i].vert[i] = Spin2*Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // xlate P0 by 1.0 along x and bend down by epsilon from the xy plane // epsilon is the angle we want between the Z axis and the normal of F0. // epsilon = 0.6523581f; x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f)); Spin2 = glm::rotate( glm::mat4(1.0), π/3, zaxis ); Spin = glm::rotate( glm::mat4(1.0), epsilon, xaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = Spin*Spin2**x_Lat*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // At this point comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render P0 to the display. // Create P1 from the P0 verts, rotate 2π/5 around z then Spin = glm::rotate( 2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+2n²].vert[j] = Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // At this point comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render P0  P1 to the display. // Create P2 thru P4 from P0 verts: rotate around z: // 2*2π/5 for P2, 3*2π/5 for P3 and finally 4*2π/5 for P4 // P2 Spin = glm::rotate( 2*2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+4n²].vert[j] = Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // P3 Spin = glm::rotate( 3*2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+6n²].vert[j] = tSpin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // P4 Spin = glm::rotate( 4*2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+8n²].vert[j] = Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // At this point we should have the full flower. // Comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render P0 thru P4 to the display. // Move everthing up along z to put the icosahedron center at the origin. // radius of circumscribed sphere = sin(2π/5), for face side = 1. x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(0, 0, sin(2π/5)); for(int i = 0; i < 10n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // invert all the verts and reverse for cw winding // this creates the other half of the icosahedron from the first 10 triangles for(int i = 0; i < 10n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ // invert T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[j].x = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x; T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[j].y = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y; T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[j].z = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z; } // Swap verts 0 and 2 to get back to CW winding. hold = T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[0];// reverse T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[0] = T_icosahedron[i+10*n²].vert[2]; T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[2] = hold; } return T_icosahedron; // Spherify  uncomment the code below to spherify the icosahedron /* for(int i = 0; i < 20n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ float length_of_v = sqrt( (T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x * T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x) + (T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y * T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y) + (T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z * T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z)); T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x/length_of_v; T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y/length_of_v; T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z/length_of_v; } } */ return T_icosahedron; } Screenshots: First petal P0 and five petal icosahedron flower. 19 December 2018 There are just two Platonic solids left to render; the octahedron and the dodecahedron. It is obvious, even from a two dimensional image, that the octahedron has an axis of symmetry and is both inversion symmetric and rotation symmetric about that axis. I needed another three dimension model to realize the same is true for the dodecahedron. We can adapt the icosahedron algorithm to model both of these solids: Create a petal octahedron  2 triangles dodecahedron  2 pentagons Create a flower Copy/rotate around the axis octahedron  4 petals  π/2 radians dodecahedron  3 petals  2π/3 radians Copy/invert the flower Notice: Dodecahedron only! The way forward is clear  we adapt our icosahedron procedure. We make our petals. We use the same 4 constants; dihedral angle, rotational symmetry angle, angle between petal face and axis, circumscribed sphere radius (different values of course). We iterate our petal copyrotations, 4times for the octahedron, 3times for the dodecahedron. We are done with the octahedron at this point. Four petals around its axis forms the complete closed solid; more an unopened flower bud than a flower. We invert the dodecahedron. We put the centers of the solids at the origin. That is the work plan in a nutshell. Implementing the code will now be routine  the only new thing is working with pentagon faces for the dodecahedron. These pentagon faces will be composites of five triangle faces. We already have an algorithm for the triangle faces so just need to create a routine to join five together to make the pentagon.

Hi I tried to introduce some inheritance to my game engine from the book SDL Game Development but I am getting a lot of errors. I am a real noob at c++ so I would appreciate a bit of detail about each error and what I can do to fix it, as far as I can tell the code is exactly the same as in the book on chapter 3 “Working with game objects” Please tell me what I am doing wrong to produce these errors and how I can fix them. Thanks. g++ main.cpp fpermissive lSDL2 lSDL2_image In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h: In member function ‘void Player::draw()’: GameObject.h:30:18: error: no matching function for call to ‘Player::draw()’ GameObject::draw() ^ GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate: void GameObject::draw(SDL_Renderer*) void draw(SDL_Renderer* pRenderer); ^~~~ GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate expects 1 argument, 0 provided In file included from main.cpp:8:0: Player.h: At global scope: Player.h:4:7: error: redefinition of ‘class Player’ class Player : public GameObject ^~~~~~ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:25:7: note: previous definition of ‘class Player’ class Player : public GameObject ^~~~~~ In file included from main.cpp:11:0: Game.cpp: In member function ‘void Game::render()’: Game.cpp:84:11: error: no matching function for call to ‘GameObject::draw()’ m_go.draw(); ^ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate: void GameObject::draw(SDL_Renderer*) void draw(SDL_Renderer* pRenderer); ^~~~ GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate expects 1 argument, 0 provided In file included from main.cpp:11:0: Game.cpp:86:26: error: no matching function for call to ‘Player::draw(SDL_Renderer*&)’ m_player.draw(m_pRenderer); ^ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:28:6: note: candidate: void Player::draw() void draw() ^~~~ GameObject.h:28:6: note: candidate expects 0 arguments, 1 provided In file included from main.cpp:13:0: Player.cpp: At global scope: Player.cpp:1:77: error: no ‘void Player::load(int, int, int, int, std::__cxx11::string)’ member function declared in class ‘Player’ void Player::load(int x, int y, int width, int height, std::string textureID) ^ Player.cpp:6:6: error: prototype for ‘void Player::draw(SDL_Renderer*)’ does not match any in class ‘Player’ void Player::draw(SDL_Renderer* pRenderer) ^~~~~~ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:28:6: error: candidate is: void Player::draw() void draw() ^~~~ Game.cpp Game.h GameObject.cpp GameObject.h main.cpp Player.cpp Player.h TextureManager.cpp TextureManager.h

thanks I did that and got it running. Thanks

Why is the wireframe rendering so slow compared to solid?
jeskeca replied to VanillaSnake21's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
I had the same problem with slow wireframes once, and as @bartman3000 said, the solution was to do single pass wireframes in a shader. This is *much* faster than using wireedge rendering, and it produces better looking (and more controllable) wireframes. You can also render wireframes on top of solid triangles at the same performance as solid triangles, with fewer issues, compared to the oldschool slow twopass process where you render a solid pass and a wireframe pass. The extra pervertex attribute can be computed in a geometry shader. http://strattonbrazil.blogspot.com/2011/09/singlepasswireframerendering_10.html http://strattonbrazil.blogspot.com/2011/09/singlepasswireframerendering_11.html https://github.com/mattdesl/webglwireframes https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/798054/WebControls/WebControls/?fid=1864339&df=90&mpp=25&prof=True&sort=Position&view=Normal&spc=Relaxed&fr=6 https://github.com/jeske/SimpleScene/tree/master/Assets/Shaders 
Hi, I want to make my first game to open an independent game studio, but I want to build a team because it is difficult to develop on my own. Since I am the only one you can work in the desired section, there is no limit for each position in open positions. You don't need to have experience, we will learn together. I'm highschool student so i can't pay you money but if we make money from the game we can split the money. If you have the ones who want to improve their first game like me, they can write together with the position they want to work in. If you do well, it is not important that you do work well, just want to work in that area. I'm waiting your mail.mail:sarpdorayonden@gmail.com

Thanks so much for great comments. Let me clarify more. In the real code, I want to roll the cube in different direction within x_axis and y_axis. //cube.cubeCenter[0] = (x0, y0, 0); and true for rolling aside with x_axis //cube.cubeCenter[1] = (x1, y1, 0); and true for rolling aside with x_axis //cube.cubeCenter[2] = (x2, y2, 0); and false for rolling aside with y_axis //..... for (int i = 0; i < cube.cubeCenter.size(); i++) { if(cube.cubeCenter[i]==true){ //means that it rolls along x_axis //SDirection = true; // in order to increase angle value; } } When I check boolean cube.cubeCenter, sometimes it is true, sometimes it's false due to rolling along x_axis or y_axis. I think it is the right boolean condition. You are right with the error with a condition for Count. It should be: // if (cube.cubeCenter[i] == true){ //rolling along X_axis SDirection = true; if (Count <= 90){ ...... //do X_axis rolling // in order to increase angle value }else{ angle = 0; Count = 0; } }else{ // means: cube.cubeCenter[i] == false //rolling along Y_axis SDirection = false; if (Count <= 90){ ...... //do Y_axis rolling }else{ angle = 0; Count = 0; } } This is also my misunderstanding. Whenever the program runs, the Display() will run the same time with SpecialKey function. As a result, all cubes will appear without rolling. When pressing the 'r' key, it starts to roll for all cubes. Currently, I am trying to do that. But don't know why the program does not stop in if (cube.cubeCenter == true) condition to roll the cube before moving to the next cube. When I set a breakpoint like if (cube.cubeCenter == true) => print rolling x_axis, else {print rolling y_axis}, they are right with the condition.

[Artist & Writer needed] StoryBased 2DAdventure (New Project)
Insigma replied to StoriesFromFranz's topic in Hobby Project Classifieds
Hey guys, Sounds like a fun idea, I could actually fill in both of those positions, I'm looking for a side project to do to break up work a little bit (I work as a 3D animator), and this looks like a fun project to be in! My online website (I've also attached my 2D portfolio as well) : https://www.artstation.com/insigma Unfortunately I don't really have any finished writing stuff that I can show you, they all exists within pitch documents and unfinished game productions. But I'd be more than happy to do some sort of a writing test if that suits you guys? Let me know! Contact me on: jcpunkhead@gmail.com Cheers, Jackie Jackie_Cai_Portfolio_2019.pdf

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