I can see maybe a few ways you can go about learning what you need to know:
1. game programming books
Many of these books introduce beginning programmers to game programming. They provide a good primer on basic game architecture/constructs like the game loop, game networking, sound/audio management, user interface, game concurrency/thread management, etc. If you want a basic intro (looks to me like this is what you want now), this is a good way to quickly learn what you need.
2. read source code
The 1st suggestion above gives you only the most rudimentary intro to game architecture that works for simpler games. For "real world" game design/architecture that solves some really challenging problems with distributed players, huge worlds, dead-reckoning, etc, you should go dig into source code.
Alot of these are in C/C++ so looking at the header files will be a good place to start.
There are obviously alot more open sourced code lying around. But these are the 2 I actually dug into. Admittedly they are abit archaic by now.
3. read forums
There are quite a bit of discussion on specific stuff like game networking, texture management, world creation, on gamedev itself, as well as other blogs/portals. Go Google them.