Daniel Wilson
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Tool to mathematically create a mesh
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Engines and Middleware
[quote name='scniton' timestamp='1342546719' post='4960078'] I've only played with this on linux, but seems to fit your description the most: [url="http://k3dsurf.sourceforge.net/"]http://k3dsurf.sourceforge.net/[/url] [/quote] That's what I needed thanks! 
What to do with an attenuated light vector in my shader
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
So I've been working on this a while longer, and the only real conclusion I have come up with is the colour values must be wrong. I thought for a while maybe they were right and I was not doing the correct thing with the result. I was given the good advice that: [quote]The scattered radiance should be added to the phong radiance component because the phong model computes the radiance at the surface only, the scattered radiance is just more radiance coming from under the surface, to the eye. [/quote] So hopefully that might help some future googlers, now if if I could just work out the correct values to begin with! I knew the colours were too trippy [img]http://public.gamedev.net//public/style_emoticons/default/rolleyes.gif[/img] 
How to change colour based on viewing angle
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
Very nice thanks for that cool answer, the effect is simple works well for my purposes! 
How to change colour based on viewing angle
Daniel Wilson posted a topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
I would like to fake some caustics on a glassy surface very quickly, and the idea I have is to overlay a static caustic texture that appears based on the viewing angle, so when the angle is more grazing, more of the texture appears. How might I do this? A small piece of code would be seriously amazing. Thankyou! 
What to do with an attenuated light vector in my shader
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
Yeah should've mentioned that too sorry, I am certain that data is correct. This shader is actually being used in Ogre, and it's easy to generate the texture in Ogre and the output is virtually identical to fx composer. Each rgba component in the floating point texture just holds a preset scattering coefficient value taken from this table: [img]http://img17.imageshack.us/img17/765/capturexv.png[/img] 
What to do with an attenuated light vector in my shader
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
Woops sorry, I've gotten so deep into this thing I'm just assuming the whole world knows what I mean by [font=courier new,courier,monospace]p_omega_out[/font] [img]http://public.gamedev.net//public/style_emoticons/default/biggrin.png[/img]. I appreciate the help and even general advice is very useful. Here is another screen from the paper which should be looked at with the image from the first post. [img]http://img824.imageshack.us/img824/3552/capturepjd.png[/img] When I say [font=courier new,courier,monospace]p_omega_out[/font], I mean the vector from the pixel P to the viewer. Here is the fx composer file I have at the moment, it's rather large and based off of the algorithms in the paper which you would probably need to read in full to make sense of so I won't ask you to do that! I am applying [url="http://img441.imageshack.us/img441/1986/sstm2.png"]this map as the subsurface texture map[/url]. [source lang="java"]/*****************************************************************/ /*** HOST APPLICATION IDENTIFIERS ********************************/ /*** Potentially predefined by varying host environments *********/ /*****************************************************************/ // #define _XSI_ /* predefined when running in XSI */ // #define TORQUE /* predefined in TGEA 1.7 and up */ // #define _3DSMAX_ /* predefined in 3DS Max */ #ifdef _3DSMAX_ int ParamID = 0x0003; /* Used by Max to select the correct parser */ #endif /* _3DSMAX_ */ #ifdef _XSI_ #define Main Static /* Technique name used for export to XNA */ #endif /* _XSI_ */ #ifndef FXCOMPOSER_VERSION /* for very old versions */ #define FXCOMPOSER_VERSION 180 #endif /* FXCOMPOSER_VERSION */ #ifndef DIRECT3D_VERSION #define DIRECT3D_VERSION 0x900 #endif /* DIRECT3D_VERSION */ #define FLIP_TEXTURE_Y /* Different in OpenGL & DirectX */ /*****************************************************************/ /*** EFFECTSPECIFIC CODE BEGINS HERE ****************************/ /*****************************************************************/ /******* Lighting Macros *******/ /** To use "ObjectSpace" lighting definitions, change these two macros: **/ #define LIGHT_COORDS "World" // #define OBJECT_SPACE_LIGHTS /* Define if LIGHT_COORDS is "Object" */ /**** UNTWEAKABLES: Hidden & AutomaticallyTracked Parameters **********/ // transform object vertices to worldspace: float4x4 gWorldXf : World < string UIWidget="None"; >; // transform object vertices to view space and project them in perspective: float4x4 gWvpXf : WorldViewProjection < string UIWidget="None"; >; // Ambient Light float4 ambient : AMBIENT < string UIName = "Ambient Light Color"; string UIWidget = "Color"; > = {0.7f,0.7f,0.7f,1.0f}; // surface color float4 diffuse : DIFFUSE < string UIName = "Diffuse Color"; string UIWidget = "Color"; > = {0.9f,0.9f,0.9f,1.0f}; float4 specular < string UIName = "Specular Color"; string UIWidget = "color"; > = {0.75,0.75,0.75,1}; float specularPower < string UIName = "Phong Exponent"; string UIWidget = "slider"; float UIMin = 1.0f; float UIStep = 4; float UIMax = 256.0f; > = 8.0; /*********** TEXTURES ***************/ texture gColorTexture : DIFFUSE < string ResourceName = "grey.jpg"; string UIName = "Color Texture"; string ResourceType = "2D"; >; sampler2D cm = sampler_state { Texture = <gColorTexture>; #if DIRECT3D_VERSION >= 0xa00 Filter = MIN_MAG_MIP_LINEAR; #else /* DIRECT3D_VERSION < 0xa00 */ MinFilter = Linear; MipFilter = Linear; MagFilter = Linear; #endif /* DIRECT3D_VERSION */ AddressU = Wrap; AddressV = Wrap; }; texture gReliefTexture < string ResourceName = "SSTM.png"; string UIName = "SSTM"; string ResourceType = "2D"; >; sampler2D sstm = sampler_state { Texture = <gReliefTexture>; #if DIRECT3D_VERSION >= 0xa00 Filter = MIN_MAG_MIP_LINEAR; #else /* DIRECT3D_VERSION < 0xa00 */ MinFilter = Linear; MipFilter = Linear; MagFilter = Linear; #endif /* DIRECT3D_VERSION */ AddressU = Wrap; AddressV = Wrap; }; texture gNormalTexture : NORMAL < string ResourceName = "grey.jpg"; string UIName = "Normal Texture"; string ResourceType = "2D"; >; sampler2D nm = sampler_state { Texture = <gNormalTexture>; #if DIRECT3D_VERSION >= 0xa00 Filter = MIN_MAG_MIP_LINEAR; #else /* DIRECT3D_VERSION < 0xa00 */ MinFilter = Linear; MipFilter = Linear; MagFilter = Linear; #endif /* DIRECT3D_VERSION */ AddressU = Wrap; AddressV = Wrap; }; texture gMatrixTex < string ResourceName = "grey.jpg"; string UIName = "Matrix Texture"; string ResourceType = "1D"; >; sampler1D matrix_tex = sampler_state { Texture = <gMatrixTex>; }; float3x3 matTangent; float3 worldEyePos : CAMERAPOSITION; static const float AmbientIntensity = 1.0f; // The intensity of the ambient light. static const float DiffuseIntensity = 1.0f; // The intensity of the diffuse light. static const float SpecularIntensity = 1.0f; // The intensity of the specular light. /********** CONNECTOR STRUCTURES *****************/ struct a2v //Application to a vertex { float4 pos : POSITION0; float3 normal : NORMAL; float4 tangent : TANGENT0; float4 binormal : BINORMAL0; float2 texcoord : TEXCOORD0; float3 NSp : TEXCOORD1; }; struct v2f //Vertex to a fragment (vertex output) { float4 hpos : POSITION0; //For rasterizer (not available in fragment shader, but must be written to) float2 texcoord : TEXCOORD0; float3 oNSp : TEXCOORD1; float4 tangent : TEXCOORD2; float3 eye : TEXCOORD3; float3 worldLightDir : TEXCOORD4; float4 binormal : TEXCOORD5; float3 normal : TEXCOORD6; float3 oPosition : TEXCOORD7; float3 tangentSpaceEye : TEXCOORD8; float3 tangentSpaceLightDir : TEXCOORD9; }; struct outPixel { float4 colour : COLOR0; }; /*** SHADER FUNCTIONS **********************************************/ v2f view_spaceVS(a2v IN, uniform float4x4 WorldXf, uniform float4x4 WvpXf ) { // invert matrixes for FX Composer WvpXf = transpose(WvpXf); WorldXf = transpose(WorldXf); v2f OUT = (v2f)0; // vertex position in homogeneous clip space OUT.hpos=mul(WvpXf, IN.pos); OUT.texcoord = IN.texcoord; // View vector in world space float3 worldPos = mul(WorldXf, IN.pos).xyz; OUT.eye = normalize(worldEyePos  worldPos); //Vertex to the eye (as opposed to incident eye>vert) // Directional light so just normalize once OUT.worldLightDir = normalize(float3(0, 1, 0)); // Planar approximation in world space float4 N = float4(0, 1, 0, 0); float4 B = float4(0, 0, 1, 0); float4 T = float4(1, 0, 0, 0); OUT.oNSp = mul(WorldXf, N); //Position in world space OUT.oPosition = worldPos; //T, B, N in world space OUT.normal = mul(WorldXf, N); OUT.tangent = mul(WorldXf, T); OUT.binormal = mul(WorldXf, B); matTangent[0] = OUT.tangent; matTangent[1] = OUT.binormal; matTangent[2] = OUT.normal; OUT.tangentSpaceEye = normalize(mul(OUT.eye, matTangent)); OUT.tangentSpaceLightDir = normalize(mul(OUT.worldLightDir, matTangent)); return OUT; } // float4 color_mapping(v2f IN, in float3 p_omega_out, in float4 ambient, in float4 diffuse, in float4 specular, in float specularPower, in sampler2D color_map : register(s0), in sampler2D sstm : register(s1), in sampler2D nm : register(s3) ) { float3 BumpNormal = tex2D(nm, IN.texcoord)*2.0  1.0; float4 amb = AmbientIntensity * ambient; float4 diff = DiffuseIntensity * float4(p_omega_out, 1) * saturate(dot(IN.tangentSpaceLightDir,BumpNormal)); float3 R = normalize(2.0 * dot(BumpNormal, IN.tangentSpaceLightDir) * BumpNormal  IN.tangentSpaceLightDir); float3 v = normalize(IN.tangentSpaceEye); float spec = pow(saturate(dot(R,v)), specularPower) * SpecularIntensity; // compute final color float4 color = tex2D(color_map,IN.texcoord); float4 finalcolor = (amb + diff + spec) * color; //Remove this line to display p_omega_out with the diffuse and normal map // finalcolor = float4(p_omega_out, 1.0); // return finalcolor; } // float FindLayer(in float depthM, in float2 umvm, in sampler2D sstm : register(s1) ) { float4 ss_val = tex2Dlod(sstm, float4(umvm.x, umvm.y, 0, 1)); float layer = 0; //Check red first, if depth is < red, layer = 0 //If and only if depth is greater than red, check if depth < green > layer = 1 if(depthM > ss_val.x) { if(depthM > ss_val.y) { layer = 1; if(depthM > ss_val.z) { layer = 2; } } } //if(depthM > ss_val.w){layer = 3;} return layer; } // float4 LayerThickness(in float3 m, in float2 umvm, in sampler2D sstm : register(s1) ) { float4 ss_val = tex2Dlod(sstm, float4(umvm.x, umvm.y, 0, 1)); return ss_val/4.0; //Divided by 4 because (1,0,0,0) = 1/4 red, (1, 1, 1, 1) = 0.25 + 0.25 + 0.25 + 0.25 = the full depth of 1 } // float3 ReducedIntensity(in float3 p, in float3 m, in float3 lightdir, in sampler2D sstm : register(s1), in float3 normal, in float2 umvm, in float i, in float3 PM_max, in float2 upvp, in float4 tangent, in float4 binormal, in float3 NSp, in float3 diffuse, in float num_samplesF ) { //L_ri(M, Omega_in) float3 finalLightVector = float3(0, 0, 0); float AttenuationKM = 1.0; //Obtain a planar surface approximation for the current m depth [light and m in view space] //light position  m float3 omega_in = normalize(float3(0, 1, 0)  m); float3 Nm = ((i*normal)+((num_samplesF  i)*NSp))/num_samplesF; float3 Pm = ((i*PM_max) + ((num_samplesF  i)*p))/num_samplesF; //Nm = normalize(Nm); //Pm = normalize(Pm); float cosTheta = cos(dot(Nm, omega_in)); //Calculate the distance KM float KM = length(dot((Pm*m),Nm))/cosTheta; //Compute the thickness of the layers at the point M, lookup SSTM float4 thicknessLayersM = LayerThickness(m, umvm, sstm); //Compute the thickness of the layers at the point K float3 K = m + (KM*omega_in); //SWAPPED to go back up to K float3 PK = K  p; //PK 0 first time round, p ad K are the same float2 ukvk = (0,0); ukvk.x = upvp.x + dot(PK, tangent.xyz); ukvk.y = upvp.y + dot(PK, binormal.xyz); //ukvk = normalize(ukvk); float4 thicknessLayersK = LayerThickness(K, ukvk, sstm); //Average thicknesses float4 thicknessAverage = 0.5*(thicknessLayersM + thicknessLayersK); float sigmaX = ((thicknessLayersM.x  thicknessLayersK.x)/2.0)/cosTheta; float sigmaY = ((thicknessLayersM.y  thicknessLayersK.y)/2.0)/cosTheta; float sigmaZ = ((thicknessLayersM.z  thicknessLayersK.z)/2.0)/cosTheta; float sigmaW = ((thicknessLayersM.w  thicknessLayersK.w)/2.0)/cosTheta; float sigmaTotal = sigmaX+sigmaY+sigmaZ+sigmaW; float d1,d2,d3,d4; d1 = min(KM  sigmaTotal, thicknessAverage.x/cosTheta); d2 = min(KM  sigmaTotal, thicknessAverage.y/cosTheta); d3 = min(KM  sigmaTotal, thicknessAverage.z/cosTheta); d4 = min(KM  sigmaTotal, thicknessAverage.w/cosTheta); //Calculate the attenuation along KM: float att_1, att_2, att_3, att_4; att_1 = exp(2.6 * d1); att_2 = exp(6.6 * d2); att_3 = exp(1.5 * d3); att_4 = exp(1.0 * d4); //TODO: Make not HARD CODED! [img]http://public.gamedev.net//public/style_emoticons/default/ohmy.png[/img] AttenuationKM = att_1*att_2*att_3*att_4; //Estimate the reduced intensity, light position  k float3 omega_in_k = float3(0, 1, 0)  K; finalLightVector = omega_in_k*AttenuationKM; return finalLightVector; } // float PhaseFunction(float g, float theta) { float pTheta = (1.0(g*g))/4.0*3.14*(1.0+g*cos(theta))*(1.0+g*cos(theta)); return pTheta; } // /************ PIXEL SHADER ******************/ float4 pixel_shader(v2f IN, uniform float specularPower, uniform float4 ambient, uniform float4 diffuse, uniform float4 specular, uniform sampler2D cm, //diffuse color map uniform sampler2D sstm, //Subsurface Texture uniform sampler1D matrix_tex, //Floating Point texture containing scattering coefficients uniform sampler2D nm //Normal map, not needed ) : COLOR0 { float3 p = IN.oPosition; //The pixel position in world space float num_samplesF = 50.0f; //Omega out is the view vector to the point float3 omega_out = IN.eye; //The view vector in world space //L(P, Omega_out) The lighting contribution vector from point P float3 p_omega_out = float3(0,0,0); float AttenuationPM = 1.0; float Depth_max = 1.0; float3 M_max = p  ((Depth_max/dot(IN.oNSp, omega_out))*omega_out); float3 PM_max = M_max  p; float3 PMstep = PM_max/num_samplesF; float tan = dot(PM_max, IN.tangent.xyz); float bi = dot(PM_max, IN.binormal.xyz); float2 dsdt = float2(tan, bi); //normalize(IN.eye.xy); float2 texCoordStep = float2(dsdt.x/num_samplesF, dsdt.y/num_samplesF); float2 umvm = IN.texcoord.xy; float depthM = 0; float depthStep = dot(PMstep, IN.normal); //This needs to be a value between 01 float3 m = p; //M starts of as the point p and increases in depth float theta = dot(IN.worldLightDir.xyz, omega_out);//The angle between the light vector and the eye vector float currentLayer = 0; float3 reducedIntensity; float4 mScattering; //Check this float4 currentLayerCoeffs_S, currentLayerCoeffs_T; float currentLayerCoeffs_g; //RGBA = STgBlank float3 myTest; for(int i = 0; i < num_samplesF; i++) { float iF = i; //Point M localization currentLayer = FindLayer(depthM, umvm, sstm); //Returns a value between 0 and 3 //Estimate the reduced intensity  L_ri(M, omega_in) reducedIntensity = ReducedIntensity(p, m, IN.worldLightDir.xyz, sstm, IN.normal.xyz, umvm, iF, PM_max, IN.texcoord, IN.tangent, IN.binormal, IN.oNSp, diffuse, num_samplesF); //IMPLICIT CAST //Estimate the single scattering at point M: float3 coeffsPixel = float3(currentLayer/16.0, ((currentLayer+4.0)/16.0), ((currentLayer+8.0)/16.0)); //16 pixels in tex, divide by 16 for 01 tex space currentLayerCoeffs_S = tex1Dlod(matrix_tex, float4(coeffsPixel.r, 0, 0, 1)); //03rd pixel currentLayerCoeffs_T = tex1Dlod(matrix_tex, float4(coeffsPixel.g, 0, 0, 1)); //47th pixel range currentLayerCoeffs_g = tex1Dlod(matrix_tex, float4(coeffsPixel.b, 0, 0, 1)); //811th pixel range  only r component of this texel used mScattering = currentLayerCoeffs_S * float4(reducedIntensity, 1.0) * PhaseFunction(currentLayerCoeffs_g.x, theta); //L_ri(M, omega_out) //Attenuate the scattered radiance along PM and add the contribution of point M p_omega_out += float3(mScattering * AttenuationPM * PMstep); //Move to the next sample M and compute its tex coords and attenuation umvm.x += texCoordStep.x; umvm.y += texCoordStep.y; depthM += depthStep; m += PMstep; AttenuationPM *= exp(currentLayerCoeffs_T*length(PMstep)); } return color_mapping(IN, p_omega_out, ambient, diffuse, specular, specularPower, cm, sstm, nm); } /////////////////////////////////////// /// TECHNIQUES //////////////////////// /////////////////////////////////////// technique SSTM < string Script = "Pass=p0;"; > { pass p0 < string Script = "Draw=geometry;"; > { VertexShader = compile vs_3_0 view_spaceVS(gWorldXf, gWvpXf); ZEnable = true; ZWriteEnable = true; ZFunc = LessEqual; AlphaBlendEnable = false; CullMode = None; PixelShader = compile ps_3_0 pixel_shader( specularPower, ambient, diffuse, specular, cm, sstm, matrix_tex, nm); } } [/source] The file is attached [url="https://dl.dropbox.com/u/4305049/SSTM.fx"]here[/url] as well because it's not really displaying properly here. 
What to do with an attenuated light vector in my shader
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
Okay so the [font=courier new,courier,monospace]p_omega_out[/font] value looks like this as a colour: [img]http://img27.imageshack.us/img27/7017/56461905.png[/img] Applied to a simple plane. I'm not sure whether or not that's the correct output for it but that's what I have at the moment. If I slot it in to my phong normal mapped plane, I get this: [img]http://img4.imageshack.us/img4/5800/93060286.png[/img] Which is pretty but obviously isn't right! So is [font=courier new,courier,monospace]p_omega_out[/font] wrong, or am I just putting it in the wrong place!? Here is the final part of the code for reference but the only change is the inclusion of the new attenuated vector: [source lang="cpp"] float3 BumpNormal = tex2D(nm, IN.texcoord)*2.0  1.0; float4 amb = AmbientIntensity * ambient; float4 diff = DiffuseIntensity * float4(p_omega_out, 1) * saturate(dot(IN.tangentSpaceLightDir,BumpNormal)); float3 R = normalize(2.0 * dot(BumpNormal, IN.tangentSpaceLightDir) * BumpNormal  IN.tangentSpaceLightDir); float3 v = normalize(IN.tangentSpaceEye); float spec = pow(saturate(dot(R,v)), specularPower) * SpecularIntensity; // compute final color float4 color = tex2D(color_map,IN.texcoord); float4 finalcolor = (amb + diff + spec) * color; return finalcolor;[/source] 
Force field around a model and pushing vertices outwards in shader.
Daniel Wilson replied to FredrikHolmstr's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
Okay I found it, sorry it wasn't on the publications page hope I didn't waste your whole night! [url="http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1014348/HALOREACHEffects"]This link[/url] contains the ppt presentation, it's a whopping 433mb so thank goodness for broadband. An overview of the talk is discussed [url="http://www.beyond3d.com/content/articles/116/1"]here[/url] as well, with the shield stuff on page 3. Pretty nice ideas about colorizing it with tiny colour palette ramps, and fading out the effect as a function related to the depth buffer. 
What to do with an attenuated light vector in my shader
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
[quote name='Hodgman' timestamp='1344267403' post='4966697'] In standard blinnphong, internal diffuse attenuation is specified by a constant value: your "diffuse colour". When you extend this with SSS, the "diffuse colour" is instead calculated by the internal attenuation from K to M, and M to P  the details of that specified by your chosen technique [/quote] Ah okay this is interesting thank you. You see the paper assumes you just know what to do with the output vector that has been attenuated from KMP. So theoretically it should be okay to use it in place of a hard coded "diffuse" value I did have, e.g.: [source lang="cpp"]float4 diff = DiffuseIntensity * p_omega_out * saturate(dot(IN.worldLightDir,BumpNormal));[/source] At the moment if I output p_omega_out as a colour, the result is some pretty blurry bands of colour, so hopefully it won't damage the rest of the colour too much. (I'll post a screen cap in a few mins). Thanks [img]http://public.gamedev.net//public/style_emoticons/default/cool.png[/img] 
Force field around a model and pushing vertices outwards in shader.
Daniel Wilson replied to FredrikHolmstr's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
I saw a nice talk on this on the [url="http://www.bungie.net/Inside/publications.aspx"]Bungie website[/url], because Halo has a LOT of force fields. I can't remember the exact talk but it's on that page somewhere sorry! 
What to do with an attenuated light vector in my shader
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
So I didn't quite figure this out yet because it's quite a complex shader. I would lke to implement this shader with a basic phong model. [img]http://takinginitiative.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/surface.jpg[/img] Say I have this: [source lang="cpp"] float3 BumpNormal = tex2D(nm, IN.texcoord)*2.0  1.0; float4 amb = AmbientIntensity * ambient; float4 diff = DiffuseIntensity * diffuse * saturate(dot(IN.worldLightDir,BumpNormal)); float3 R = normalize(2.0 * dot(BumpNormal, IN.worldLightDir) * BumpNormal  IN.worldLightDir); float3 v = normalize(IN.eye); float spec = pow(saturate(dot(R,v)), specularPower) * SpecularIntensity; // compute final color float4 color = tex2D(color_map,IN.texcoord); float4 finalcolor = (amb + diff + spec) * color;[/source] R and V are purely directional vectors right? So my attenuated light vector must represent a [i]direction [/i]and the [i]intensity [/i]of the light that is returned to the [i]viewer [/i]I think. In the above code the only thing that strikes me as close to this is the calculation of the diffuse value. Ignoring the bump map (I don't need bumped normals), does anyone know if it would be wrong to have: [source lang="cpp"]float4 diff = DiffuseIntensity * diffuse * p_omega_out;[/source] Where [font=courier new,courier,monospace]p_omega_out[/font] is the attenuated light intensity/direction? I think my vector needs to go from the pixel to the viewer, would this vector do that?! 
When to normalize vectors in a shader?
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Graphics and GPU Programming
[quote name='japro' timestamp='1343923791' post='4965575'] There isn't really a general rule when to normalize or not... You use normalized vectors when you need a normalized vector. So face normals or light directions often have to be normalized for the dot products/reflections you do during lighting calculation to make sense. On the other hand when you want to raycast something, normalization of the ray direction is often not required. There isn't really a way around understanding the math behind the operations you do. [/quote] Yes I thought so, I just figured maybe there was some rules like "you shouldn't normalize in view space". Thanks for the tips. I shall try and keep any normalizing to a minimum though for now and see how it goes [img]http://public.gamedev.net//public/style_emoticons/default/tongue.png[/img] 
Hi, I am currently working on a shader and the result is not quite right. One question that bugs me I cannot seem to find the answer to is why and when exactly we normalize vectors in a shader. I understand that it seems to only be important for direction vectors such as the light, but is it important to do so in certain spaces with other vectors aswell? I took a naive approach at first and normalized all the time. I am not so much concerned with efficiency, just why and when it is okay or not okay to normalize a vector. For example, the shader I am writing at them moment requires the vector from the view position to the vertex position in world space. Some shaders I see normalize this when it is in the fragment shader, but does that not destroy the value of the vector for further calculations?

Tool to mathematically create a mesh
Daniel Wilson replied to Daniel Wilson's topic in Engines and Middleware
Hmm, this is [i]very [/i]close to what I need, but it uses parametric equations to define the formula, e.g. a sphere would in the form: x = r cos(u) sin(v), y = r sin(u) sin(v), z = r cos(v). I need something I can type x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = r^2 and get a sphere!? I've been looking for a way to convert the equation of the surface I have to a parametric one but can 't really figure it out! 
Hi I need a good tool to mathematically create a surface and then get it into 3ds max, for example a sphere is defined algeraically as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = r^2. Any examples? The only one I can find is 3DMath Xplor, but the full version only works on a mac and I have Windows 7. The Java version that works on all platforms does not have the export functionality!