The AMD GPU Open website has posted a brief tutorial providing an overview of objects in the Vulkan API. From the article:
An important part of learning the Vulkan® API – just like any other API – is to understand what types of objects are defined in it, what they represent and how they relate to each other. To help with this, we’ve created a diagram that shows all of the Vulkan objects and some of their relationships, especially the order in which you create one from another.
Read more at http://gpuopen.com/understanding-vulkan-objects/.