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  2. Hello! I'm reading these tutorials and in some point it says: I'm confused here. How can each step require the output of the previous step as it's input but they can also run in parallel? I mean, while the vertex shader is running how can the fragment shader for example run at the same time? It must wait until all the previous steps in the pipeline has finished in order to to get the input from the rasterizer and then run. Does he mean that each pipeline process can run in parallel but each process must finish in a linear way step by step? This is the only that make sense to me. Until now I was imagining that each draw call is actually instantiating a new pipeline process and each of these processes can run in parallel. Also I was imagining gl draw calls (like glDrawElements() ) like non blocking calls. So which one is the truth? Thank you
  3. I want to save the highest time and spend it, but somehow only the time before that is saved and spent. Maybe someone can help me?
  4. Today
  5. Knickles

    Teammates Wanted

    Hi, I want to make my first game to open an independent game studio, but I want to build a team because it is difficult to develop on my own. Since I am the only one you can work in the desired section, there is no limit for each position in open positions. You don't need to have experience, we will learn together. I'm highschool student so i can't pay you money but if we make money from the game we can split the money. If you have the ones who want to improve their first game like me, they can write together with the position they want to work in. If you do well, it is not important that you do work well, just want to work in that area. I'm waiting your mail. mail:sarpdorayonden@gmail.com
  6. LorenzoGatti

    Need a review of design idea

    A sound but possibly limited puzzle type. I recommend Separating an initial tutorial with explanations from the "actual" challenging levels. The initial impact is that if a snake game is not realtime it must have challenging puzzles; easy levels are "puzzling". Adding enemies to avoid, hunt, or herd into doing something. and interesting items Adding various snake actions with command keys, like laying eggs (which could reduce snake length but create a target for monsters), spitting at or biting other creatures, activating or dropping items. In a significant portion of the puzzles, nontrivially different solutions Nicer graphics, Even Pacman is more detailed. An undo command to reduce boredom, and a redo command to use it without anxiety.
  7. Hi! I am sound designer / foley artist. If you need any audio for the game I am more than happy to help you. You will find my portfolio attatched to the signature. Thanks!
  8. From a short check, in order to inherit methods, they must be declared virtual in the base class. Also, class Player is declared in GameObject.h as well as in Player.h. Declarations may only occur once. Outline: #pragma once class GameObject { private: ....... protected: virtual void draw(); } class Player : protected GameObject { private: ........ public: virtual void draw() override; } Edit: and i suggest to exchange the compiler switch -fpermissive with -Wall. Allways good to know where there might be potential problems in the code.
  9. 3dBookman

    The 3D book

    May 26 2018 3dBook Update Nearly six months have passed since updating this blog; a time spent getting the 3dBook-Reader code ready for github. https://github.com/3dBookguy/Proj3dBook I'm not sure how well I succeeded. I can say: The code is there and it is much cleaner than it was at the end of last year. It builds and runs in my environment, which is VS 2017 on Windows 10. It also builds and runs on my older laptop VS 2012 on Windows 8. I hope it will do the same for anyone cloning it. See doc\ building.txt. Along with the source code( Win32 C++ ), there are some "books" for it to read. What good is a reader without something to read? Why the quotes around books? Well, the longest title "Rendering the Platonic Solids" is some 30 pages, and the rest are just a few pages. So maybe short essays or some such. However if a picture is worth a thousand words, then perhaps a three dimensional rendering is worth ten thousand. And a thirty page offering is not such a trifle. These 3dBook-Reader "books" are Unicode files with the .tdr extension. They are lightly formatted so the 3dBook-Reader can respond to the text, and links in the text, to interact with the reader. What the heck is the 3dBook-Reader anyway? Good question! A Windows program with a "text" window and an Open GL window. So you can have a book with full 3d graphics. You really need to build it and use it to know. Ex: You could have the text to a game in one window and the game running in the other. Why the quotes around text? This "text" window is really the directWrite - direct2D window. So it has all the features of those two powerful API's. One a typesetting engine and one a 2D graphics API. So developing the 3dBook-Reader means developing the books it reads and graphics it presents along with it. And yes: It is as much fun as it sounds! You may feel like Magister Ludi Joseph Knecht in Hermann Hesse's "The Glass Bead Game". "Rendering the Platonic Solids" doesn't just write about and present code for rendering the solids: It actually renders them in the graphics window step by step - interacting with the text and reader. Interaction:That really is the development emphasis and challenge. As promised: The octahedron and dodecahedron Platonic solids have been added to complete the library on the five Platonic solids. If you can get the 3dBook-Reader source to compile and run; all the Platonic solids are rendered, step by step, in "Rendering the Platonic Solids". This file is in \doc\platonic.tdr. Or you can just read the file itself; it's a Unicode file, formatted for the 3dBook-Reader, but readable by a human. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8 - 2018 Original Post After a break of several years the 3D book project is back on. A few short words now on what this blog is about. I have to deliver my wife to the bus station in a few minutes, then a week alone so may have the time then to explain things. But the 3D book is something I started in 014 and put several years into, then the break, now on again. A win32 app with a text window and an ogl window. I just remembered I had something written on this so here it is I write to see if anyone in this community of game developers, programmers, enthusiasts, may be interested in a project I have been developing[off and on] for several years now. So follows a short description of this project, which I call the 3D-Book project. The 3D-Format Reader: A new format of media. Imagine opening a book, the left page is conventional formatted text - on the right page a 3D animation of the subject of the text on the left hand page. The text page with user input from mouse and keyboard, the 3D page with user input from a game pad. An anatomy text for a future surgeon, with the a beating heart in 3D animation. A children's story adventure book with a 3D fantasy world to enter on the right page. ... Currently 3D-Format Reader consists of a C++ Windows program: Two "child" windows in a main window frame. Two windows: a text-2D rendering window and a 3D-rendering window. The text-2D window, as its' name implies, displays text and 2D graphics; it is programmed using Microsoft's DirectWrite text formatting API and Microsoft's Direct2D API for 2D graphics. The 3D-rendering window uses the OpenGL API. A 3DE-Book page is formatted in one of two possible modes: DW_MODE or GL_MODE. In GL_MODE both windows are shown; the text-2D rendering window is on the left and the 3D OpenGL window is on the right. In DW_MODE, only the text-2D rendering window is shown, the OpenGL window is hidden (Logically it is still there, it has just been given zero width). The 3D-Format Reader reads text files, which consists of the text of the book, control character for the formatting of text, (bold, underline, ...), display of tables, loading of images(.jpg .png ...), and control of 2D and 3D routines. 3D-Reader programming is based on a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. The MVC design is modular: The Controller component handles user input from the operating system , the Model component processes the input, and the View component sends output back to the user on the display. Typical Parent-Child windows programs have multiple "call back" window procedures(winProcs): One for the parent window and one for child window. The MVC model, simplifies message routing by using a call-back window procedure which receives Windows messages for the main window, the text-2D window and the OGL window. A sample MVC program by Song Ho Ahn was used as a template for the 3DE-Reader. Rushed for time now, so a hasty sign off and thanks for reading. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 - 21 -18 I spent the last few days working on procedural mesh generation. First looking to find a bit of code to do what I had in mind. Which begs the question: What did I have in mind? I just wanted a cube mesh generator such that... Requirements Input: An integer n = units from origin to cube face. Output: The vertices for a unit cube centered on the origin. 8n² triangles per cube face. 3 times 8n² verts in clockwise winding order (from the outside of the cube) ready for the rendering pipeline. Screenshot of some cubes generated with the procedural cube mesh generator. That was about it for the output requirements. I did not want to hand code even a single vertex and did not want to load a mesh file. I was sure the code was out there somewhere, but was not finding it. So, a bit reluctantly at first, I started coding the mesh generator. I started enjoying creating this thing and stopped searching for the "out-there-somewhere" code; although still curious how others did this. Analysis First question: How do we number the verts? It would be great to conceive of some concise algorithm to put out the cube face verts all in clockwise order for the outside faces of the cube directly. That seemed beyond me so I plodded along step by step. I decided to just use a simple nested loop to generate the cube face verts and number them in the order they were produced. The hope(and the presumption) was: The loop code was in some order, running thru the x y and z coordinates in order, from -n to +n, therefore the output would be a recognizable pattern. The simple nested loop vert generator did not let us down: It gave us a recognizable pattern, at least for this face. It turned out (as expected now) that all six faces have similar recognizable patterns. Plotting the first row or two of verts you can easily see how to run the rest of the pattern. Plot of the first(of six) cube faces verts output by the vert generator: Input of n: There are (2n+1)² verts per cube face, or 25 verts for n = 2. This is looking at the x = -n face from the outside of the cube. To simplify the math it helps to define s = 2n. Then there are (s + 1)² verts, or 25 for s = 4 s² cells on the face, or 16 for 4 = 2. We are going divide each cell into 2 triangles, so there are 2s² triangles per face, or 32 for s = 4. Second question: What pattern for the triangles? How to number the 2s² = 32 triangles? What we want in the end is a bit of code such that... for triangles T[0] thru T[2s²-1] or T[0] thru T[31]( for n = 4), we have T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N). Where f0(N) gives the first vertex of T[N] as a function of N. and f1 and f2 give the second and third verts, all in CW winding order looking into the cube of course. Here the choice is a bit arbitrary, but it would seem to make things easier if we can manage to have the order of triangles follow the order of verts to a degree. Numbering the triangles. And now the problem becomes: Look at the triangle vert list, T0 - T8...T31 in the image, and try to discern some pattern leading us to the sought after functions f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) where N is the number of the triangle, 0 thru 2s²-1. This really is the holy grail of this whole effort; then we have T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) and that list of verts can be sent directly to the rendering pipeline. Of course we want these functions to work for all six faces and all 12s² triangles to cover the cube. But first let's see if we can just do this one face, 0 thru 2s²-1.. Thru a bit of trial and error the 32 triangles(T0 - T31) were ordered as shown. Now we have an ordered list of the triangles and the verts from our loop. T0 = 0 5 6 T1 = 6 1 0 T2 = 1 6 7 T3 = 7 2 1 T4 = 2 7 8 T5 = 8 3 2 T6 = 3 8 9 T7 = 9 4 3 T8 = 5 10 11 ... T30 T31. If we can find a pattern in the verts on the right side of this list; we can implement it in an algorithm and the rest is just coding. Pattern recognition: It appears T2 = T0 with 1 added to each component T3 = T1 with 1 added to each component In general T[N+2] = T[N] with 1 added to each component, until we come to T8 at least. Also it is hard to recognize a relation between the even and odd triangles,To see what is happening here it helps to look at an image of the generalized case where n can take on any integer value n > 0. Looking for patterns in this generalized(for any n) vert plot we see... We have defined s = 2n. The 4 corner coordinates(+-n,+-n) of the x = - n cube face, one at each corner (+-n,+-n). There are (s+1)² verts/face numbered (0 thru (s+1)² -1). There are 2s² triangles/face numbered (0 thru 2s² -1). They are indicated in red. It's not as bad as it looks iff you break it down. Let's look at the even triangles only and just the 0th vert of these triangles. For any row we see the number of that first vert of the even triangles just increases by one going down the row. We can even try a relation such as T[N].0 = N/2. Here T[N].0 denotes the 0th vert of th Nth triangle. Which works until we have to jump to the next row. Every time we jump a row we T[N+1].0 = T[N].0 + 2 for the first triangle in the higher row. So we need a corrective term to the T[N].0 = N/2 relation that adds 1 every time we jump a row. We can use computer integer division to generate such a term and N/2s is such a term. It only changes value when we jump rows and we get our first function ... f0(N) = N/2 + N/2s. (even triangles) Remember the integer division will discard any remainder from the terms and check this works for the entire cube face, but only for the even triangles. What about the odd triangles? Going back to the triangle vs vert list for the specific case n = 2, s = 4 for the first row; we see for the odd triangles T[N].0 = T[N-1].0 + s + 2. And adding this term, s + 2 to the formula for the even triangle 0th vert we get f0[N] for the odd triangles. f0(N) = N/2 + N/2s + s + 2. (odd triangles) Continuing this somewhat tedious analysis for the remaining functions f1(N), f2(N) we eventually have these relations for the x = -n cube face triangles. for N = 0 thru N = 2s² - 1. defining m = N/2 + N/2s. T[N] = m, m + s + 1, m + s + 2 T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N). (even N) T[N] = m + s + 2, m + 1, m T[N] = f0'(N), f1'(N), f2'(N) (odd N) So it turns out we have two sets of functions for the verts, fn(N) for the even triangles and fn'(N) for the odd. To recap here; we now have formulae for all the T[N] verts as functions of N and the input parameter n: Input: An integer n = units from origin to cube face. But this is only for the first face x = -n, we have five more faces to determine. So the question is: Do these formulae work for the other faces? And the answer is no they do not, but going through a similar analysis for the remaining face gives similar T[N] = f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) for them. There is still the choice of how to number the remaining triangles and verts on the remaining five faces, and the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) will depend on the somewhat arbitrary choice of how we do the numbering. For the particular choice of a numbering scheme I ended up making, it became clear how to determine the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) for the remaining faces. It required making generalized vert plots for the remaining five face similar to the previous image. Then these relation emerged... For face x = -n T[N] N(0 thru 2²-1) we have the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N), even and odd For face x = n T[N] N(2s² thru 4s²-1) add (s+1)² to the x=-n face components and reverse the winding order For face y = -n T[N] N(4s² thru 6s²-1) add 2(s+1)² to the x=-n face components and reverse the winding order For face y = n T[N] N(6s² thru 8s²-1) add 3(s+1)² to the x=-n face components For face z = -n T[N] N(8s²0 thru 10s²-1) add 4(s+1)² to the x=-n face components For face z = n T[N] N(10s²0 thru 12s²-1) add 5(s+1)² to the x=-n face components and reverse the winding order And these are enough to allow us to write explicit expressions for all 12n² triangles for all 6 faces T[N] and what remains to be done is to implement these expression in code. Which turned out to be a much simpler task than finding the f0(N), f1(N), f2(N) and resulted in a surprisingly short bit of code. Implementation I have attempted to make this C++ snippet of code as generic as possible and have removed any dev-platform specific #includes and the like. GLM, a C++ mathematics library for graphics developed by Christophe Riccio is used. It is a header only library. https://github.com/g-truc/glm/releases/download/ That is the only outside dependency. // Procedural cube face verticies generator #include <vector> #include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp> struct Triangle { glm::vec3 vert[3]; // the three verts of the triangle }; /* std::vector<Triangle> cube_Faces(int n) Input: integer 'n'; the units from origin to cube face. Output: vector<Triangle> glTriangle; container for the 12*(2*n)² triangles covering the 6 cube faces. */ std::vector<Triangle> cube_Faces(int n){ size_t number_of_triangles(12*(2*n )*(2*n)); size_t number_of_face_verts(6*(2*n +1 )*(2*n+1)); std::vector<glm::vec3> face_verts(number_of_face_verts); std::vector<Triangle> glTriangle(number_of_triangles); // Generate the 6*(2n +1 )² face verts ------------------------------- int l(0); for(int i = 0; i < 6; i++){ for(int j = -n; j <= n; j++){ for(int k = -n; k <= n; k++){ // Below "ifS" strip out all interior cube verts. if( i == 0){ // do yz faces face_verts[l].x = (float)(-n); //x face_verts[l].y = (float)j; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 1){ // do yz faces face_verts[l].x = (float)(n); //x face_verts[l].y = (float)j; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 2){ // do zx faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)(-n); //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 3){ // do zx faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)(n); //y face_verts[l].z = (float)k;}//z if( i == 4){ // do xy faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)k; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)(-n);}//z if( i == 5){ // do xy faces face_verts[l].x = (float)j; //x face_verts[l].y = (float)k; //y face_verts[l].z = (float)(n);}//z l++; } } } // Generate the 12*(2*n)² triangles from the face verts ------- int s = 2*n; int q = 2*s*s; int a = (s+1)*(s+1); int f(0); int r(0); int h(0); for( int N=0; N < number_of_triangles; ){ // triangles already in CW winding if( N < q || N < 5*q && N > 3*q - 1 ){ // do the even indicies f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (N-f)/2 + (N-f)/(2*s) + r; glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[s + 1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (N-f)/2 + (N-f)/(2*s) + r; // do the odd indicies glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[ 1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (N-f)/2 + (N-f)/(2*s) + r; } // triangles needing reverse order for CW winding if( N > 5*q - 1 || N < 3*q && N > q - 1 ){ // do the even indicies glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[s + 1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (N-f)/2 + (N-f)/(2*s) + r; // do the odd indicies glTriangle[N].vert[0] = face_verts[h]; glTriangle[N].vert[1] = face_verts[1 + h]; glTriangle[N].vert[2] = face_verts[s + 2 + h]; N++; f= q*(N/q); r = a*(N/q); h = (N-f)/2 + (N-f)/(2*s) + r; } } // Normalize the cube to side = 1 ------------------------------ for(int i = 0; i < number_of_triangles; i++){ glTriangle[i].vert[0].x = glTriangle[i].vert[0].x/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[0].y = glTriangle[i].vert[0].y/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[0].z = glTriangle[i].vert[0].z/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[1].x = glTriangle[i].vert[1].x/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[1].y = glTriangle[i].vert[1].y/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[1].z = glTriangle[i].vert[1].z/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[2].x = glTriangle[i].vert[2].x/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[2].y = glTriangle[i].vert[2].y/(2.0*(float)n); glTriangle[i].vert[2].z = glTriangle[i].vert[2].z/(2.0*(float)n); }; return glTriangle; } The rendering was done using OpenGl. // OGL render call to the cube mesh generator - PSUEDOCODE int n(2); int cube_triangle_Count = (12*(2*n)*(2*n)); std::vector<Triangle> cube_Triangles(cube_triangle_Count); cube_Triangles = cube_Faces(n); glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, uiVBO[0]); glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, cube_Triangles.size()*sizeof(Triangle), &cube_Triangles[0], GL_STATIC_DRAW); glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 3*sizeof(float), 0); glEnableVertexAttribArray(0); glDrawArray(GL_TRIANGLES,0,3*cube_triangle_Count); This just gets the position attribute of the cube face triangle verts; for the color and other attributes there are a couple of options: Use separate GL_ARRAY_BUFFERS for the color and other attributes. Or add attributes to the Triangle struct... struct Triangle { glm::vec3 vert[3]; // the three verts of the triangle attribute1; attribute2; ... }; Screenshot of the spherified cube. What's next? Now that we have the cube mesh what we can do with with it practically unlimited. The first thing I did was turn it into a sphere. Playing with tesselating the cube or sphere or stellating it with different patterns; might do. Ended up trying a few matrix transformations on the cube mesh. These are shown in the image below. These shapes are result short bits of code like the code for the column shape below. //Column for(int i = 0; i < number_of_triangles; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ if( glTriangle[i].vert[j].y < 0.5f && glTriangle[i].vert[j].y > -0.5f ){ float length_of_v = sqrt((glTriangle[i].vert[j].x * glTriangle[i].vert[j].x) + (glTriangle[i].vert[j].z * glTriangle[i].vert[j].z)); glTriangle[i].vert[j].x = 0.5f*glTriangle[i].vert[j].x/length_of_v; glTriangle[i].vert[j].z = 0.5f*glTriangle[i].vert[j].z/length_of_v; } } } Doing this; the blacksmith at his forge analogy soon presents. The mesh is the ingot, hammer matrices stretch, round and bend it against the fixed geometry of the anvil - coordinate system. I am the smith. Tetrahedron The tetrahedron is the platonic solid with the least number of faces(4), edges(6), and verts(4). In antiquity it was associated with the element of fire due to its' sharp vertices. The algorithm for the tetrahedron mesh was developed in a similar way to the cube, but here it seemed simpler to get a routine for just one face - an equilateral triangle - and use matrix translations and rotations to form the complete tetrahedron. So more like origami or tinsmithing than blacksmithing. Procedural tetrahedron screenshot. The n = 4 and the general case To get an routine for the general case, n an integer > 0, a bit of what I think is known as mathematical induction was used. PSUEDO-CODE Algorithm to generate equilateral triangle face with unit side composed of n² "sub-triangle" in the xy plane. std::vector<Triangle> equilateral(int n){ std::vector<Triangle> tri_Angle(n²); // Create the seed triangle in xy plane . // This is triangle "0" in the image above. // This is in the xy(z=0) plane so all the // tri_Angle.vert[0 thrue n -1 ].z = 0. // We just work with the x and y verts. tri_Angle[all].vert[all].z = 0; // The seed triangle tri_Angle[0].vert[0].x = 0; tri_Angle[0].vert[0].y = 0; tri_Angle[0].vert[1].x = 1/2n; tri_Angle[0].vert[1].y = sin(π/3)/n; tri_Angle[0].vert[2].x = 1/n; tri_Angle[0].vert[2].y = 0; // Build the equilateral triangle face. int count(0); for(int row = 0; row < n; row++){ count = 0; Spin = glmRotateMatrix( π/3, zaxis ); // The magic happens here! for(int i = 2*n*row - row*row; i < 2*n*row - row*row + 2*n - 2*row - 1; i++) { if (count % 2 == 0 ) // Triangle is even in the row - just translate { // more magic. x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tri_Angle[i].vert[0] = x_Lat* tri_Angle[0].vert[0]; tri_Angle[i].vert[1] = x_Lat* tri_Angle[0].vert[1]; } else // Triangle is odd in the row - rotate then translate { //and more magic. x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row + 1)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tri_Angle[i].vert[0] = x_Lat*Spin*tri_Angle[0].vert[0]; tri_Angle[i].vert[1] = x_Lat*Spin*tri_Angle[0].vert[1]; } } count++; } return tri_Angle; } This is the psuedocode version of the routine which generates the verts for the n² triangles in a face. Getting this algorithm was a bit of a brain drain but looking for patterns in the image of the face allowed it to happen. We use a "seed" triangle, which is triangle 0 on the lower left of the figure. The verts of this one triangle are input; the rest of the n² triangles verts are generated by translating and rotating this seed triangle. Notice: There are n rows, every row has 2 less triangles than the row below. If we number the triangles from 0 to 2n - 2*row - 2, where the rows run 0 to n; the even triangles just need to be translated ... in the x direction by (count + row)/2n where count = their position in the row 0 to 2n - 2*row - 2. in the y direction by row*height. height = height of seed triangle. The odd triangles need to be rotated pi/3 = 60 degrees around the z axis then translated ... in the x direction by (count + row + 1)/2n where count = their position in the row 0 to 2n - 2*row - 2. in the y direction by row*height. height = height of seed triangle. Now we have a single face for the tetrahedron, to join the four faces together we need the angle between the faces called the dihedral angle. Dihedral Angle Each of the five platonic solids has a characteristic called the dihedral angle. This is the angle between the faces. For the cube it is 90 degrees or pi/2 radians. For the tetrahedron it is 70.528779° = arccos(1/3) = atan(2*sqrt(2)); The tetrahedron, with just four faces, is the simplest of the platonic solids. The simplest way I can think of to build it: Start with the four face stacked one on another, edges aligned. Imagine the top three faces each hinged to the bottom face along one edge. Then rotate each face around then hinged edge by arccos(1/3), the dihedral angle. That is the method of the bit of code shown below. vector<Triangle> tetrahedron(int N){ std::vector<Triangle> tetra(4n²); tetra[all].vert[all].z = 0; // The seed triangle tetra[0].vert[0].x = 0; tetra[0].vert[0].y = 0; tetra[0].vert[1].x = 1/2n; tetra[0].vert[1].y = sin(π/3)/n; tetra[0].vert[2].x = 1/n; tetra[0].vert[2].y = 0; // ----- The first face ----- // generate the first equilateral triangle face with unit side // composed of n² "sub-triangle" in the xy(z=0) plane. int count(0); for(int row = 0; row < n; row++) { count = 0; Spin = glmRotateMatrix( π/3, zaxis ); for(int i = 2*n*row - row*row; i < 2*n*row - row*row + 2*n - 2*row - 1; i++) { if (count % 2 == 0 ) // Triangle is even in the row - just translate { x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tetra[i].vert[0] = x_Lat* tetra[0].vert[0]; tetra[i].vert[1] = x_Lat* tetra[0].vert[1]; } else // Triangle is odd in the row - rotate then translate { x_Lat = glm_Matrix((count + row + 1)/2n, row*sin(π/3)/n, 0.0f); tetra[i].vert[0] = x_Lat*Spin*tetra[0].vert[0]; tetra[i].vert[1] = x_Lat*Spin*tetra[0].vert[1]; } } count++; } // ----- The second face ----- // generate the second equilateral face from the first // by rotating around the X axis by the dihedral angle. float tetra_Dihedral = atan(2*sqrt(2)); Spin = glmRotateMatrix( -tetra_Dihedral, xaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[n² + i].vert[j] = Spin*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } //The rotation gives CCW verts so need need to make them CW again for(int i = n²; i < 2n²; i++) { swap(tetra[i].vert[0] ---- with --- tetra[i].vert[2]; } // ----- The third face ----- // For the second face we rotated the first triangle around its' // base on the X - axis. For the third face we rotate the first // triangle around its' edge along the vector ( 0.5, 0.866025, 0.0 ). Spin = glmRotateMatrix( tetra_Dihedral ,glm::vec3(0.5f,0.866025f,0.0f)); for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[2n² + i].vert[j] = Spin*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } //need to make it CW again for(int i = 2n²; i < 3n²; i++) { swap(tetra[i].vert[0] ---- with --- tetra[i].vert[2]; } // ----- The forth face ----- // For the forth face we first translate the original face along the // X axis so it right edge vector (-0.5f, 0.866025f, 0.0f) passes thru the origin. // Then we rotate the first triangle around the that vector by the dihedral angle. x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(-1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f)); Spin = glmRotateMatrix( -tetra_Dihedral, glm::vec3(-0.5f,0.866025f,0.0f)); for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[3n² + i].vert[j] = Spin*x_Lat*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } //need to make it CW again for(int i = 3n²; i < 4n²; i++) { swap(tetra[i].vert[0] ---- with --- tetra[i].vert[2]; } // We now have the complete tetrahedron, tetra(4n²), but its' base // is not horizontal so let's make is so. // put the base in the xz plane // rotate 90 - dihedral angle around X axis. Spin = glm::rotate( tetra_Dihedral - half_PI, xaxis); for(int i = 0; i < 4n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[i].vert[j] = Spin*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } // We now have the complete tetrahedron, tetra(4n²), sitting with its' // base on the xz(y=0) plane, let's put its' center at the origin. // For this we need another Platonic Solid attribute: The radius of // the tetrahedrons circumscribed sphere which is sqrt(3/8). So the // center of the tet is this vertical distance down from its' apex. // To put the center at the origin we need to translate down this // distance along the Y axis. We need also to xlat along the Z axis // by 1/2(sqrt(3)) = 0.28867; the distance from the center of a face // to the center of a side. // Finally we need to center along the X axis( xlat -.5) x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(-0.5f, -sqrt(3/8), sqrt(3)/2); for(int i = 0; i < 4n²; i++) { for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++) { tetra[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*tetra[i].vert[j]; } } return tetra; } Notes: Oops: Left out std::vector<Triangle> tri_Angles(4*n*n); Should be the first line of the function body! Corrections to the corrections: First line of function definition vector<Triangle> tetrahedron(int N){ should be vector<Triangle> tetrahedron(int n){ Those last two for loops could and probably should be combined to do a translate*rotate*triangle in one statement, but I have not tried it. All distances are for a tetrahedron with unit side. The sign of the dihedral angle in the rotations was usually determined by trial and error. I.e.; I tried one sign, compiled the code and rendered the tet. If it was wrong I just reversed the sign. The end result is a tetrahedron with its' center at the origin, its' base in the xz plane, and one edge parallel to the X axis. Of the five platonic solids; three (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron) are composed of equilateral triangle faces. One of square faces (cube). And one of pentagon faces (dodecahedron). Two tetrahedrons fit nicely in a cube. 11-16-18: Corrections to code blocks for equilateral triangle and tetrahedron. 11-18-18: More corrections. Icosahedron Two faces = Icosahedron Petal Five petals in this flower = 10 faces = half of the icosahedron 12-5-18 Understanding the icosahedron's 3d form via 2d images is difficult; we need to make a small, palm sized, 3d model. It takes nineteen paper triangles and some tape. The vertices of five equilateral triangles must come together at each vertex of the icosahedron. The icosahedron has 20 faces and 12 verts, but leaving one face off the model allows us to look in side. Besides; when where done we'll have a neat little icosahedron basket. You don't really need to make a model to code the icosahedron; but it helped me to see some properties which simplified its' construction. Symmetries are important to the mathematician and perhaps even more so to the physicist. They say something has a certain symmetry if you perform a certain operation on it and the world remains unchanged. Unchanged in the sense that you can not even detect something has been done to it. Example: Rotate a square 90 degrees around its center in the plane; the square has that type of rotational symmetry. The square also has an inversion symmetry; if you take every point on the square and invert it through the origin you end up with the same square you started with. Inversion is simply negating all the coordinates. The center must be at the origin of course. This is true for the cube, but not for the tetrahedron. Symmetries simplify the construction (coding) of an object. Going back to the cube; it might have been easier to do three faces and then just invert them thru the origin to get the other three. For the tetrahedron simple inversion is not a symmetry, but I am pretty sure inversion together with a rotation is. If so; we could do two faces and then perform an inversion - rotation on them in one step. And inversion in Cartesian coordinates just means to negate all the verts - easy! Toying with our icosahedron model; holding it gently with our thumb on one vertex and our middle finger on the opposite vertex, lazily twirling it around an imaginary axis through those two vertices; we are struck with a thought: We are toying with our icosahedron model twirling it around an axis through - Eureka! - two opposite vertices: The icosahedron has inversion symmetry. This is great - our work has just been cut in half. We can code half of the icosahedron's verts and just invert(negate) to get the rest. Thank you inversion symmetry. But let's not stop now, we are on a roll (no pun intended); let's see if we can find more symmetries to make our work easier. Looking intently; holding our model as before, but still, not rotating. Then slowly rotating about the axis we see another symmetry. After one fifth of a revolution(2π/5 radians) the universe looks the same as when we started rotating it. The icosahedron has a 2π/5 rotational symmetry. Can we use this to cut our work load? You bet we can. First we need to clear up a few points about something central to our construction efforts: The axis of symmetry. (Sorry, the puns just keep coming.) An axis of symmetry is a line passing thru two opposite vertices and the center of the icosahedron. The icosahedron has six of them: We only need one. We will use the Z axis. Dihedral angle: To be precise, it is the angle between the normals of two adjacent faces. The images: Looking at the images we see a flower shape with five "petals". A petals is just two faces joined along a side. The angle between the two petal faces is the icosa's dihedral angle; arccos(- √5/3) radians. Five petals make a "flower" , which is ten faces, so it is half of the icosahedron. Once we have five petals joined to make this flower, we just copy/invert all its' verts to get the other half: We have our icosahedron. The Plan: Refer to the figures 1.) Make a petal. 2.) Attach one tip of the petal the axis of symmetry. (Oriented properly of course.) 3.) Copy/rotate the petal around the axis of symmetry by 2π/5 radians four times to get five petals = a flower. We are using the 2π/5 radians rotational symmetry here. 4.) Copy/invert( r -> -r ) our five-petal-ten-face flower to get our 20 face icosahedron. Using inversion symmetry here. So just four steps; sounds simple enough. Each step has its own steps of course, but they are mostly intuitive common sense things we must do to get the result. Constants: Before we get to the code we need four constants. 1.) The dihedral angle between two faces, the dihedral_angle. dihedral_angle. = arccos(- √5/3) = 46.06322 radians = 138.18969°. 2.) The angle between the Z axis and the normal of a face of a petal at the vertex. 0.652351 radians 3.) The radius of a circumscribed sphere(A sphere that touches all 12 verts). In other words the distance from the icosahedron center to a vertex. Also called the circumradius. R = sin(2π/5). 4.) The rotational symmetry: 2π/5 radians Let's not do a blow by blow, or should say, a bend by bend, description of the code. If a picture is worth a thousand words, it seems safe to assume an animated 3D image is worth even more. I suggest we compile the code and render to the display step by step. In fact this is how the code was developed; with a projection matrix and a rotation around the Z axis. Compile - Render the first face: F0. " " the first petal: P0 from F0 and F1. " " the second petal P1. " " the third petal P2. " " the fourth petal P3. " " the fifth petal P4. We now have the flower. Compile - Render the inversion of the flower. Done. The icosahedron pseudocode. struct Triangle { glm::vec3 vert[3]; // the three verts of the triangle }; //PSUEDOCODE ICOSAHEDRON /* input: integer n - number of triangles along icosahedron edge. output: std::vector<Triangle> icosahedron - mesh with 20n² triangles. */ std::vector<Triangle> icosahedron( int n ){ const float dihedral_Angle = acos(-(sqrt(5.0f)/3.0f)); const float dihedral_Comp = π - dihedral_Angle; std::vector<Triangle> T_icosahedron(20n²); // Create the seed triangle T. Triangle T; T.vert[0].x = 0; T.vert[0].y = 0; T.vert[0].z = 0; T.vert[1].x = 1/2n; T.vert[1].y = sin(π/3); T.vert[1].z = 0; T.vert[2].x = 1/n; T.vert[2].y = 0; T.vert[2].z = 0; // ----- F0 ----- // Create the first face; "F0" in the xy(z=0) plane // from the seed triangle T. int count(0); for(int row = 0; row < n; row++){ count = 0; for(int i = 2*n*row - row*row; i < 2*n*row - row*row + 2*n - 2*row - 1; i++){ if (count % 2 == 0 ){ // Triangle is even in the row - just translate . x_Lat = glm::translate(count+row)/2n, row*sin(π/3), 0); for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*T.vert[j]; } } else{ // Triangle is odd in the row - rotate then translate. x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3((count+1+row)/2n, row*sin(π/3), 0)); Spin = glm::rotate( π/3, zaxis ); for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*Spin*T.vert[j]; } } count++; } } // At this point comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render F0 to the display. // ----- P0 ----- // Create the first petal "P0" in the xy(z=0) plane. glm::vec3 axis(0.5f, sin(π/3), 0.0f); Spin = glm::rotate( π/3, zaxis ); //just rotate Spin2 = glm::rotate( -dihedral_Comp, axis ); for(int i = 0; i < n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[n² + i].vert[i] = Spin2*Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // xlate P0 by -1.0 along x and bend down by epsilon from the xy plane // epsilon is the angle we want between the Z axis and the normal of F0. // epsilon = 0.6523581f; x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(-1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f)); Spin2 = glm::rotate( glm::mat4(1.0), -π/3, zaxis ); Spin = glm::rotate( glm::mat4(1.0), -epsilon, xaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = Spin*Spin2**x_Lat*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // At this point comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render P0 to the display. // Create P1 from the P0 verts, rotate 2π/5 around z then Spin = glm::rotate( 2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+2n²].vert[j] = Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // At this point comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render P0 - P1 to the display. // Create P2 thru P4 from P0 verts: rotate around z: // 2*2π/5 for P2, 3*2π/5 for P3 and finally 4*2π/5 for P4 // P2 Spin = glm::rotate( 2*2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+4n²].vert[j] = Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // P3 Spin = glm::rotate( 3*2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+6n²].vert[j] = tSpin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // P4 Spin = glm::rotate( 4*2π/5, zaxis ); //just rotate for(int i = 0; i < 2n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i+8n²].vert[j] = Spin*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // At this point we should have the full flower. // Comment out the rest of the code, // return T_icosahedron; // Compile and render P0 thru P4 to the display. // Move everthing up along z to put the icosahedron center at the origin. // radius of circumscribed sphere = sin(2π/5), for face side = 1. x_Lat = glm::translate( glm::vec3(0, 0, sin(2π/5)); for(int i = 0; i < 10n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ T_icosahedron[i].vert[j] = x_Lat*T_icosahedron[i].vert[j]; } } // invert all the verts and reverse for cw winding // this creates the other half of the icosahedron from the first 10 triangles for(int i = 0; i < 10n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ // invert T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[j].x = -T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x; T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[j].y = -T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y; T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[j].z = -T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z; } // Swap verts 0 and 2 to get back to CW winding. hold = T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[0];// reverse T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[0] = T_icosahedron[i+10*n²].vert[2]; T_icosahedron[i+10n²].vert[2] = hold; } return T_icosahedron; // Spherify - uncomment the code below to spherify the icosahedron /* for(int i = 0; i < 20n²; i++){ for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++){ float length_of_v = sqrt( (T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x * T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x) + (T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y * T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y) + (T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z * T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z)); T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].x/length_of_v; T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].y/length_of_v; T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z = T_icosahedron[i].vert[j].z/length_of_v; } } */ return T_icosahedron; } Screen-shots: First petal P0 and five petal icosahedron flower. 19 December 2018 There are just two Platonic solids left to render; the octahedron and the dodecahedron. It is obvious, even from a two dimensional image, that the octahedron has an axis of symmetry and is both inversion symmetric and rotation symmetric about that axis. I needed another three dimension model to realize the same is true for the dodecahedron. We can adapt the icosahedron algorithm to model both of these solids: Create a petal octahedron - 2 triangles dodecahedron - 2 pentagons Create a flower Copy/rotate around the axis octahedron - 4 petals - π/2 radians dodecahedron - 3 petals - 2π/3 radians Copy/invert the flower Notice: Dodecahedron only! The way forward is clear - we adapt our icosahedron procedure. We make our petals. We use the same 4 constants; dihedral angle, rotational symmetry angle, angle between petal face and axis, circumscribed sphere radius (different values of course). We iterate our petal copy-rotations, 4-times for the octahedron, 3-times for the dodecahedron. We are done with the octahedron at this point. Four petals around its axis forms the complete closed solid; more an unopened flower bud than a flower. We invert the dodecahedron. We put the centers of the solids at the origin. That is the work plan in a nutshell. Implementing the code will now be routine - the only new thing is working with pentagon faces for the dodecahedron. These pentagon faces will be composites of five triangle faces. We already have an algorithm for the triangle faces so just need to create a routine to join five together to make the pentagon.
  10. Hi I tried to introduce some inheritance to my game engine from the book SDL Game Development but I am getting a lot of errors. I am a real noob at c++ so I would appreciate a bit of detail about each error and what I can do to fix it, as far as I can tell the code is exactly the same as in the book on chapter 3 “Working with game objects” Please tell me what I am doing wrong to produce these errors and how I can fix them. Thanks. g++ main.cpp -fpermissive -lSDL2 -lSDL2_image In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h: In member function ‘void Player::draw()’: GameObject.h:30:18: error: no matching function for call to ‘Player::draw()’ GameObject::draw() ^ GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate: void GameObject::draw(SDL_Renderer*) void draw(SDL_Renderer* pRenderer); ^~~~ GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate expects 1 argument, 0 provided In file included from main.cpp:8:0: Player.h: At global scope: Player.h:4:7: error: redefinition of ‘class Player’ class Player : public GameObject ^~~~~~ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:25:7: note: previous definition of ‘class Player’ class Player : public GameObject ^~~~~~ In file included from main.cpp:11:0: Game.cpp: In member function ‘void Game::render()’: Game.cpp:84:11: error: no matching function for call to ‘GameObject::draw()’ m_go.draw(); ^ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate: void GameObject::draw(SDL_Renderer*) void draw(SDL_Renderer* pRenderer); ^~~~ GameObject.h:8:6: note: candidate expects 1 argument, 0 provided In file included from main.cpp:11:0: Game.cpp:86:26: error: no matching function for call to ‘Player::draw(SDL_Renderer*&)’ m_player.draw(m_pRenderer); ^ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:28:6: note: candidate: void Player::draw() void draw() ^~~~ GameObject.h:28:6: note: candidate expects 0 arguments, 1 provided In file included from main.cpp:13:0: Player.cpp: At global scope: Player.cpp:1:77: error: no ‘void Player::load(int, int, int, int, std::__cxx11::string)’ member function declared in class ‘Player’ void Player::load(int x, int y, int width, int height, std::string textureID) ^ Player.cpp:6:6: error: prototype for ‘void Player::draw(SDL_Renderer*)’ does not match any in class ‘Player’ void Player::draw(SDL_Renderer* pRenderer) ^~~~~~ In file included from main.cpp:7:0: GameObject.h:28:6: error: candidate is: void Player::draw() void draw() ^~~~ Game.cpp Game.h GameObject.cpp GameObject.h main.cpp Player.cpp Player.h TextureManager.cpp TextureManager.h
  11. thanks I did that and got it running. Thanks
  12. I had the same problem with slow wireframes once, and as @bartman3000 said, the solution was to do single pass wireframes in a shader. This is *much* faster than using wire-edge rendering, and it produces better looking (and more controllable) wireframes. You can also render wire-frames on top of solid triangles at the same performance as solid triangles, with fewer issues, compared to the old-school slow two-pass process where you render a solid pass and a wireframe pass. The extra per-vertex attribute can be computed in a geometry shader. http://strattonbrazil.blogspot.com/2011/09/single-pass-wireframe-rendering_10.html http://strattonbrazil.blogspot.com/2011/09/single-pass-wireframe-rendering_11.html https://github.com/mattdesl/webgl-wireframes https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/798054/WebControls/WebControls/?fid=1864339&df=90&mpp=25&prof=True&sort=Position&view=Normal&spc=Relaxed&fr=6 https://github.com/jeske/SimpleScene/tree/master/Assets/Shaders
  13. Knickles

    Teammates Wanted

    Hi, I want to make my first game to open an independent game studio, but I want to build a team because it is difficult to develop on my own. Since I am the only one you can work in the desired section, there is no limit for each position in open positions. You don't need to have experience, we will learn together. I'm highschool student so i can't pay you money but if we make money from the game we can split the money. If you have the ones who want to improve their first game like me, they can write together with the position they want to work in. If you do well, it is not important that you do work well, just want to work in that area. I'm waiting your mail.mail:sarpdorayonden@gmail.com
  14. Thanks so much for great comments. Let me clarify more. In the real code, I want to roll the cube in different direction within x_axis and y_axis. //cube.cubeCenter[0] = (x0, y0, 0); and true for rolling aside with x_axis //cube.cubeCenter[1] = (x1, y1, 0); and true for rolling aside with x_axis //cube.cubeCenter[2] = (x2, y2, 0); and false for rolling aside with y_axis //..... for (int i = 0; i < cube.cubeCenter.size(); i++) { if(cube.cubeCenter[i]==true){ //means that it rolls along x_axis //SDirection = true; // in order to increase angle value; } } When I check boolean cube.cubeCenter, sometimes it is true, sometimes it's false due to rolling along x_axis or y_axis. I think it is the right boolean condition. You are right with the error with a condition for Count. It should be: // if (cube.cubeCenter[i] == true){ //rolling along X_axis SDirection = true; if (Count <= 90){ ...... //do X_axis rolling // in order to increase angle value }else{ angle = 0; Count = 0; } }else{ // means: cube.cubeCenter[i] == false //rolling along Y_axis SDirection = false; if (Count <= 90){ ...... //do Y_axis rolling }else{ angle = 0; Count = 0; } } This is also my misunderstanding. Whenever the program runs, the Display() will run the same time with SpecialKey function. As a result, all cubes will appear without rolling. When pressing the 'r' key, it starts to roll for all cubes. Currently, I am trying to do that. But don't know why the program does not stop in if (cube.cubeCenter == true) condition to roll the cube before moving to the next cube. When I set a breakpoint like if (cube.cubeCenter == true) => print rolling x_axis, else {print rolling y_axis}, they are right with the condition.
  15. Hey guys, Sounds like a fun idea, I could actually fill in both of those positions, I'm looking for a side project to do to break up work a little bit (I work as a 3D animator), and this looks like a fun project to be in! My online website (I've also attached my 2D portfolio as well) : https://www.artstation.com/insigma Unfortunately I don't really have any finished writing stuff that I can show you, they all exists within pitch documents and unfinished game productions. But I'd be more than happy to do some sort of a writing test if that suits you guys? Let me know! Contact me on: jcpunkhead@gmail.com Cheers, Jackie Jackie_Cai_Portfolio_2019.pdf
  16. Hi! I am sound designer and foley artist, currently on BSc in Audio and Recording Tech. If you are looking for and audio person I would love to help you with the project. The link to my portfolio is in my profile / signature
  17. To me, language has very little to do with this but rather this sort of hierarchy becomes a facet of the single responsibility principle. The keyframe should do what its name implies - store information about some properties. It is owned by the track, whose responsibility is to store some duration and a number of keyframes. Hence the track should remove or add keyframes. Copying keyframes from one track to another should be done by whatever structure you have that manages the tracks. If your keyframe has access to/knowledge of the track, the two become interdependent, which unnecessarily complicates the entire architecture.
  18. Green_Baron

    Game initialization.

    Correct me if i am wrong because i am not an expert, but this is only the case if they where actually constructed in a specific run, right ? I mean, it may be the case that a piece of code declaring a static variable (edit: outside of main) might not be executed because it was never reached. But if it was executed, then the static stuff will live until the program terminates. Correct ?
  19. a light breeze

    Game initialization.

    Um, yes it does. In C++, static variables guaranteed to survive past the end of main. That is how the language works, and there's nothing you can do about it. You might be thinking about cases where you set the static variable to some harmless dummy value, such as nullptr for pointers, at the end of main. You can of course do that, but that doesn't change the essential fact that the variable itself has a lifetime that extends beyond main. It also requires knowing where all of your static variables are, which can break encapsulation and/or require writing extra boiler-plate code, especially for function-static variables.
  20. In this episode of Madsen's Musings, I discuss creating exposure and building your personal brand within the industry. Wanna learn more about me or my work? Go here: https://madsenstudios.com/ Subscribe to my YouTube channel or follow me here on GameDev.net to see all the latest updates. A transcript is provided below the video. Alright guys, so we're gonna try a vlog really quickly in my studio. I'm here, I was just answering a really good question... (By the way, I have a very noisy... there's the camera, I forgot where to look... sorry, so I have a very noisy studio chair, very squeaky... ah well, it was really cheap, was like $89, but...) There was a really good question: "Besides of course composing and producing music, and the projects you've been hired to do, what else do you do that gives you more visibility in the job market as a professional. What's worked best for you". Alright. This was on GameDev.net in the Music & Sound forum, which I am very humble and glad to be moderating. I've done that for the last nine years now. Ok, so my answer. I'll just read this out to you guys. So it's all about the slow burn, You have to avoid the temptation, the desire to have a sudden explosion of exposure on the internet. You instead want to do just a lot of movements. It's just kind of like working with compression, EQ. A lot of small movements over multiple tracks will give you a better sound than like just smashing and doing a ten-to-one ratio. That type of deal. So approach this with small movements, because that's going to be more attainable, you're going to be able to chip away at that better than just saying I'm going to take on this massive thing. I just ticked off -- let me count how many: one, two, three, four, five, six -- six things I'm going to quickly talk to you about as fast as I can. Try to be active in the industry. I interact with other artists and developers. This could be graphic designers, this could be animators, this could be devs who are making game engines, that type of thing. So yeah, I do this mainly on Twitter. I follow a whole bunch of people on Twitter that are making games. And so I'll see people post like "here's my new animation for the spell, or this movement/my character", "here's the new 3d environment", "here's this", I even follow other composers and sound "here's my music for that", and I will often write "hey I really like this", "hey, this is great", and it's very inspiring to me to see other people's work. What's really cool about this is it's not stuff I'm tied to; it's not stuff that I'm like "I'm taking part in this", so it's just me being a part of the industry I'm in. That's a huge part. I also attend conferences and local meetups when I can. Now, GDC is one of the biggest ones, I've gone to that one nine times I think -- maybe eight times. Anyway, I'm not going this year for a lot of different reasons, one of the main reasons being the house purchase that we just did, so it's a little bit crazy time. I'm going to be staying here in Austin and working on the house move, but I've gone to conferences a lot. Now GDC what it does -- when you go to GDC, you show your face there. First off, people get face time with you. You're giving people time to experience you as a person, directly. They get to know your personality, your mannerisms, hopefully, you can create some relationships there. The other thing is, everyone knows GDC is expensive. So unless you're going with a company shirt, saying "SGI" or "Netta" or whatever, unless you're going with something that paid your way, they know that you invested a lot of money, and you're investing your time, to go out there. It's kind of a hassle to travel to San Francisco and get a hotel. It's really expensive and then go to the conference. It's a lot of fun, but it's a lot of investment. A lot of energy and money is put into that, and so they recognise that and can respect that, and so that's something that helps distinguish you from someone who's just on a website saying "hey, I think you should hire me". If someone knows you spent time and effort to go out there and interact directly with folks that's gonna speak louder. If you want to focus on local parts, there's all kinds of things you can do. There's meetups. There's a sound designer meetup for beer -- I like beer -- it's like once every quarter or whatever. I need to do one; I haven't done one since moving back to Austin, but when I lived here before I went to a couple. Lots of fun. I enjoyed meeting the other audio professionals and having some beer. Do those, do game jams. Just take part: be active. Now you want to focus on your branding and your marketing. Now this is kind of one that's going to hit people square in the forehead. I'm guilty of this too, but I cannot tell you how many times I've seen particular people copy and paste the same exact post they did two weeks ago, again in some Facebook group or whatever. That's a big no-no. The reason being is because people will just generally recognise "oh I've seen this guy's post. The same wording as last time" and they'll skip over it. You need to just be really careful about that. You know marketing and branding is highly volatile. People will skip over something they've seen before in favour of something that's new, different, shinier. So how do you know where the market's trending? Go back to my first points about being very active in the industry, going to conferences, going to local meetups, just knowing what people are doing. Having a pulse on it. That's gonna take some effort, that's gonna take some time. This would be the fourth one. Know your skill set, and focus on that. You want to continue to grow, right? I like the idea of being a lifetime student, a life long student, just always growing, always learning. I'm growing. I'm trying to learn new instruments, trying to learn new approaches, new instruments, and new technologies, so I'm always in favour of being a lifetime or life long student, but you also want to know: where is the sweet spot for you. Is your sweet spot orchestral and sweet anime sounding kind of music, is your sweet spot jazz and rock, is it hip-hop and electronic? What is it you do really really well, that you really enjoy. Problems that you really like and have a natural aptitude for solving. Those are ones you really want to go for. Put stuff out often. With NDAs, things like that, you can have situations where maybe you're working on a project that's multiple years and it's gonna take you a long time to be able to share that music publicly. That's a bummer, but that happens. So what can you do to get around that? Well first off, you can go back to older projects you've done before that you've shared and say "hey" and you can just put it out there again. I did this recently with a project, where I had written music about a year and a half ago, and I was really proud of the buildup at the end of that track, and so I shared again saying "I'm still very proud of this". It was not a new project, it didn't get a tonne of exposure the first time, and I did that in the hopes to one) fill in some dead space when I'm waiting for other things to become public and live so I can legally share them, and then two) just give that more attention. Bring it back into focus. Maybe someone else who missed it before will see it this time, or maybe someone who saw it before will be reminded, be like "oh, that's right, I remember that. I liked that" and then maybe they'll reach out to me. Here's number six: Give back. I have these vlogs, I'm trying to do this just to give input and give advice, and my personal journey to you guys and gals, in hopes that it's gonna inspire and give you guys some motivation, give you guys some guidance, that type of deal. It motivates me too. I talked a while back -- this was a Facebook Live post, so you won't see it on YouTube -- where I was doing a whole bunch of mentoring, and I described that it's surprising at first, but when you mentor someone, a lot of people think it's going to go from the top down; from the mentor to the mentee. But if you're in a good relationship, in a good situation, very often the mentee can inspire the mentor. And so it's reciprocal, it goes back and forth. Yes, you're pouring into the person that you're teaching, helping, guiding, but they're also inspiring you with their energy, their fresh ideas and fresh outlook on things. It can go back and forth. So I'm a strong advocate of giving back as best you can. I think that's about it. So to recap: Be active in the industry, and stuff that isn't directly you. Don't make it only about you, but take part. And not only about audio. Make it something that's not your discipline. I love the writing in this game. I love the art direction in that game. I love the battle system in this game. By the way, the subtext of that first little bit was "are you playing games?" I mean if you're working in the game industry and you're not playing any games at all you're kind of missing the point. Attend conferences both on the global scale and on the local scale as much as you can. Interface with people directly. Get them to have face time with you directly. It makes a huge impact. Focus on your branding and your marketing. What are you doing? Are you adapting, or are you doing the same stale post over and over again? Know your skill set and focus on that, while on the side keep growing and learning. Put stuff out often. Be just engaging. And then finally, give back to the community in what ways you can. Ok, so I hope that helps. If you like these videos please like, subscribe, comment, share. [Parting remarks]
  21. Tom Sloper

    Best places to "market" my VR game

    Marketing question. Moving to Business forum. See some of the other marketing threads on this forum.
  22. Seeking a game writer for a VR game. Need free work during the initial demo phase for a publisher or Kick Starter presentation to seek funding. The position will become paid, post funding. Will need to sign NDA for final plot characteristics. We will only build the game if there is funding to support that. Applicants Please should include A short story Links/references to previously completed writings or training. Any other abilities that will help/support a game dev team. Send it to Game.Dev@Live.com Short story parameters: Someone is solving a puzzle box. Why? How did it start? 500-1000 words DO NOT FINISH the story, leave it a mystery. Make me wish I had the rest of the story. 1st person perspective, can use narrator to provide outsider knowledge. Something about the puzzle box disobeys known physics. Could be magic, or sci-fi, but you don't need to explain it. NOT HORROR. Exceptions of Cerebral Horror. The game is intended to be a mind bender. NO CONCEPT ART, NO PLOT POINTS. There are key elements behind the NDA that will undoubtedly change these. TEAM: Dan Violet Sagmiller - Industry Vet, published author on Unity/AI, MVP, advanced speaker Nick A. - Senior Programmer ????? - Writer Xtrodinaire ????? - Modeller/Artist ????? - Audio Designer ????? - Level/Puzzle Designer (3D) ????? - Lighting/Effects Engineer.
  23. Zakwayda

    Quaternion to Euler very imprecise

    I'll repeat myself and say that I'm skeptical that Euler-angle conversions are handedness-aware. I just mention this in case you're somehow confusing handedness with axis order (which would be easy to do, since both of these conventions can vary from source to source). As an exercise, it might be interesting to try writing left- and right-handed versions of the same conversion function and see how they differ. That might provide some insight as to whether handedness is actually a factor.
  24. Alundra

    Quaternion to Euler very imprecise

    I finally got the left handed version working: void Quaternion::ToEulerAngles(float* X, float* Y, float* Z) const { const float SingularityTest = (x * w) - (y * z); if (SingularityTest > 0.4999995f) { *Y = 2.0f * atan2(y, x); *X = CMath::HALF_PI; *Z = 0.0f; } else if (SingularityTest < -0.4999995f) { *Y = -2.0f * atan2(y, x); *X = -CMath::HALF_PI; *Z = 0.0f; } else { *Y = atan2(2.0f * w * y + 2.0f * x * z, 1.0f - 2.0f * (x * x + y * y)); *X = asin(2.0f * SingularityTest); *Z = atan2(2.0f * w * z + 2.0f * x * y, 1.0f - 2.0f * (x * x + z * z)); } }
  25. Zakwayda

    Quaternion to Euler very imprecise

    Just out of curiosity, what leads you to believe it's due to handedness and not (as you originally surmised) axis order? (I ask because, as far as I know at least, Euler-angle conversions are usually agnostic with respect to handedness, whereas axis order does in fact matter.)
  26. Yesterday
  27. I just published my Oculus Rift game recently. I announced it on this forum to get some developer based feedback. I would now like to find some good places to gain some traction with "normal" VR consumers. ( People who are not gamedevs ) I was wondering if someone is aware of some nice places to gain some users for my game. PS: This is not a commercial project. I'm just looking to enlarge my user base.
  28. Hello! It is still difficult for me to call myself a sound designer since for the time being there are only tracks in the portfolio) Me with my partner write tracks for games and do it for free, and then we put them under the CC license so that others can use them calmly. I would really like to hear at least a couple of words of interaction from you gamedev and I would be very happy if someone our creative work is useful. Naturally, our goal is to fully sound the games, and maybe something else. So if you have any suggestions for cooperation, welcome!) Here is our website for now if someone is interested to listen. Rage-zone I hope you do not think for advertising. Our goal is not the same.
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