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g4br1e1

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  1. Onto OpenGl !!
  2. Hello, Have been following Nehe tutorials for Opengl. Facing some issue with the Texture Application. Eveytime I am running the application, it is throwing [b]"Initialization Failed"[/b] error, in both windowed and fullscreen run. I have been using 1920*1080 pixels with 32 bit. But have also tried the same with 640*480 with 16 bit. No success. [b]Kindly Suggest.[/b] Below is the code from Nehe's tutorials - OepnGl from Lesson 6. [CODE] #include <windows.h> // Header File For Windows #include <stdio.h> // Header File For Standard Input/Output #include <gl\gl.h> // Header File For The OpenGL32 Library #include <gl\glu.h> // Header File For The GLu32 Library #include <glaux.h> // Header File For The Glaux Library #include <gl\glut.h> HDC hDC=NULL; // Private GDI Device Context HGLRC hRC=NULL; // Permanent Rendering Context HWND hWnd=NULL; // Holds Our Window Handle HINSTANCE hInstance; // Holds The Instance Of The Application bool keys[256]; // Array Used For The Keyboard Routine bool active=TRUE; // Window Active Flag Set To TRUE By Default bool fullscreen=TRUE; // Fullscreen Flag Set To Fullscreen Mode By Default GLfloat xrot; // X Rotation ( NEW ) GLfloat yrot; // Y Rotation ( NEW ) GLfloat zrot; // Z Rotation ( NEW ) GLuint texture[1]; // Storage For One Texture ( NEW ) LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM); // Declaration For WndProc AUX_RGBImageRec *LoadBMP(char *Filename) // Loads A Bitmap Image { FILE *File=NULL; // File Handle if (!Filename) // Make Sure A Filename Was Given { return NULL; // If Not Return NULL } File=fopen(Filename,"r"); // Check To See If The File Exists if (File) // Does The File Exist? { fclose(File); // Close The Handle return auxDIBImageLoad((LPCWSTR)Filename); // Load The Bitmap And Return A Pointer } return NULL; // If Load Failed Return NULL } int LoadGLTextures() // Load Bitmaps And Convert To Textures { int Status=FALSE; // Status Indicator AUX_RGBImageRec *TextureImage[1]; // Create Storage Space For The Texture memset(TextureImage,0,sizeof(void *)*1); // Set The Pointer To NULL // Load The Bitmap, Check For Errors, If Bitmap's Not Found Quit if (TextureImage[0]=LoadBMP("Data/castiron.bmp")) { Status=TRUE; // Set The Status To TRUE glGenTextures(1, &texture[0]); // Create The Texture // Typical Texture Generation Using Data From The Bitmap glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, TextureImage[0]->sizeX, TextureImage[0]->sizeY, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TextureImage[0]->data); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); } if (TextureImage[0]) // If Texture Exists { if (TextureImage[0]->data) // If Texture Image Exists { free(TextureImage[0]->data); // Free The Texture Image Memory } free(TextureImage[0]); // Free The Image Structure } return Status; // Return The Status } GLvoid ReSizeGLScene(GLsizei width, GLsizei height) // Resize And Initialize The GL Window { if (height==0) // Prevent A Divide By Zero By { height=1; // Making Height Equal One } glViewport(0,0,width,height); // Reset The Current Viewport glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); // Select The Projection Matrix glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Projection Matrix // Calculate The Aspect Ratio Of The Window gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLfloat)width/(GLfloat)height,0.1f,100.0f); glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); // Select The Modelview Matrix glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Modelview Matrix } int InitGL(GLvoid) // All Setup For OpenGL Goes Here { if (!LoadGLTextures()) // Jump To Texture Loading Routine ( NEW ) { return FALSE; // If Texture Didn't Load Return FALSE } glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); // Enable Texture Mapping ( NEW ) glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); // Enable Smooth Shading glClearColor(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f); // Black Background glClearDepth(1.0f); // Depth Buffer Setup glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); // Enables Depth Testing glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); // The Type Of Depth Testing To Do glHint(GL_PERSPECTIVE_CORRECTION_HINT, GL_NICEST); // Really Nice Perspective Calculations return TRUE; // Initialization Went OK } int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) // Here's Where We Do All The Drawing { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); // Clear The Screen And The Depth Buffer glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The View glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-5.0f); glRotatef(xrot,1.0f,0.0f,0.0f); glRotatef(yrot,0.0f,1.0f,0.0f); glRotatef(zrot,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f); glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glBegin(GL_QUADS); // Front Face glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); // Back Face glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f); // Top Face glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f); // Bottom Face glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f); // Right face glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f( 1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f); // Left Face glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, -1.0f, -1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 0.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(1.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); glTexCoord2f(0.0f, 1.0f); glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, -1.0f); glEnd(); xrot+=0.3f; yrot+=0.2f; zrot+=0.4f; return TRUE; // Keep Going } GLvoid KillGLWindow(GLvoid) // Properly Kill The Window { if (fullscreen) // Are We In Fullscreen Mode? { ChangeDisplaySettings(NULL,0); // If So Switch Back To The Desktop ShowCursor(TRUE); // Show Mouse Pointer } if (hRC) // Do We Have A Rendering Context? { if (!wglMakeCurrent(NULL,NULL)) // Are We Able To Release The DC And RC Contexts? { MessageBox(NULL,L"Release Of DC And RC Failed.",L"SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); } if (!wglDeleteContext(hRC)) // Are We Able To Delete The RC? { MessageBox(NULL,L"Release Rendering Context Failed.",L"SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); } hRC=NULL; // Set RC To NULL } if (hDC && !ReleaseDC(hWnd,hDC)) // Are We Able To Release The DC { MessageBox(NULL,L"Release Device Context Failed.",L"SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); hDC=NULL; // Set DC To NULL } if (hWnd && !DestroyWindow(hWnd)) // Are We Able To Destroy The Window? { MessageBox(NULL,L"Could Not Release hWnd.",L"SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); hWnd=NULL; // Set hWnd To NULL } if (!UnregisterClass(L"OpenGL",hInstance)) // Are We Able To Unregister Class { MessageBox(NULL,L"Could Not Unregister Class.",L"SHUTDOWN ERROR",MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION); hInstance=NULL; // Set hInstance To NULL } } /* This Code Creates Our OpenGL Window. Parameters Are: * * title - Title To Appear At The Top Of The Window * * width - Width Of The GL Window Or Fullscreen Mode * * height - Height Of The GL Window Or Fullscreen Mode * * bits - Number Of Bits To Use For Color (8/16/24/32) * * fullscreenflag - Use Fullscreen Mode (TRUE) Or Windowed Mode (FALSE) */ BOOL CreateGLWindow(char* title, int width, int height, int bits, bool fullscreenflag) { GLuint PixelFormat; // Holds The Results After Searching For A Match WNDCLASS wc; // Windows Class Structure DWORD dwExStyle; // Window Extended Style DWORD dwStyle; // Window Style RECT WindowRect; // Grabs Rectangle Upper Left / Lower Right Values WindowRect.left=(long)0; // Set Left Value To 0 WindowRect.right=(long)width; // Set Right Value To Requested Width WindowRect.top=(long)0; // Set Top Value To 0 WindowRect.bottom=(long)height; // Set Bottom Value To Requested Height fullscreen=fullscreenflag; // Set The Global Fullscreen Flag hInstance = GetModuleHandle(NULL); // Grab An Instance For Our Window wc.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW | CS_OWNDC; // Redraw On Size, And Own DC For Window. wc.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC) WndProc; // WndProc Handles Messages wc.cbClsExtra = 0; // No Extra Window Data wc.cbWndExtra = 0; // No Extra Window Data wc.hInstance = hInstance; // Set The Instance wc.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL, IDI_WINLOGO); // Load The Default Icon wc.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL, IDC_ARROW); // Load The Arrow Pointer wc.hbrBackground = NULL; // No Background Required For GL wc.lpszMenuName = NULL; // We Don't Want A Menu wc.lpszClassName = L"OpenGL"; // Set The Class Name if (!RegisterClass(&wc)) // Attempt To Register The Window Class { MessageBox(NULL,L"Failed To Register The Window Class.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } if (fullscreen) // Attempt Fullscreen Mode? { DEVMODE dmScreenSettings; // Device Mode memset(&dmScreenSettings,0,sizeof(dmScreenSettings)); // Makes Sure Memory's Cleared dmScreenSettings.dmSize=sizeof(dmScreenSettings); // Size Of The Devmode Structure dmScreenSettings.dmPelsWidth = width; // Selected Screen Width dmScreenSettings.dmPelsHeight = height; // Selected Screen Height dmScreenSettings.dmBitsPerPel = bits; // Selected Bits Per Pixel dmScreenSettings.dmFields=DM_BITSPERPEL|DM_PELSWIDTH|DM_PELSHEIGHT; // Try To Set Selected Mode And Get Results. NOTE: CDS_FULLSCREEN Gets Rid Of Start Bar. if (ChangeDisplaySettings(&dmScreenSettings,CDS_FULLSCREEN)!=DISP_CHANGE_SUCCESSFUL) { // If The Mode Fails, Offer Two Options. Quit Or Use Windowed Mode. if (MessageBox(NULL,L"The Requested Fullscreen Mode Is Not Supported By\nYour Video Card. Use Windowed Mode Instead?",L"NeHe GL",MB_YESNO|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION)==IDYES) { fullscreen=FALSE; // Windowed Mode Selected. Fullscreen = FALSE } else { // Pop Up A Message Box Letting User Know The Program Is Closing. MessageBox(NULL,L"Program Will Now Close.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONSTOP); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } } } if (fullscreen) // Are We Still In Fullscreen Mode? { dwExStyle=WS_EX_APPWINDOW; // Window Extended Style dwStyle=WS_POPUP; // Windows Style ShowCursor(FALSE); // Hide Mouse Pointer } else { dwExStyle=WS_EX_APPWINDOW | WS_EX_WINDOWEDGE; // Window Extended Style dwStyle=WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW; // Windows Style } AdjustWindowRectEx(&WindowRect, dwStyle, FALSE, dwExStyle); // Adjust Window To True Requested Size // Create The Window if (!(hWnd=CreateWindowEx( dwExStyle, // Extended Style For The Window L"OpenGL", // Class Name L"OpenGL", // Window Title dwStyle | // Defined Window Style WS_CLIPSIBLINGS | // Required Window Style WS_CLIPCHILDREN, // Required Window Style 0, 0, // Window Position WindowRect.right-WindowRect.left, // Calculate Window Width WindowRect.bottom-WindowRect.top, // Calculate Window Height NULL, // No Parent Window NULL, // No Menu hInstance, // Instance NULL))) // Dont Pass Anything To WM_CREATE { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Window Creation Error.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } static PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd= // pfd Tells Windows How We Want Things To Be { sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR), // Size Of This Pixel Format Descriptor 1, // Version Number PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | // Format Must Support Window PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | // Format Must Support OpenGL PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER, // Must Support Double Buffering PFD_TYPE_RGBA, // Request An RGBA Format bits, // Select Our Color Depth 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, // Color Bits Ignored 0, // No Alpha Buffer 0, // Shift Bit Ignored 0, // No Accumulation Buffer 0, 0, 0, 0, // Accumulation Bits Ignored 16, // 16Bit Z-Buffer (Depth Buffer) 0, // No Stencil Buffer 0, // No Auxiliary Buffer PFD_MAIN_PLANE, // Main Drawing Layer 0, // Reserved 0, 0, 0 // Layer Masks Ignored }; if (!(hDC=GetDC(hWnd))) // Did We Get A Device Context? { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Can't Create A GL Device Context.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } if (!(PixelFormat=ChoosePixelFormat(hDC,&pfd))) // Did Windows Find A Matching Pixel Format? { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Can't Find A Suitable PixelFormat.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } if(!SetPixelFormat(hDC,PixelFormat,&pfd)) // Are We Able To Set The Pixel Format? { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Can't Set The PixelFormat.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } if (!(hRC=wglCreateContext(hDC))) // Are We Able To Get A Rendering Context? { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Can't Create A GL Rendering Context.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } if(!wglMakeCurrent(hDC,hRC)) // Try To Activate The Rendering Context { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Can't Activate The GL Rendering Context.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } ShowWindow(hWnd,SW_SHOW); // Show The Window SetForegroundWindow(hWnd); // Slightly Higher Priority SetFocus(hWnd); // Sets Keyboard Focus To The Window ReSizeGLScene(width, height); // Set Up Our Perspective GL Screen if (!InitGL()) // Initialize Our Newly Created GL Window { KillGLWindow(); // Reset The Display MessageBox(NULL,L"Initialization Failed.",L"ERROR",MB_OK|MB_ICONEXCLAMATION); return FALSE; // Return FALSE } return TRUE; // Success } LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc( HWND hWnd, // Handle For This Window UINT uMsg, // Message For This Window WPARAM wParam, // Additional Message Information LPARAM lParam) // Additional Message Information { switch (uMsg) // Check For Windows Messages { case WM_ACTIVATE: // Watch For Window Activate Message { if (!HIWORD(wParam)) // Check Minimization State { active=TRUE; // Program Is Active } else { active=FALSE; // Program Is No Longer Active } return 0; // Return To The Message Loop } case WM_SYSCOMMAND: // Intercept System Commands { switch (wParam) // Check System Calls { case SC_SCREENSAVE: // Screensaver Trying To Start? case SC_MONITORPOWER: // Monitor Trying To Enter Powersave? return 0; // Prevent From Happening } break; // Exit } case WM_CLOSE: // Did We Receive A Close Message? { PostQuitMessage(0); // Send A Quit Message return 0; // Jump Back } case WM_KEYDOWN: // Is A Key Being Held Down? { keys[wParam] = TRUE; // If So, Mark It As TRUE return 0; // Jump Back } case WM_KEYUP: // Has A Key Been Released? { keys[wParam] = FALSE; // If So, Mark It As FALSE return 0; // Jump Back } case WM_SIZE: // Resize The OpenGL Window { ReSizeGLScene(LOWORD(lParam),HIWORD(lParam)); // LoWord=Width, HiWord=Height return 0; // Jump Back } } // Pass All Unhandled Messages To DefWindowProc return DefWindowProc(hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam); } int WINAPI WinMain( HINSTANCE hInstance, // Instance HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, // Previous Instance LPSTR lpCmdLine, // Command Line Parameters int nCmdShow) // Window Show State { MSG msg; // Windows Message Structure BOOL done=FALSE; // Bool Variable To Exit Loop // Ask The User Which Screen Mode They Prefer if (MessageBox(NULL,L"Would You Like To Run In Fullscreen Mode?", L"Start FullScreen?",MB_YESNO|MB_ICONQUESTION)==IDNO) { fullscreen=FALSE; // Windowed Mode } // Create Our OpenGL Window if (!CreateGLWindow("NeHe's Texture Mapping Tutorial",1920,1080,32,fullscreen)) { return 0; // Quit If Window Was Not Created } while(!done) // Loop That Runs While done=FALSE { if (PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE)) // Is There A Message Waiting? { if (msg.message==WM_QUIT) // Have We Received A Quit Message? { done=TRUE; // If So done=TRUE } else // If Not, Deal With Window Messages { TranslateMessage(&msg); // Translate The Message DispatchMessage(&msg); // Dispatch The Message } } else // If There Are No Messages { // Draw The Scene. Watch For ESC Key And Quit Messages From DrawGLScene() if ((active && !DrawGLScene()) || keys[VK_ESCAPE]) // Active? Was There A Quit Received? { done=TRUE; // ESC or DrawGLScene Signalled A Quit } else // Not Time To Quit, Update Screen { SwapBuffers(hDC); // Swap Buffers (Double Buffering) } if (keys[VK_F1]) // Is F1 Being Pressed? { keys[VK_F1]=FALSE; // If So Make Key FALSE KillGLWindow(); // Kill Our Current Window fullscreen=!fullscreen; // Toggle Fullscreen / Windowed Mode // Recreate Our OpenGL Window if (!CreateGLWindow("NeHe's Texture Mapping Tutorial",1920,1080,32,fullscreen)) { return 0; // Quit If Window Was Not Created } } } } // Shutdown KillGLWindow(); // Kill The Window return (msg.wParam); // Exit The Program } [/CODE]
  3. There was error in passing the handle to window in the above code. I identified it.
  4. [attachment=5012:DirectX_1.txt] Attached is the code I am using to create a Offscreenplainsurface using a bitmap image named as "background.bmp". I am clearing the screen to the blue screen initially and then obtaining the image from the backbuffer. After running the program, view filled only with blue color gets rendered and not the bitmap image. Kindly suggest. Following is the error that comes up when I enabled debugging using DirectX. [b]Direct3D9: (ERROR) :Invalid source surface interface specified. StretchRect fails[/b] I could not find any issue with the code. I am simply returning the "surface" reference into the "bkgrd"; which in turn is being used in: [code]pd3dDevice->StretchRect(bkgrd,NULL,backbuffer,NULL,D3DTEXF_NONE);[/code] [code]IDirect3DSurface9* getSurfaceFromBitmap()[attachment=5011:DirectX_1.txt] { IDirect3DSurface9* surface=NULL; HRESULT hResult=pd3dDevice->CreateOffscreenPlainSurface(640,480,D3DFMT_X8R8G8B8,D3DPOOL_DEFAULT,&surface,NULL); if(FAILED(hResult)) return NULL; hResult = D3DXLoadSurfaceFromFile(surface,NULL,NULL,"background.bmp",NULL,D3DX_DEFAULT,0,NULL); if(FAILED(hResult)) return NULL; return surface; }[/code] [b]bkgrd = getSurfaceFromBitmap();[/b] Does resource file has anything to do with this.
  5. Attached is the code I am using to create a Offscreenplainsurface using a bitmap image named as "background.bmp". I am clearing the screen to the blue screen initially and then obtaining the image from the backbuffer. After running the program, view filled only with blue color gets rendered and not the bitmap image. Kindly suggest. Following is the error that comes up when I enabled debugging using DirectX. [b]Direct3D9: (ERROR) :Invalid source surface interface specified. StretchRect fails[/b] I could not find any issue with the code. I am simply returning the "surface" reference into the "bkgrd"; which in turn is being used in: [b]pd3dDevice->StretchRect(bkgrd,NULL,backbuffer,NULL,D3DTEXF_NONE);[/b] IDirect3DSurface9* getSurfaceFromBitmap() { IDirect3DSurface9* surface=NULL; HRESULT hResult=pd3dDevice->CreateOffscreenPlainSurface(640,480,D3DFMT_X8R8G8B8,D3DPOOL_DEFAULT,&surface,NULL); if(FAILED(hResult)) return NULL; hResult = D3DXLoadSurfaceFromFile(surface,NULL,NULL,"background.bmp",NULL,D3DX_DEFAULT,0,NULL); if(FAILED(hResult)) return NULL; return surface; } [b]bkgrd = getSurfaceFromBitmap();[/b] Does resource file has anything to do with this.
  6. Hello All, I am a beginner to game programming. I started writing a code using DirectX, but my code, which is below, is not able to render the bitmap over to the screen. Please suggest the changes and tips. #include<Windows.h> #include<d3d9.h> #include<d3dx9.h> HINSTANCE hInstance; HWND wndHandle; LPDIRECT3D9 pD3D; LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9 pd3dDevice; IDirect3DSurface9* surface; bool initWindow(HINSTANCE hInstance); LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND,UINT,WPARAM,LPARAM); void render(void); bool initDirect3D(void); void cleanup(void); int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow) { //initialize the windows if(!initWindow(hInstance)) return false; if(!initDirect3D()) return false; //cleanup(); //main message loop MSG msg; ZeroMemory(&msg,sizeof(msg)); if(PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0U,0U,PM_REMOVE)) { TranslateMessage(&msg); DispatchMessage(&msg); } else render(); return (int)msg.wParam; } bool initWindow(HINSTANCE hInstance) { WNDCLASSEX wcex; wcex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX); wcex.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW; wcex.lpfnWndProc = (WNDPROC)WndProc; wcex.cbClsExtra = 0; wcex.cbWndExtra = 0; wcex.hInstance = hInstance; wcex.hIcon = NULL; wcex.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL,IDC_ARROW); wcex.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_WINDOW+1); wcex.lpszMenuName = NULL; wcex.lpszClassName = L"DirectXExample"; wcex.hIconSm = 0; RegisterClassEx(&wcex); wndHandle = CreateWindow( L"DirectXExample", L"DirectXExample", WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, CW_USEDEFAULT, CW_USEDEFAULT, 640, 480, NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL); if(!wndHandle) return false; //display the window on the screen ShowWindow(wndHandle,SW_SHOW); UpdateWindow(wndHandle); return true; } LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND wndHandle, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) { //check the available messages from the queue switch(message) { case WM_DESTROY: PostQuitMessage(0); break; } return DefWindowProc(wndHandle, message, wParam, lParam); } bool initDirect3D(void) { pD3D=NULL; pd3dDevice=NULL; //create Directx object if(NULL == (pD3D=Direct3DCreate9(D3D_SDK_VERSION))) return false; //fill the presentation parameters structure D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS d3dpp; ZeroMemory(&d3dpp,sizeof(d3dpp)); d3dpp.Windowed = TRUE; d3dpp.SwapEffect = D3DSWAPEFFECT_DISCARD; d3dpp.BackBufferFormat = D3DFMT_UNKNOWN; d3dpp.BackBufferCount = 1; d3dpp.BackBufferHeight = 480; d3dpp.BackBufferWidth = 640; d3dpp.hDeviceWindow = wndHandle; //create a default directx device if(FAILED(pD3D->CreateDevice(D3DADAPTER_DEFAULT, D3DDEVTYPE_HAL, wndHandle, D3DCREATE_SOFTWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING, &d3dpp, &pd3dDevice))) return false; //CreateOffscreenPlainSurface(); HRESULT hResult = pd3dDevice->CreateOffscreenPlainSurface(640, 480, D3DFMT_X8R8G8B8, D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &surface, NULL); if(FAILED(hResult)) return NULL; D3DXLoadSurfaceFromFile(surface, NULL, NULL, L"[b]test.bmp[/b]", NULL, D3DX_DEFAULT, 0, NULL); return true; } void render(void) { //to hold the back buffer IDirect3DSurface9* backbuffer = NULL; //check to make sure you have a valid Direct3D device if(NULL == pd3dDevice) return; //clear the back buffer to blue color. pd3dDevice->Clear(0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,255), 1.0f, 0); //get the backbuffer pd3dDevice->GetBackBuffer(0, 0, D3DBACKBUFFER_TYPE_MONO, &backbuffer); //copy the offscreen to the backbuffer pd3dDevice->StretchRect(surface, NULL, backbuffer, NULL, D3DTEXF_NONE); //present the back buffer contents to the display pd3dDevice->Present(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL); } void cleanup(void) { //releasing the device and the direct3d object if(pd3dDevice!=NULL) pd3dDevice->Release(); if(pD3D!=NULL) pD3D->Release(); }