Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'Theory'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Categories

  • Audio
    • Music and Sound FX
  • Business
    • Business and Law
    • Career Development
    • Production and Management
  • Game Design
    • Game Design and Theory
    • Writing for Games
    • UX for Games
  • Industry
    • Interviews
    • Event Coverage
  • Programming
    • Artificial Intelligence
    • General and Gameplay Programming
    • Graphics and GPU Programming
    • Engines and Middleware
    • Math and Physics
    • Networking and Multiplayer
  • Visual Arts
  • Archive

Categories

  • News

Categories

  • Audio
  • Visual Arts
  • Programming
  • Writing

Categories

  • Audio Jobs
  • Business Jobs
  • Game Design Jobs
  • Programming Jobs
  • Visual Arts Jobs

Categories

  • GameDev Unboxed

Forums

  • Audio
    • Music and Sound FX
  • Business
    • Games Career Development
    • Production and Management
    • Games Business and Law
  • Game Design
    • Game Design and Theory
    • Writing for Games
  • Programming
    • Artificial Intelligence
    • Engines and Middleware
    • General and Gameplay Programming
    • Graphics and GPU Programming
    • Math and Physics
    • Networking and Multiplayer
  • Visual Arts
    • 2D and 3D Art
    • Critique and Feedback
  • Topical
    • Virtual and Augmented Reality
    • News
  • Community
    • GDNet+ Member Forum
    • GDNet Lounge
    • GDNet Comments, Suggestions, and Ideas
    • Coding Horrors
    • Your Announcements
    • Hobby Project Classifieds
    • Indie Showcase
    • Article Writing
    • For Beginners
  • Affiliates
    • NeHe Productions
    • AngelCode
  • Workshops
    • C# Workshop
    • CPP Workshop
    • Freehand Drawing Workshop
    • Hands-On Interactive Game Development
    • SICP Workshop
    • XNA 4.0 Workshop
  • Archive
    • Topical
    • Affiliates
    • Contests
    • Technical

Calendars

  • Community Calendar
  • Games Industry Events
  • Game Jams

Blogs

  • Michael Tanczos.. Gamedev.net code monkey
  • So much for Creativity
  • The nearsighted one cometh
  • Kylotan's Developer Journal
  • Rabbit Droppings
  • The Code Zone Bargain Basement Blog
  • Author, Programmer, Bag of Wind(TM)
  • Journal of Sneftel
  • Strife's Most Excellent Journal
  • Readme.txt
  • Journal of Null and Void
  • Dirty Hacks and Stupid Tricks
  • This is not a blog
  • Continuous Refinement
  • 23yrold3yrold's excessively awesome journal
  • Journal of Tiffany_Smith
  • Journal of The God
  • Journal of void*
  • Journal of UknowsI
  • The Mothership Connection
  • Journal of Sandman
  • Gaiiden's Scroll
  • Journal of LessBread
  • mittentacular
  • Journal of adventuredesign
  • Journal of WitchLord
  • Journal of cone3d
  • Ian's Blog Rants
  • Is this thing on?
  • There is no escape from the Washu
  • /* Why you crying? */
  • Journal #259850
  • Journal of Yann L
  • Fortress of Solitude
  • Insignificant Corner on the Wild Wild Web
  • T. Wade Murphy - Sketchbook
  • Journal of Woodsman
  • Journal of kevmo
  • Not dead...
  • Working late past midnight...
  • Journal of pi_equals_3
  • Adventures in Game Production
  • Journal of Drewish
  • Development, OSS, and pie at work
  • Rarely Spoken
  • evolutional.co.uk
  • Welcome to the bowels of hell
  • Journal of danbrown
  • Journal of __Daedalus__
  • Journal of a Magical Badger
  • The Mad World Of Me
  • Perpetual Alpha
  • Journal of Buzzy
  • The Storytelling Ape
  • Untitled
  • Reminiscence
  • Big Sassy's Ramblings
  • Journal of dthorp
  • Journal of benstr
  • Journal of Prairie
  • The Simplest Thing That Could Possibly Work
  • Journal of eklypse
  • Journal of falkone
  • Let
  • Journal of DarkZoulz
  • 0_o
  • Adagio for GameDev
  • MEY - Archive
  • Journal of Ysaneya
  • A constant battle with time
  • Journal of CoffeeMug
  • Journal of Clash
  • My personal space of thoughts...
  • Journal of Void
  • Journal of xEricx
  • Jorgander's journal
  • Journal of mohaps
  • Journal of SEHenley
  • Journal of EricMeyer
  • A view from the trenches
  • Journal of LorenTapia
  • Incoherent Ramblings of a Madman
  • Journal of _zombie
  • FRIZZLEFRY!
  • Journal of IronWolf
  • Designing: The Game and Its Content
  • Fuzzlr
  • Journal of Deltah
  • Game Development of the Graphics Type
  • Journal of IndyHood
  • Raptor's Den
  • Journal of Scott
  • Journal of NafdahliX
  • Journal of Stoffel
  • Journal of the Digital Hobos
  • J3's Joint
  • The NoMonkey Experience
  • Codex of the Modemancer
  • Journal of Blivvy
  • My Thoughts and Progress
  • Journal of Mulligan
  • Boring banter of a programmer.
  • The mighty journal of Raymondo
  • Journal of Nurgle
  • Journal of Bossk
  • Journal of DJHoy
  • One bastard's rants
  • Reprogramming my brain
  • Building the Sphere, one vertex at a time.
  • Journal of Kraiklyn
  • Journal of MonkeyChuff
  • Journal of jakem3s90
  • Journal of Shred
  • Journal of Erluk
  • Ramblings of a Red Dwarf addict
  • Beginnings of the Wayward Programmer
  • Journal of mattnewport
  • Journal of iNsAn1tY
  • MMO Indie? Can't Be Done
  • Journal of CGameProgrammer
  • Journal of scarmiglion
  • Mmm...soylent green...
  • _luridcortex
  • Journal of SeanHowe
  • Journal of Zophar
  • Journal of glincoln
  • Daedalus Development
  • World of Sshado
  • My GameDev Journal
  • Shell extensions, code design and fluff
  • Deux
  • Eh
  • A Keyboard and the Truth
  • The Unofficial 'Empyrean Gate' Journal
  • Journal of whaleyboy
  • Journal of RobertC
  • Journal of James Trotter
  • The Barracks
  • Untitled
  • Don't Click Here
  • Stupid .NET Tricks
  • Journal of JimboC
  • iosys Research and Development Journal
  • ... And on the 8th day, God created Pouya ...
  • Angry Cuttlefish's Fishtank
  • SteelGolem
  • Journal of onehundred
  • Drakkcon's journal
  • Alexmoura's Journal
  • Journal of thesadjester
  • zdlr's game development journal
  • Destructive Design
  • You are all weirdos.
  • Train of Thought
  • Andy Pandy's Magical Journal of DOOM
  • Any Colour You Like
  • Inane Ravings of a Mad Engineer
  • Adventures In Managed World
  • Compiling...executing...recompiling
  • Journal of codemonster
  • Journalgasm
  • Journal of digisoap
  • So long, Gamedev.
  • Journal of hothead
  • For The Storm! a Tribute to Netstorm :)
  • Journal of Magmai Kai Holmlor
  • Journal of JoeDorson
  • Amazing Journal
  • Journal of John Swidorski
  • Journal of benutne
  • Journal of caffeineaddict
  • Journal of Antonie_Bouman
  • Journal of Thygrrr
  • In Which Christopher Robin Buys Some Cheese
  • The Monkey Digest
  • Jinxed
  • Rixter by Rixter by Rixter by Rixter
  • Journal of Cold_Steel
  • NanoTera
  • Journal of MagicScript
  • Journal of a struggling Student
  • MyJournal.lnk
  • Journal of doomhunk
  • Sir Code Alot's Codex
  • Unbreakable
  • Journal of lethalhamster
  • Brain Drain
  • Journal of uto314
  • Not your journal.
  • Computer food
  • Journal of The Frugal Gourmet
  • Digital Scrawl
  • Journal of ToohrVyk
  • Journal of graveyard filla
  • A look into the mind of TheNobleOne
  • Journal of BioMors
  • "That wasn't dirty dancing, it was Salsa"
  • Brandon N's Journal
  • Journal of HughG
  • DogCity Adventures
  • Programmology
  • Journal of Bluehair_fr
  • Graham's Incessant Ramblings (gwihlidal)
  • noaktree leaves
  • ElJournalo
  • Booleans spiffy development journal
  • Journal of Pants
  • coldacid.dev.journal
  • Simple Foolishness :: Just What I Like
  • Journal of Raduprv
  • Journal of Prozak
  • Dave, The Mystical Workings Of...
  • Journal of kentcb
  • Rhaal's Journal
  • Journal of evillive2
  • mobile chronicles
  • Proverbial Max
  • Codename: Karma Online
  • krez's Amazingly Entertaining and Informative Journal
  • The Re-education of Maik Vidales
  • Ols (Away)
  • Yar
  • Writing Web Games
  • What's going on at TDLGames or TDLSoftware
  • DruinkJournal
  • The Meaning of Nahrix
  • Journal of Obscure
  • Drawing Lightning
  • Metaphorical Journeys of Happenstance
  • Journal of Eddie Hicks
  • Ubertainment
  • DavidRM's GDC Coverage
  • Sande's GDC Blog
  • Journal of KellyM
  • joanusdmentia::journal
  • Stompy's Gamedev Journal
  • How to finish a game in less than ten years
  • The Long Road to Making Games
  • Journal
  • Unhandled Exception
  • Journal of cm2
  • Journal of SanityAssassin
  • The sleeper must awaken... and code some.
  • Devnull's Log o' Geekery
  • markr's complete waste of time
  • Ahhh! I think I'm melting!
  • Journal of MrP
  • rhummer's Journal
  • Journal of CyberSlag5k
  • Journal of scubabbl
  • Journal of BlueDev
  • Journal of chadmeyers
  • Journal of Raisor
  • Journal of Undergamer
  • Journal of Hedos
  • Journal of robpers2003
  • Journal of NeHe
  • Nothing much of interest...
  • The Realm of Trial
  • Starving Programmer - Will code for food!
  • Journal of iduchesne
  • Journal of Kippesoep
  • On the path with a ramblin' man
  • You Gotta Squeeze Every Pixel
  • Lame? Where?!
  • Journey into a 3D World
  • Child of GDNet
  • Journal of finch
  • Journal of Hakiko
  • Journal of Lenox
  • Journal of LastUnicron
  • MrEvil's Journal
  • Journal of evelyn
  • Journal de S'Greth
  • donjonsons thoughts
  • Journal of dotnetted
  • The Tub of Awesome
  • Journal of EnemyBoss
  • Triangular Pixels
  • Radioactive-Software
  • Ubik
  • Journal of wasted_druid
  • Level-Grind Online
  • Journal of adam17
  • Sir Sapo... The Man ... The Legend
  • An Artist's Ramblings
  • Journal of LiyonDR
  • Thoughts from a Wanna Be Producer
  • Independent thoughts of PaulECoyote
  • Journal of Lab-Rat
  • Journal of Revelations
  • Gauntlets of Recursion (+3)
  • Journey to the Ancient Galaxy
  • Random things uavfun thinks are cool
  • NickGeorgia's GameDev Journal
  • Journal of jonpolly99
  • Brutally honest game dev stories
  • Journal of Lacutis
  • Clever Title
  • Beals Software
  • Journal of TheArtifex
  • Journal of Ranger Meldon
  • Journal of Pestilence64
  • Journal of jyk
  • Kudu's GameDev Blog
  • Tech: Arena
  • Journal of skittleo
  • Shiny Journal of Programmingness
  • Journal of LamerGamer
  • Programming. Academics. Life
  • Journal of unazona
  • Journal of CalvinCoder
  • Adventures in 3D
  • Journal of tstrimp
  • Journal of Xiachunyi
  • Journal of QuadMV
  • Neutrally Buoyant in a Sea of Productivity
  • Cypher's Journal
  • Journal of Nomad010
  • Journal of a freak
  • Journal of dcosborn
  • Journal of Nagashi
  • The XNA Struggle
  • Journal of Mrs Kensington
  • Journal of heavygearz
  • J of K
  • Journal of MikeWW
  • Distilled Brilliance
  • Journal of EvDaedalus
  • Journal of WillC
  • Necron00bicon
  • Jemgine
  • Big Trouble In Little Chairtown
  • Satisfaction Guaranteed*
  • Journal of munKiecs
  • NetSim: A Hacking Simulator
  • Almost Lackadasical Gamedev
  • Journal of cppgirl
  • Journal of PennstateLion
  • Journal of sathenzar
  • Journal of Trading Route
  • Journal of RingTek
  • Journal of Aiursrage2k
  • Journal of Kalidor
  • The Bag of Holding
  • Journal of Sages
  • Journal of fur (p2pmud project)
  • Journal of Landsknecht
  • Joshua Pilkington's Journal
  • Journal of JoriathLionfort
  • Maddox's Best Friend
  • Primal Damage
  • The Rambloring of Beldamir
  • #ifdef TRAPPER_ZOID
  • Journal of IronGryphon
  • 1000 Monkeys
  • Horror Stories of RanBlade
  • UberFantasticoSuperJournalRahr!
  • Ascending the Lift Hill of Life
  • shilblog
  • "Another genius foiled by an incapable assistant."
  • Exploring infinity
  • Journal of meix
  • Journal of Impeller Head Games
  • The scriblings of Samsonite 2007 AD.
  • Kazade's GDNet Life
  • SteevR's Deadly Development Mistakes
  • IBTL
  • The Moonpod Insider
  • Journal
  • I update. You read. Ok?
  • Journal of pink_daisy
  • In The Beginning
  • We stumble at noonday as in the dark.
  • Journal of Zipster
  • Journal of fearghaill
  • Evolve Games
  • No ninjas here, no really they are over there.
  • Journal of Caitlin
  • Journal of _winterdyne_
  • Journal of PreditorX0789
  • Journal of TyroWorks
  • Journal of AfroFire
  • The Whine Cellar
  • Journal of bargasteh
  • Journal of LilBudyWizer
  • Journal of CTar
  • Journal of furin121
  • Journal of Khaos Dragon
  • Untitled
  • Sheridan's adventures in random nonsense.
  • Nitrous Butterfly Developer Journal
  • Journal of Mephs
  • Journal of Nuget5555
  • Journal of xaver
  • Journal of Fahrenheit451
  • Captaiz Z
  • Journal of nts
  • Journal of rodgaskins
  • Chronicles of the Hieroglyph
  • Journal of Kuro
  • The Life of Corman
  • Journal of Kria Krabbit
  • Abwood's Coding Notes
  • extralongjournal
  • A love story: Me and my 2D engine.
  • Journal of sBibi
  • Journal of necreia
  • Dzz's Journal
  • Journal of Jervin
  • The journal of rpg_code_master
  • 2D Game Development with a splash of Mumbo Jumbo
  • Journal of Mordt
  • Journal of paradoxnj
  • The Wayward Druid
  • Journal of Tera_Dragon
  • darkpanda's awakening
  • Journal of Downer
  • Journal of RageHard
  • Journal of TommyA
  • Journal of kylecrass
  • Destination: Failure
  • Ye Olde Ramblings
  • Journal of Johnny Casil
  • Journal of C J W
  • Krizo
  • Journal of Zao
  • Journal of socrates200X
  • Journal of chapmast
  • Journal of rjhcomputers
  • The Broken Mind
  • Journal of ebner-wilson
  • Journal of SKREAMZ
  • Journal of astralvoid
  • Graphics is gooder and stuff
  • Journal of Talonius
  • Explicity undeclared yet implicitly defined ramble
  • UofU Team Journal
  • Journal of thedott
  • I am a duck
  • Delusions of Grandeur
  • Journal of kirkd
  • Exploration of pie and caek
  • Journal of slowpid
  • It's a hobby.
  • Subverting C++
  • Journal of Dreddnafious Maelstrom
  • Journal of marmin
  • Monkey Land
  • Dev. Blog of Empire Productions
  • Wiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!!
  • Slow progress
  • Journal of trailervoice
  • Illusive Studios
  • Journal of MindWipe
  • Journal of kmccusker
  • Ramblings of a partialy sane programmer
  • My Game programming journey
  • Adventures in Text-mode
  • Better Together
  • Journal of Kyle N
  • Journal of Genesis : Origins
  • NO
  • Project Kingstone
  • Brainfold
  • Journal of darkzim
  • Journal of jkielpinski
  • Dovyman's Journal
  • Journal of Goober King
  • Adventure Owns You
  • Journal of Sentientv2
  • Journal of mistermecha
  • Journal of sipickles
  • Prodigious
  • Bradley Sward - Small Game Projects
  • El Nino Games
  • Journal of Trefall
  • Tesseract's Game Development Journal
  • Mark the Artist Fights the Future
  • PumpkinPieman's Journal.
  • Get back to work!
  • Journal of Kevinator
  • Journal of Charles Thomas
  • Journal of erwincoumans
  • Journal of Michael Nischt
  • Journal of ukdm
  • Journal of Andrew Fults
  • Level editor in the works
  • Good Enough?.... Never!
  • Wijnand's Game Journal
  • Odorless Entertainment
  • Journal of blimey
  • Milkshake's Dev Diary
  • Journal of dist0rted
  • Journal of -JetSirus-
  • Bandit Revolvers: Championship Edition!
  • Journal of the enemy
  • Journal of soconne
  • Journal of valles
  • Journal of Aardvajk
  • Frog Blog
  • Journal of GreenGiant
  • Journal of ArNy
  • Developing Firebox
  • Journal of John_23
  • Journal of Luminous
  • Journal of CloudNine
  • The Enigma Code
  • bricklayer developers: Fountaindale
  • Journal of The_Neverending_Loop
  • Abort Button Software
  • Journal of Xrystal
  • Journal of Stuart Y
  • Journal of Jesse_P
  • H3O + U-235
  • Journal of a Shaven Ape
  • metaverses
  • Journal of C0D3Name
  • Journal of binaryguy
  • Journal of a wannabe game programmer
  • Journal of Fortia
  • Journal of dracan
  • Journal of boto
  • iLiNX
  • Journal of a undecided
  • Journal of cwestbrook20
  • Yet Another Game Maker
  • Journal of smc
  • The Journal of Thraed, Shadow of Fahrenguard
  • Journal of webjeff
  • Journal of phantom-soft
  • The Wild West of Programming
  • Journal of tribalKris
  • shadowcomplex's stuffs
  • Journal of IceSynth
  • Journal of Tesl
  • Surreal Sensations
  • Journal of AlexLoren
  • Journal of Ronnie Howell
  • Indisputable Tales of Interest
  • Journal of KGodwin - Newbie Game Dev
  • Wills' Wishes
  • Journal of miminawewe
  • Journal of DavidNeal
  • soggyfries
  • Journal of Tallitus
  • Promit's Ventspace
  • Journal of FunLogic
  • Journal of cheops2007
  • Journal of Sensei Maku
  • A Developer's Dream
  • Journal of VanillaSnake21
  • The ballad of a n00b
  • Journal of mattdev
  • Your company name here
  • The Richest Beggar in the World
  • Synbios128's Journal
  • Journal of AnthonyN1974
  • Journal of acappella
  • Journal of deerslyr1
  • Journal of Dragoro
  • Journal of Damon501
  • This Is My Story
  • Evil Stick Man in Evil Stick Land
  • Journal of noNchaoTic
  • Journal of Journaling
  • Phyletic gradualism
  • Fallen, oh dear :
  • The Byproduct of Facts and Fiction
  • Journal of Adam Hamilton
  • WISP
  • The Lion amongst the code
  • Abliss Gamedev
  • Once a Bird
  • Yeah
  • Journal of ShaneHeres
  • Orbital Fan's game development journal
  • Journal of VikingDK
  • Journal of zedz
  • Kiryn's Development
  • Defeating procrastination one post at a time!
  • Journal of HeftiSchlumpf
  • Journal of Scint
  • Journal of MattWhite06
  • Journal of Funkymunky
  • Under a ShadowyTree
  • Frogames adventures
  • Journal of Treesong
  • Brandogon's Journal
  • Alaklin's workshop
  • The never-ending story...
  • Journal of GreenToad
  • Journal of TiredofSleep
  • CAN Games Development Journal
  • What is Interactive Art?
  • Verg-o-nomics
  • Excursions into the Unknown
  • My Epiphany
  • Brain spasm
  • Brian Hoffer's Journal
  • BrokenThorn Entertainment
  • Journal of terry_burns85
  • Old code never dies, it just fades away
  • Journal of ChrisE
  • Journal of ShadowRancher
  • Journal of Dark Matter
  • Journal of mikalar
  • Journal of Moss
  • The Mystic work of Chad
  • Jason's journal
  • UserJP's Journal of Doom +4 ( Imbued with Fire )
  • Quanta's Journal
  • Journal of InnocuousFox
  • JasonP Works It
  • Every Semicolon
  • Data Spire
  • Blue stain
  • Journal of hashin
  • Journal of s3r1n
  • IndieZen Developers Journal
  • OddGames development journal
  • Journal of rvdwerf
  • Memoirs of a Graphics Engine
  • Journal of DraconisRavenix
  • Journal of dbaumgart
  • Journal of Nytegard
  • Archipelago
  • The truth between the lies
  • Journal of kornman00
  • Journal of EvanWeeks
  • Journal of _ArmuT_
  • Journal of stenol26
  • Journal of Besome Games
  • Journal of Palish
  • Journal of binchawpz
  • Magpie
  • MJP's Last Stand
  • Journal of theOneAwaited
  • Journal of EliteCoder
  • Journal of Pluvious
  • Journal of Veslefrikk
  • Journal of Vyper_uk
  • Journal of ExcessNeo
  • Mammal Games
  • Journal of Rascal
  • Laura's Game Journal
  • Robot, Ninja, Pirate, Monkey
  • Journal of Synthros
  • Journal of PsychoPumpkin
  • Rex of the Arx
  • Leandro's endeavours on managed code land
  • Journal of Moore452
  • Chronic Procrastination
  • Journal of Lode
  • Z Axis Games
  • Frisson
  • Journal of +1Games
  • Journal of kapilkapre
  • Journal of Taharez
  • Journal of xtBones
  • Journal of tinac2008
  • Life in the cereal box....
  • Journal of SilentSiren
  • Omegaice's Dev Journal
  • MMORPG Development
  • Journal of NowSayPillow
  • Pixelante
  • nerd_boy's journal
  • Journal of Remus Turcuman
  • The Log: Cloud Ocean
  • Journal of Jaap1978
  • Journal of Mak
  • Journal of lucius
  • Don't forget, it's supposed to be fun!
  • Journal of DarkPsychosis
  • Journal of rolkA
  • Journal of Sastrugi
  • Journal of 4fingers
  • Journal of nsmadsen
  • Just Glad to Be Here
  • Journal of MS Larsen
  • Ep's tool-dev diary
  • lightassassin.log
  • Journal of 2disbetter
  • Crawling with ideas
  • Journal of nightwreath
  • IfThen Software
  • Academia
  • Journal of ID Merlin
  • Journal of digitalerr0r
  • Journal of Hi Speed
  • Journal of Anexa85
  • Journal of ZootSuitGames
  • Journal of jrmcv
  • Journal of Earthania
  • Journal of Lethargic Programmers
  • The Adventures of a Universal Traveller
  • Merry Prankster Games
  • Journal of caldiar
  • Journal of Darkrider0318
  • Journal of davepermen
  • Journal of Encicra
  • Software Renderer in 28 days
  • Journal of DrSizzla
  • Journal of brainstyler
  • Journal of linternet
  • Journal of matt_j
  • Untitled
  • Journal of m3sh
  • My Newbie GD Journal
  • Journal of smr
  • Drew_Benton
  • Journal of FeverGames
  • Windows [Phone | 8] musings
  • Journal of popcorn
  • Journal of gytha
  • Isolate Development
  • Journal of MrCpaw
  • The Pixel Ocean
  • Journal of Zubski
  • Journal of inferno82
  • Journal of mikeman
  • Starting Thoughts
  • Journal of stimarco
  • dwn
  • Tachyon Wars
  • Journal of AndrewA
  • Journal of rip-off
  • Treehouse Gaming
  • Journal of Tom
  • Journal of rohde
  • Journal of wicked357
  • Journal of Roo Avery
  • Journal of Tower City
  • Journal of geekster
  • Graphics Engine Development
  • Journal of hGonzalez
  • Journal of Caste
  • Skipping a D
  • Journal of Matt328
  • Elucidation
  • Battlefield simulation engine
  • Journal of AEdmonds
  • DudeMiester Speaks!
  • Technical Artistry
  • Journal of Exide
  • Mason's Journal
  • istar's Game Life
  • The Greatest Development Journal Ever Written
  • A Traveller's Tale
  • Journal of foursticksj
  • Robot University -- a 2D DirectX Puzzle
  • Journal of KnivesAldren
  • Journal of jerrywilkins
  • Tales from the Veggie Patch
  • Journal of jnbutler
  • Lonely Hearts Club
  • Journal of Rakshasa
  • Journal of OmegaDog
  • Journal of Machaira
  • Journal of damix911
  • Journal of Richard Geslot
  • Dark Horse Software
  • Digital adventures through the third dimension
  • Gnoblins - Development journal of an indie game
  • Journal of ThomasBelgium
  • Wavesonics Pseudo-Random Journal Generator
  • Yckx's GameDev Journal
  • Tales of Ozak
  • Journal of nes8bit
  • Journal of bgund001
  • tinyrocket
  • Think Small
  • The YAR Project
  • Journal of Christopher Loyd
  • Journal of Vanderry
  • Journal of Ariste
  • Journal of namar777
  • Feathers and Code
  • Journal of Mussi
  • Dans Journal
  • Journal of Drakonite
  • Wilhelm's Journal
  • Journal of Laval B
  • Journal of Sybalos
  • Journal of dx elliot
  • True, False, Maybe
  • Journal of dragongame
  • Journal of ManuelMarino
  • Journal of wpalmer
  • Journal of KezraPlanes
  • ProgrammerMattC's Journal
  • Journal of reversinguy
  • Rants Etc.
  • Journal of daveodonoghue
  • Journal of Lunarjax
  • Journal of ShabbaStoney
  • Journal of Dwarf King
  • Journal of Lee Stripp
  • Rendering Systems
  • My C++ Journey
  • Journal of LarryWP
  • Journal of Daivuk
  • Journal of spacemoses
  • Journal of Sam Hagelund
  • #!/Bin/Bash-ObsidianBlk
  • etodd makes games
  • liger13's Blog
  • zer0wolf's Blog
  • davepermen's Blog
  • SageKri's Blog
  • Neutrix's Blog
  • speciesUnknown's Blog
  • FAR Colony's Blog
  • megamoscha's Blog
  • In the year 4016...
  • Lightning Engine
  • kiwibonga's Blog
  • Revenge of a Buzz Saw
  • InvalidPointer's Internets Rambling
  • KulSeran's Blog
  • Drilian's House of Game Development
  • alfith's
  • Ravyne's Blog of Blogs
  • cowsarenotevil's Blog
  • AndrewBC's Blog
  • JoeDev
  • Uncertanities, pitfalls and lesssons
  • martin_bfg10k's Blog
  • ScottsCreations' Blog
  • The Journal Of Luckless
  • Pixel ? Tile ? World
  • Fastcall's Development Blog
  • Blog 3.0
  • owl's Blog
  • dwarfsoft [GPA]
  • Seaßourne's Blog
  • mytre's Blog
  • Kevin's Blog
  • Gaetano Lenoci GameDev Blog
  • chench's Blog
  • fcoelho's Blog
  • Shozan's Quest
  • A Zombie Wedding
  • TheHinch
  • Dev Notes
  • kseh's blog
  • MichaelT's Blog
  • Mastrgamr's Blog
  • Life in Code
  • Mental(FrameRate)
  • The Animal Farm GameDev Blog
  • brslocum's Blog
  • Lost in the Catacombs of Game Development
  • LambdaRogue Development Blog
  • In the Shade
  • Moe's Blog
  • (O_o)
  • Blog
  • Scourage's Blog
  • Tocs' Blog
  • Ezbez's Blog
  • Liheike's Blog
  • Blendium's Blog
  • Madhed's Blog
  • Out Of The Ashes
  • stonemetal's Blog
  • Lords of Midnight Development
  • MarcotteR's Adventures in Research and Development
  • Coding in the Fast Lane
  • Lavinski's Blog
  • Leadwerks Developer Blog
  • MaskedAvenger's Blog
  • XXChester's Blog
  • Just Let It Trickle
  • assainator's Blog
  • Okiedoke!
  • HzerDown's Blog
  • Random Rantings
  • diablos_blade's Blog
  • Airy's Blog
  • HydroxicAcid
  • Igroman's Blog
  • Imgelling's Blog
  • px's cleverly named blog
  • JamesPenny's Blog
  • LogicalError's Blog
  • Splinter of Chaos' Blog
  • The Game Prodigy - GameDev.net Edition
  • Retronator
  • Rulers of the Known Universe
  • Exiled Dimension
  • Katerina's Blog
  • kasonerap's Blog
  • Crage Games' Blog
  • Mastering MMORPG3
  • Emotion Rays DevBlog
  • Adam Omega
  • The duckpond
  • Cross Mobile Gaming
  • Henry Prescott's Portfolio
  • 15 minutes of fame and an eternity of shame
  • Kristof's Game Dev Blog
  • wakahana's Blog
  • sdaq overflow
  • Kimmi's developer blog
  • Lightning Bolt Games
  • Tutorials By Andy Esser
  • BulletOtaku Games Journal
  • Eclision Programming Team
  • New Old Things
  • They don't teach this stuff in school
  • Glow engine Journal
  • Drennen's Journal
  • Jake's Journal
  • A non-programmer's programs
  • Hexagon's Journal
  • Mobeen's Journal
  • EndersGames' Journal
  • Minastas Games
  • Ali Akbar's Journal
  • Butabee's Journal
  • Dragon's Nest
  • Stop playing, start coding!
  • G-Truc Creation
  • Ninja GD
  • Slav2's Journal
  • NickyB's Journal
  • Jastiv's Journal
  • PARPG development blog
  • Romnia007's Journal
  • rachoac's Journal
  • Product Review Blog
  • developing gordebak
  • AciDGraphit3's Journal
  • SFAgent24 Developer Journal
  • Milcho's Journal
  • MikeTacular's Journal
  • The Start and Journey of Sound Creation
  • GDC 2011
  • Hypnotron's Saga
  • glaeken's Journal
  • Robot Ramblings
  • vicviper's Journal
  • jMonkey Business
  • Project Simplicity
  • alphablackzer0's Journal
  • gasto's Journal
  • InfectiousGames Brand NEW journal!!
  • GuardStar's Journal
  • MysteryMeat's Journal
  • deks' Journal
  • T-JAM Studios Journal
  • sk84z's Journal
  • Dace's Journal
  • Adrenaline's First Huge Project
  • Digivance Game Studios
  • Tomasz Dabrowski's Journal
  • Jacobean's Journal
  • Quiet Ponderation
  • Peter Vaughn's Journal
  • J-Snake's Journal
  • nomura's Journal
  • Opt7ons' Journal
  • gharen2's Journal
  • SymphonyOfDream's Journal
  • standingguy's Journal
  • ArtyjayStudios: A fistful of fail.
  • 3D BYTE Technology Blog
  • Aeroflot's Journal
  • Michael J Pierce
  • Datahammer dev blog
  • Bullet Points
  • Sappharos' Journal
  • Pendragon274's Journal
  • Daniel E's Journal
  • From Nothing to Everything
  • ballerplaya's Game Dev Blog
  • Twisted Shield Interactive
  • Menopia's Journal
  • The Legends of racoiaws
  • Andrew Kabakwu's Journal
  • BlueGlutton's Journal
  • StudioZx Journal
  • Lucas Daltro's Journal
  • zerothrillz's Journal
  • GameDev.net Staff Journal Old
  • Matthew Wood's Journal
  • RedPin's Game Jorunal
  • DeeMOONger's Journal
  • Locke's Game Dev
  • Lloyent's Journal
  • Wildlander's development blog
  • AmzBee's Journal
  • Kaushik's Journal
  • Shawn Hargreaves' Blog
  • Xerron's Journal
  • Mario Cavett's Journal
  • BauAir Studios
  • Jacob Gardner's Journal
  • TiagoCosta's Journal
  • Cypharr's Journal
  • loveworld99's Journal
  • Songbird's Journal
  • Oddbird Games
  • IsNe's Programming Journal
  • Firework Factory Development Journal
  • TheLogster's Journal
  • Little Coding Fox's Journal Of Exotic Adventures
  • Hexagon2D
  • TKE Super Dave's Journal
  • andi's Journal
  • Tim Sarbin's Open Wars Journal
  • Jaye's Journal
  • Vermaelen's Journal
  • The 'Massive' Project
  • Marek A. Krzeminski, MASc
  • The Road Less Traveled
  • Inclemency Studios Log
  • Short-Story about Meteora(My dev team)
  • Fox89's Journal
  • Trivigy's Journal
  • FetDaniel's Journal
  • Browser based RTS in the making
  • MortenB's Journal
  • LastContract
  • Developer Quest: Journey of Hope
  • Mayatrone's Journal
  • Vaguely In Focus
  • Starting up as a new company
  • __Homer__'s Journal
  • Sketching the Surface
  • Fubar the game - Developers Journal
  • StephanieRct's Journal
  • daver64's Journal
  • Mozly's Journal
  • Venfer's Riddle RPG/Puzzle game devjour
  • The AdaptivElite Developer's Journal
  • resell4's Journal
  • 2pacfarrar's Journal
  • Karim Kenawy's Journal
  • bandicootzcrib's Journal
  • grandiz3r's final gaming assault
  • ElementCy's Journal
  • Shadows, instruments and ohh my
  • Rattrap's Journal
  • XDaWNeDX's Journal
  • Eliad Moshe's Journal
  • ChugginWindex's Journal
  • Slyxsith's Journal
  • MutedVision
  • r1ckparker's Journal
  • ashkan_203's Journal
  • Project: CharWars
  • luckeytree's Journal
  • Journal of Suspense
  • PREDATOR_UK's Journal
  • Walking Towards The Sun
  • Trucking on
  • Zeypher Rise to Power
  • Keeping up with yesterday
  • vibrunazo's Journal
  • tangentstar's Journal
  • Accountability Journal
  • carlosx's Journal
  • EtherFields' Journal
  • mobilus' Journal
  • AnotherGS' Blog
  • Web by Day, Games by Night.
  • void* journal
  • N.O.W.
  • sosa's Journal
  • Cam's DevLog
  • Disciple of Jonato
  • StarDust DevLog
  • Paradigma11's Journal
  • GSoC '11 - Mono Runtime
  • D Bits
  • The Design Conundrum
  • DrTorte's Journal
  • Mobile RPG
  • 5MinuteGaming's Journal
  • KingofSwing94's Journal
  • Arc Fusion Games' Journal
  • ebontide's Journal
  • Yang G's Journal
  • Arcade Zombies
  • Xaviarrob's Journal
  • Stepping into demons lair
  • Rodimus and Unity
  • Linkfan88's block world journal
  • MeowMeow's Journal
  • A shooter game for all ages
  • The Failure Epiphany
  • Bregma's Persistent World
  • Nik02's Journal
  • lask1's Journal
  • Vic's Journal
  • sketckasketch's Journal
  • Last Engine
  • nife
  • Booniverse
  • Muzz5's Insane Witterings
  • Joe Storm's Journal
  • Switchblade_77's Journal
  • Eiffel's Journal
  • Graphics & Games... or the other way around
  • phara0h's Journal
  • IggyT's Journal
  • ElusiveCoder's Journal
  • Thoughts and Opinions
  • scout113's Journal
  • notyourbuddy's Journal
  • MERKB's Journal
  • Mr Moose's Journal
  • AAKN's Journal
  • TheEvilMuffinator's Epic Adventure
  • Cat Scratchings
  • FreeStejler's Journal
  • Gerónimo Garcia, a game developer
  • zacaj.devlog
  • TC's Journal
  • Luc the Whiny Wind Boy's Journal
  • Tactical Recon Dev Journal
  • OmensDev's Journal
  • OMG NUB!
  • Irvin's Journal
  • ZSG Development Journal
  • MrCodeSushi - Raw and Tasty Code!
  • bls61793's Journal
  • 3D Models for Games
  • T e c h l o r d's Journal
  • Santisan's Journal
  • ZenithSal's Journal
  • Reflections of a Mindless Individual
  • Polar's Journal
  • RetLee's Journal
  • Journey To Hammerdale Devlogs
  • BigDaveDev's Journal
  • bugbuster77's Journal
  • Survivor Game Journal
  • GoofProg.F's Journal
  • gash's Journal
  • Ghavami
  • blltdgr's Journal
  • marcelomp's Journal
  • ZARS Dev Journal
  • Joe P's Journal
  • Discouraged Programmer
  • Real Time RayTracing and implicit modeling
  • Space Exploration/Action RPG hybrid reliant on UGC
  • Random Developments
  • The Newbie Chronicles
  • Mark's Journal
  • DeXmas' Journal
  • Betable's Journal
  • parowoz's Journal
  • Topblast_'s Journal
  • CopperpotQ's Journal
  • japro's journal
  • Merlin3D Development Journal
  • SuperMaximo93's game development
  • Hect
  • Alberta online
  • DIEVOLUTION DevBlog
  • vodku's Journal
  • Codinguy's Journal
  • One man show
  • frang75's Journal
  • Calculemus's Journal
  • ConorJH's Journal
  • DaedalusK71's Journal
  • undead's programming corner
  • SubgateUniverseDevLog
  • Maciekp's Journal
  • Truxton's Journey into Game Development
  • -=cmaster.matso=-'s Journal
  • Not enought samples
  • Eigen's Journal
  • After Hours - and Then Some
  • Dylan's Journal
  • MelKay's Journal
  • Starpires - Space Strategy
  • StormJournal
  • QuestLore devblog
  • Journal of the Mini-Engine (ME)
  • Gl_Terminator's Journal
  • Terminal 0.1 Log 03
  • Odiee's Journal
  • Noisecrime's Journal
  • IMPACT Engine Development Blog
  • asm0day's Journal
  • YodamanJer's Journal
  • Learning Game Programming
  • The Beginning
  • GuardianResearch
  • Dumping Thoughts
  • lanemax's Journal
  • LaneMaxwell's Journal
  • IceFall Games
  • Ashnor's dev journal
  • moodywine's Journal
  • Thomas Amaranth's Journal
  • LoreHunter's Journal
  • VJ01's Journal
  • IronReaverGames Journal
  • OutlawZen's Journal
  • Xealgo's Tumblr Blog
  • Rich Markle's Journal
  • bigxow's Journal
  • Unity3D and AI Game Development
  • Project Updates
  • Lyost's Journal
  • AffenCode Blog
  • davispolk's Journal
  • LightSource Team's Journal
  • Midnight Thoughts
  • Subliminalman's Journal
  • AltairDali's Journal
  • NFL 2011 Talk
  • Valvatorezj's Development Journal
  • Silviu Andrei's Journal
  • Slaton's Journal
  • FlyingSpork's Journal
  • From AiGameDev's Secret Lab
  • FLeBlanc's Journal
  • sampad's Journal
  • Meh Entertainment
  • DeGod's Journal
  • dev.mind
  • ZEJOKER13's Journal
  • swiftcoding
  • paka3d's Journal
  • Lior Tal's Sandbox
  • The Forgotten Planet
  • Rav3nSt0rm's Journal
  • Litheon's Journal
  • ddn3 journal
  • Yacjys
  • I am a beginner and clueless.
  • Adventures in GameDev
  • Mallach's Dev Blog
  • mortalmarshy's Journal
  • Triax Bridge Command
  • EddyDownload's Journal
  • David Amador Journal
  • WorldAlpha.com DevBlog
  • DevDog82's Journal
  • Halley62373's Journal
  • pygame
  • Untitled zombie game
  • alwynd's Journal
  • Lucasnj's Journal
  • johnnycash's Journal
  • George Laskowsky's Journal
  • Eastfist Builds a Machine
  • Allar's Journal
  • irrationalistic's Journal
  • Bidimensional Dreams
  • Jeason's Journal
  • MikeDodgers' Journal
  • BrianTheProg's Journal
  • ZorgaGames Journal
  • Dreaming's Esoteric Teachings
  • compscialien's Journal
  • sythe's Journal
  • turbello's Journal
  • Xanthier's Journal
  • Flowers In Tears' Journal
  • Chris's Animation Blorg
  • Shaker25's Journal
  • SpeedRun's Journal
  • JetStone's Journal
  • sirkibble2's Journal
  • The Shadow Journals
  • Overm1nd's Journal
  • TommyForesd's Journal
  • LeonidValess' Journal
  • Black-Rook's Journal
  • My project blog
  • Mayley's Journal
  • Azure Acres
  • darc koder's Journal
  • Earthwalker's Journal
  • The Hitchhikers Guide to Video Game Production
  • LarryADaniel82's Journal
  • 2D Game Making, the Easy Way
  • DMFirmy's Development Blog
  • Giliam's Journal
  • Notes
  • The Curiously Recurring Gimlet Pattern
  • Zach's Development Journal
  • Dukandia
  • Under Development Law @ GDNet
  • #AltDevBlogADay
  • Digitalis Digoxin
  • Hedron Online Development
  • BlueStar03
  • Library of links to movies
  • SCForest's Journal
  • Heath's Journal
  • Malachor's Journal
  • Craftwork Games Blog
  • Behind the Scenes of Mirthwerx
  • omnomnom's RPG journal
  • Gaiiden's Journal
  • Overview Journal
  • Severed Infinity
  • Creating a Grand Strategy
  • Life at Demergo Studios
  • RADICAL HEROES: CRIMSON CITY CRISIS
  • Adam's Lair
  • Vilntus Entertainment
  • Lateral Creation's Journal
  • nodeg's learning journal
  • Eating The Elephant
  • Cbear's Dev Journal
  • The Siege Released
  • GDC 2012
  • ChezNoir
  • Journey Into Game Dev
  • Ya2's Journal
  • theNewb1e's Journal
  • Boreal's Dev Journal
  • www.Dubious-Games.co.uk
  • _Suezo_'s Journal
  • Lemon Treehouse
  • TechnoFlux
  • GrayMatters
  • Computational Contemplations
  • StarInc Android Development
  • Narf the Mouse's Journal
  • Antilia Development Journal
  • SpaceBeam development
  • Nocturnal Ferret
  • Tdawg30's Journal
  • Making the 'Rituals'
  • Timelines: Assault on America
  • Gunthera's Journal
  • Anthropocene: A Browser-Based Text RPG
  • AndreaTux's Journal
  • Rendering Is Fun
  • Emforce's Journal
  • _moagstar_'s Journal
  • Journey to Ironbane
  • Tipsy's Journal
  • Nick's Corner
  • Methods of A Madman
  • B O N E S' Journal
  • i-tech's Journal
  • Zul's Journal
  • kruncher's Journal
  • Misadventures in Game Making
  • WubWub Games
  • The Proverbial Bottom Rung
  • MidnightTangent's Journal
  • Bharath Raghavan's Journal
  • Stuff Games
  • From Pixel to Product
  • MissMarble's Journal
  • | dxCUDA | software development journal
  • Ralph McJournalstein
  • HorangiSoft
  • Flight of the Journal
  • Thekill473's Tinker Shop
  • Staring into the Moon
  • Mr Jones' Journal
  • BlackWingedGames' Journal
  • ChinaJoy CGDC 2012
  • A Weird Journal
  • necros devblog
  • CodeImp Game Developments
  • Face Punch Games Devblog
  • Sparked Studios Games
  • nighttime development
  • Coding In Transit
  • Journal
  • Kazuo5000's Journal
  • TMKCodes' Journal
  • miicchhii's Journal
  • Framework Philosophies
  • Journal of the Burning Hand
  • Warbringers - hotseat pvp game
  • Tyberthia Learning Experience
  • 2D MO Game
  • SIC Games' Journal
  • RATED-RKOFRANKLIN's Journal
  • Severin's Journal
  • lwm's Roa Journal
  • n00b0dy's Journal
  • uwi2k2 - Part Time Game Dev
  • Bluefirehawk's: "Path to World Domination"
  • Project Veritas - Working title
  • An Engine Through Time and Space
  • Epic Zombie's Journal
  • Bon Ink Creations' Journal
  • Aeronel's Journal
  • My Journey
  • vee's game development blog
  • The Long Road of Simulation
  • TestRoom
  • Amateuriffic
  • Alex Hopkins' Journal
  • Game Project #1
  • Project NN
  • Hostile Viking Studio Development
  • First game for Android
  • Jonathan's Journal
  • The Dwarfenheim Journal
  • codingnoobie's Journal
  • Will push pixels for food
  • Funstorm Dev Blog
  • Synchrex Studios Dev Blog
  • Tales of Allula: Crystal Spirits Development
  • Realm Chronicles developer's blog
  • dmdSpirit's Journal
  • Empyrios: Prophecy of Flame
  • Horizon Dev Journal
  • Corey Hoard's Journal
  • Freya's Journal
  • Hannah Wood's Producer Journal
  • Aurioch's Time Machine
  • achild's Journal
  • Retro Grade
  • Little Sticky Destroyer
  • C# Workshop - Some reedits.
  • creatures-of-gaia.com
  • Adventure Through Game Programming and Development
  • ellisvlad's MMORPG Development Journal
  • FantasyCraft's Game Engine Development
  • The life of a Unity Developer
  • My First Journal
  • Alex.SilR's Journal
  • Nathan's Blog
  • theartist493's Journal
  • Black's Tales
  • Fran Bow, a point & click adventure
  • Aaru's Journal
  • Drayan's TechBlog
  • Journal.Unknown
  • Josh Hartley's Journal
  • A long, frozen Path
  • Game Dev: P-13
  • Gianmarco Leone - Audio Director
  • slicer4ever's Journal
  • The Tribes Game Dev Journey
  • Like tears in the rain
  • Undead Castle Dev Journal
  • Welcome to Flying Cow Ink
  • Riphath's Journal
  • sgt_barnes' Journal
  • Voxel Game's
  • Xamusel's Gamedev Journal
  • Legends of Maelm
  • Crunch Magic
  • The Gameconomist
  • Kaptein's Journal
  • Morphex's Journal
  • Cafe Murder Dev Log
  • XNA 3D hexagon tile RPG testing
  • Modern Roguelike
  • Luis Krestos IOS
  • Gamieon's Journal
  • Koron
  • Sports Fiction ® New Sci-Fi Sports Game Project
  • cengizonkal's Journal
  • Minecraft/Survivalcraft Text Based Game
  • MrPhoenix's Dark Galaxy RPG
  • Vaerydian
  • j-jorge's Journal
  • Progress of 2D (?) Game
  • Orcus3D - The development of a modern game engine
  • Solo Game Developer Guy
  • Terrifying Secrets
  • Ground Up: A Journal Of An Engine
  • 1520:The Asylum
  • Electronic Meteor
  • Cthuga's Journal
  • ikam's Journal
  • Making a simple dungeon crawler
  • Digitopia's Journal
  • Ghostship Journal
  • Marc Mencher's Career Advice
  • Zombie Factory Dev Journal
  • Colony - Indiegame Dev Journal
  • Christian24's Journal
  • Joe's Games
  • MateiSoft's Journal
  • Tubocass' Journal
  • EWClay's Journal
  • And let there be light.
  • Starbase Citadel
  • arunDev's Journal
  • redw0lf's Journal
  • BGBTech: The Status Update
  • The Dawn Age - Development Journal
  • Fen's Journal
  • Jcam Engine 2 Development
  • More Than Cannons Announcement
  • chamomoe's Journal
  • Evolving as a programmer starting with Pong
  • scottrick49's Journal
  • Leadwerks Developer Blog
  • From idea to a game.
  • Game for kids
  • Azaral's Rants, Raves, and Lunatic Ideas
  • Krealit's Journal
  • Scarabus' Journal
  • Journey Into Functional Programming
  • The Beginner's Programmicon
  • Project Domini
  • fps games by mohammed 360
  • Infinity Elephant Development Journal
  • Making a Terrain Generator
  • Squared'D's Journal
  • Squire Studios: A Team of First-Timers!
  • AllEightUp's Journal
  • My attempt at making a platfo... no, a game
  • Spacetime Perpetuance
  • Multiplayer Project Journal
  • PokingWater's Journal
  • Creating A Game: My Journey
  • Konrad's Journal
  • Sam Jackson's World of Game Development
  • Miscellaneous Programming Notebook
  • Somewhere in space
  • Le Journal de Yahiko
  • TidBitCode
  • Nightmaare Shares
  • Dev notes from the Crypt!!!1eleven
  • Neometron's Journal
  • Snapey Code
  • Morikubo's Journal
  • Game A Week Self Challenge
  • DareDeveloper's Journal
  • Aura Games' Journal
  • Viadukt Dev-Journal
  • Arhim's Journal
  • DOT Space Hero's Journal
  • Building a browser game.
  • IcedCrow's Dev Journal
  • BigGiantHead's Journal
  • Richards Software Ramblings
  • Mikkel Staunsholm
  • The Wood under the Moon
  • Dialock's Journal
  • Meatsack's Workshop Journal
  • LouisMed's Journal
  • UncleVlad29's Journal
  • Hands On GameMaker:Studio
  • Project StickandCarrot
  • Casey Hardman's Journal
  • The SeaVax Journal
  • Howligan's Journal
  • Better Than Accounting
  • Death rays and scrapyards
  • Jsvcycling's Journal
  • Vilem Otte's Journal
  • Fight Club Games
  • TOT to Unity3D
  • LemCoop Development Journal
  • Dog Days Dev
  • The Journey of Taking Over Someone Else's Project
  • Gamedev info
  • Caveman
  • Project Z
  • A different way
  • Big Boss TV
  • Sunchasers development diary.
  • The Great Emoticon
  • Nothing Journal
  • Arkanong development blog
  • Building OllieBit
  • Kveitosphier -- Angelic Series (092113)
  • The Adventures of Mr. Fluffypants and Galaxy Lad
  • EraEngine
  • BallShooter Dev.
  • slayemin's Journal
  • Shane C's Journal
  • 2DFriends
  • PanPan's Journal
  • 2d Game Creation
  • #GameDevIsWayMoreFun
  • Grand Strategy: Space War
  • mabulous techblog
  • Mippy's Beehive
  • The development of Voxel
  • Return of Spy Ghost Raider
  • Wunderpong
  • Living and working in Russia
  • Dumont's Journal
  • reenigne's Journal
  • The coming Onslaught
  • Too dumb to make it, too dumb to quit.
  • The Development Blog of Neuton Mouse
  • Brass Watch Games Development
  • Sky Battles - Follow the evolution
  • Kornner Studios
  • The Dev Journal
  • N.I.B.'s Journal
  • jph's itreationGAMES development journal
  • csliva's Journal
  • Ilya Suzdalnitski's Journal
  • Project North Dev Journal.
  • Pete's Journal
  • A Youngster's Development Journal
  • [Theoretical] Games that evolve from player input
  • NerdSushi's Journal
  • Only if [Beta] - Surreal Puzzle Game
  • Never Miss: Dev Journal
  • My SDL Adventure
  • montify's Journal
  • Battle City
  • The Seven Tides
  • Latte Deconstruction - A classic 2D platform game deconstructible
  • SeaCraft! – game development journal
  • exOfde's Journal
  • Nyphoon's Thrilling Quest for Release and Everything In-Between
  • Tutorial Doctor's Journal
  • Path Tracing Adventures
  • ferrous' Journal
  • Alex's Journey Through Game Development
  • Exploring, learning and failing
  • arka80's Journal
  • J Fixby
  • GrinnTech's Notes
  • Spectra - First Game Creation
  • Fortification Hills Studios
  • QuickSilverCarpet's Journal
  • Flappy Assassin is now available
  • Animated Skinned Meshes
  • Undergroundies Projects
  • From End to Beginning
  • ShadowKind Games DevLog
  • Code Snippets
  • The Inner Circle
  • EveronWorlds Ew FPS Online
  • bradleycooper11's Journal
  • The Journeycat's Handbook
  • russelvedcse's Journal
  • MadRockGames
  • Sergioni's Journal
  • Pixel Perfect blog
  • MacAfeeje's Eludiant Time:Starlit
  • Smeagol's Journal
  • chel's Journal
  • Flared Development Journal
  • Malkavian Assembly's Journal
  • OLD Lactose!'s Journal
  • Alurik's Journal
  • Dreaming of adventure
  • Jsvcycling's Tower Defense DevBlog
  • Truerror's Journey Through Insanity
  • Jordan Bonser's Indie Dev Journal
  • afraidofdark's Journal
  • Journal Ov Azathotep
  • Fallen Shadows
  • GTRACE
  • deadstip's Journal
  • showtime
  • Edward's Journal
  • LOST ORBIT Development
  • Raven_rs Journal
  • PNGs and Things
  • Ding! Games
  • ZeroBeat's Journal
  • Coding with OpenGL
  • Joe Gilliver - Black Shuck Audio Journal
  • Giallanon's Journal
  • Project Root
  • delagames' Journal
  • Saint Retro's Journal
  • Arch1eN's GameDev Adventures
  • Return of the Dodo's
  • Riuthamus's Freelance
  • lalilulelost's Journal
  • newtechnology's Journal
  • normoyle1993's Journal
  • Kiritsu Games
  • LariGuilger's Journal
  • Creating Spacemasters
  • Hedeic's Journal
  • dustArtemis ECS Framework
  • IKazma: The Development & Experience
  • SelenaMiller's Journal
  • Project Anera
  • Daath Galaxy Devlog
  • Exploring Programming
  • Wombat Hole
  • GoCatGo's Development Journal
  • JumpSmash Legend a 3D Badminton Simulation Mobile Game
  • The Cuboid Zone
  • Avengers UTD Chronicles
  • Xylvan's Journal
  • Jean-François Fortin's Journal
  • Parallel Development Log
  • Gregory's Development Journal
  • SynchingFeeling's Journal
  • FinalXIIISora's Journal
  • The Big Procedural Game Journal
  • GiTS' Journal
  • Sporniket's log - Game programming while having a busy life
  • 2Play's Developer Journal
  • Garrett Hoofman's Journal
  • Island Troll Tribes
  • int main
  • cyberspace009's Journal
  • Impossibru is nothing!
  • NineheadGenesha's Journal
  • Inside a Wicked Lair
  • Final´s Game-Dev
  • Stett's Journal
  • Madolite's Journal
  • My Game"The Alien On The Planet"
  • How to make a clone of Futile Tiles
  • A Dreamer's Notebook
  • AfricanThunder's Journal
  • Arikin's Journal
  • Sinvas_K's Journal
  • Procedural Worlds
  • Binary Cats
  • Burnt Dragon's Journal
  • Washu's Journal
  • imoogiBG's Journal
  • Eck's Journal - Still Flying
  • Thaumaturge's Journal
  • ryan20fun's Journal of Rasterisation
  • Xaer0's Journal
  • The Week of Awesome II
  • The week of awesome II - shadowisadog
  • 0sok's Journal
  • Making of: Acclimate Engine
  • Misantes' Journal
  • The Week of Awesome II Herd of Nerd Star Participation
  • New Syntax blog for Week-of-Awesome-II
  • Captain Coffee's Journal
  • WoA II Journal
  • Jack & Francis's Week Of Awesome II
  • Erik Rufelt's Journal
  • Week of Awesome II
  • Xai's Awesome Living Toys
  • Week of Awesome II dev journal
  • WoA - My first gamejam
  • The Last Toy in the Toy Box
  • Extremely Usefull Bits
  • GeoffreyS' Journal
  • Jurassic Park Aftermath
  • Project PX
  • H.A.C.K. - Development Journal
  • ajm113's Journal
  • LV-341B
  • Archmage Rises
  • Stormynature's Miscellanea
  • Hierarchical subdivision
  • Radiant Engine Development
  • "Barricade"
  • New New Things
  • Librexus
  • mtlk's Journal
  • EmpiresInRuins' TD Journal
  • Collectible Card Game + Commercial Sim = Awesome
  • Legend of Grimrock 2 Review
  • Dr.John's Journal
  • Gorogorosama vs GameDev
  • Ironbane Devlog #1
  • Game News
  • PowerShell Games
  • ODMO - puzzle game - android release
  • Gaiiden's Journal^2
  • Gaiiden's Journal
  • Gaiiden's Journal
  • Debugging Diaries
  • General Thoughts
  • Captain's Log
  • Orangepixel's Journal
  • LAURENT*'s Journal
  • the game
  • fakhirs's Journal
  • A sound guy making a game.
  • Sisofys' Journal
  • Browser Scent
  • AuroraRL
  • Manager of Hell
  • Tales from the Engine's Core
  • Nemo Persona
  • victoriaadams02's Journal
  • Rico's Development Log
  • Funky Monkey Studios Dev Blog (French)
  • Fear the Light: The Path to Playable
  • Astari
  • mousetails RPG
  • Developing a JRPG
  • goldmoelly's Journal
  • Goblin War
  • Phaetonium's Journal
  • Flame
  • Reactor Engine
  • Boardspace.net Game AI Journal
  • TheComet's Journal
  • Negazina and his shenanigans
  • Realm Crawler Development Journal
  • Becoming an indie
  • The Wizards Blog
  • SIMSpace 8.0
  • Educating an artist
  • Michael Staud's Journal
  • YanimStudio's Journal
  • Adventures into Unreal Engine & indie dev
  • GamzTV
  • Blacksea Odyssey Devlog
  • The Furious Ape Journal
  • Feras' Journal
  • SnailLife
  • Ray Tracing Devlog
  • hgoel0974's Journal
  • GameGeezer's Journal
  • Pavloid game
  • cozzie's Journal
  • Han''s Quest Journal
  • Lost Repo
  • DevBlog: Wolves at the Door
  • victorx's Journal
  • TheChubu's Journal
  • Mobile Game Dev Journal
  • Protheus Engine
  • ducanhtuvu's Journal
  • YGGDRASIL STUDIO's Journal
  • Skinned Mesh/Skeletal Animation Editor in D3D11
  • Proceedings of TheUnimake
  • Inko makes Prototypes
  • Caldera Games' Journal
  • Machine Made
  • YAAG
  • Xam'n'Eggs
  • Developer Journal
  • Game Tale
  • Jygle's Journal
  • Sol-Ark's developer journal
  • Blender - skinned meshes and animation DirectX export
  • Night Lone Engine: Journal and progress
  • Vortex Game Studios
  • williamssara005's Journal
  • Onigiri Flash's Journal
  • The Week of Awesome III
  • Simmie's Journal
  • The Dark Prognosticus
  • Game explorations
  • Danmaku no Kyojin
  • Epicelitedude's Journal
  • Thinking about treasure lately
  • IYP's Graphics Journal
  • My Stuff
  • Trades with Spirals Development
  • WoA 3 (2015)
  • Seven Spells Of Destruction Development Journal
  • Battleships Development
  • An arcade console developer's Journal
  • Spidi, Magic Item Tech Journal
  • Galactic Adventures
  • Week of Awsome III journal
  • TeamTeamEric's Journal
  • From The Forth Dev journal
  • Speed's Progress
  • Gooey's Journal
  • Week of Awesome III
  • ArThor's Journal
  • hu3 team - WoA III
  • Inside the blizzard
  • JamCats' Week Of Awesome III
  • Our Week of Awesome Project
  • Lich Dev Log
  • Single-Handed Game Dev
  • GTEntertainment's Journal
  • Soulwielder Dev Journal (Week of Awesome III)
  • MarioLuigiMan's Journal
  • WoA3 - Still Flying
  • Calinabris' Journal
  • DKoding's Journal - Koding Nights
  • alexokita's Journal
  • TBFC's Week Of Awesome III Dev Journal
  • My First Game !!
  • Dusters Devblog
  • Bigdog57's Journal
  • El Tomba - Developer Diary
  • Starshard Dev Journal
  • alexmasen's Journal
  • bobbentz's Journal
  • Merc Tactics
  • WatsonTBK's Journal
  • Spiral Lords: Armada
  • Arms of Telos
  • Really Slick Blog
  • c++ SFML TEAL
  • A random Game
  • Creation of Zergification tech demo
  • Opiniocracy
  • Kill All Demons!
  • Moon Pub Games
  • KruSuPhy's Journal
  • KruSuPhy's Journal
  • Final Year
  • Monster Chronicles: Mobile Strategy RPG
  • Shinylane's OpenGL Journal
  • psychedelia smith's Journal
  • Conkoon's Journal
  • GE2015's Journal
  • We the Innovation
  • Engine development for fun and bachelors thesis
  • Farom Studio
  • Geometer's Apprentice
  • NavWorkshop
  • an unnamed youtube simulator
  • Eck's Star Citizen Efforts
  • Project Gift
  • opmania35's Journal
  • Westorm's Journal
  • What I did
  • Short rules for beginners in game dev
  • DEV - War of Kingdoms Pocket
  • MoonKiteTree's Journal
  • Tinus Tate's Journal
  • Fowl Flying
  • Memorial Trees: forget-me-not Journal
  • Fidelum Games
  • Hexmind's Journal
  • MVG Interactive
  • EXODUS - A New Age Dawns
  • OmnicidalStudios Akintoo Journal
  • Kingpin
  • iMini Development
  • Oblivion Wars Development Journal
  • devlion's Journal
  • 2D Platformer
  • Cleemo's Journal
  • Becoming the Lord of Dwarves
  • Rogue555's Journal
  • Not Yet Implemented
  • Prali Games
  • Multiplayer RPG dev diary
  • Venatus
  • AVaW2015's Journal
  • Faison92's Journal
  • ProcGen Journal
  • Sector0's Journal
  • P2p online's Journal
  • One Piece Ultimate War
  • Syrena's Journal
  • w32's Journal
  • Max-Green's Journal
  • [GBA] Kingdom of Twilight a retro rom
  • Gamescrye's Game Design Blog
  • GameDev.net Partners
  • Blend4Web Development Journal
  • STAR SHIFT
  • Sweat, tears and blood
  • Amanda/adamSnowflake's Journal
  • Unity Parkour Game
  • Lawnjelly's Journal
  • ProcFxGen's Journal
  • dpadam450's Journal
  • Sungazer Software Development Log
  • A New Developer's Journey
  • De Feet - a 3D interactive story RPG
  • V0xel Sp4ce Development
  • yoshi_t's Journal
  • Strategy Empire's Journal
  • VikingVRStudio's Journal
  • Towards The Pantheon Devlogs
  • GameArch
  • SilviuShaders' WoA Dev Journal
  • Frango Digital Log - The Week of Awesome IV
  • AlienCore's Journal
  • Mousetails WoA 5 journal
  • Mind of Khan
  • XycsoscyX's Journal
  • The Week of Awesome IV
  • WOA 2016 | Team Bytetroll
  • EarthBanana's Journal
  • GameDev.net Staff Blog
  • Unnamed Turn-Based Strategy
  • "Popular" progress.
  • 3D, AI, procedural generation and black jack
  • Avalander's Journal
  • Andrey Macritskiy
  • Drone Combat Devlog
  • Rog Games' Journal
  • The Xoid Isometric Survival... from the start
  • Journal of Gruffler
  • Project Tidalwave
  • Ultra Kai's Graphics Journal
  • MY FIRST INDIE GAME! :D
  • DoomedGaming
  • V-Play Cross-Platform Game Engine
  • Bacterius' WoA Feedback
  • Project Mistwrapped
  • Game Development Adventures
  • The Achilles Journal
  • The Cptn's first voyage
  • A short Journey over Zeno's Bridge
  • MagForceSeven's Journal
  • TheCaptainSly's Journal
  • School and Mazes
  • Development of My Own Civilization
  • Richie2Pixel's Journal
  • khaniiuc's Journal
  • saadtaame's Journal
  • First Complete Game
  • Turn-based strategy about agriculture
  • Systemic Games
  • anyone needs a 3d modeller?
  • Vidar DevBlog
  • Vertexwahn's Journal
  • Opportunities in AR/VR
  • AngleWyrm Studios
  • "Project SpeceVille" Developer Journal
  • Floatlands devblog
  • Game Creation Journal: Midievalry
  • Arceneaux's Log
  • ViciousGaming's Journal
  • ACE Team's Journal
  • yps_sps' Journal
  • Alchemist
  • Project Life
  • GrindQuest
  • Paninairo's Journal
  • JacPete's Super Mage World
  • Resilients Journey
  • Who is Who? Dev blog
  • Multiverse: Cosmic Conquest TCG Development Journal
  • Aggroblakh's Journal
  • Fight the ADHD
  • The Time Rider Community Journal
  • Too few shopkeeper games!
  • VFX Highlights & Games
  • lougv22's Journal
  • First Impact: Rise of a Hero's Journal
  • Labraid's Journal
  • BattleForte Game DevLog
  • WinterDragon Says Print("hello")
  • Ascension Game Journal
  • bogosaur's great journal of wisdom.
  • AurumDust journal
  • Progress on The Last Score
  • BrykuTheDev's Journal
  • Developing a good looking story to make it a game
  • Rebirth of a classic card game
  • Ships vs Sea Monsters. From sketches to final edition
  • SquaserZ - The Devlog
  • Dev Quest With AriiMoose
  • ohoyy056's Journal
  • TheLastKind's Journal
  • ohoyy070's Journal
  • essaywriting
  • Idea To A Game
  • XyraniaDev's journal
  • ohoyy082's Journal
  • Pirate Dawn Universe
  • Deep Waters Devblog
  • brigittepetrie's Journal
  • GoldbarGames' Journal
  • Kickstarter/Greenlight Dev Journals/Tips/Insights
  • Delphinity
  • Big List of Mobile Game Reviews [UPDATED DAILY]
  • 0day's Blog
  • DuelingDevblogs
  • Jaden's Blog
  • Tee_Hunter
  • GDC 2017
  • Voxelaxy
  • Power Pong Devblog
  • Spinbot's Blog
  • SerikASA's Blog
  • Brewing the tee
  • Johnnymorgan's Blog
  • Blog #1 - You can't push a rope!
  • Korvas' Game Dev
  • Tough Story Volume I - Big Hell
  • VirtualRN's Blog
  • Game Blog
  • Dadou666's Blog
  • SHIRO Developers Log
  • Star Heritage
  • Bluword
  • Appodeal Blog
  • juegostudios
  • saraedward's Blog
  • shirawinget's Blog
  • Baro's Beginning
  • phil67rpg's Blog
  • Video Game Sound by Olivier Girardot
  • Deep Worked Blog
  • Swim Out
  • Bypassed - DevBlog
  • Muisca's Blog
  • AlexHoratio's Blog
  • Hell Warders
  • hydra1's Krypton Development Team
  • tommorow's Blog
  • ¿How to do Game?
  • My 1st GDC: Recap
  • Beyonce's Blog
  • donislawdev's Blog
  • Creating Complexity
  • dovodi's Blog
  • Stitched Showcase
  • itSeez3D Avatar SDK
  • 40Ggames' Blog
  • GamerX1221's Blog
  • HunterGaming
  • Nicolas Bertoa's Blog
  • Masters VR
  • PiN
  • Ben's Appallingly Humble Blog
  • Starfall Tactics
  • Ermergerd Ent's Blog
  • Secure Vend LLC's Blog
  • Cascapadia
  • Last Regiment Dev Blog
  • sarwar's Blog
  • Spaceguard 80
  • appguruz's Blog
  • ios\Android games promotions!
  • Forgiveness devblog
  • The creative industries digital game.
  • xboxoneya's Blog
  • Untitled: My journey with LibGDX and bullet hell
  • Block Builder Update Blog
  • noisechip's Blog
  • Call of Avatar
  • behc's Blog
  • Terrible Mess Games
  • polyfrag's Blog
  • polyfrag's Blog
  • Dr. Lexus Blog
  • Jungle Tag by The Kid Can Drive
  • polyfrag's Blog
  • Wormhole Devlog
  • Age of Dark
  • Trym Studios' Concept Blog
  • PSG's Blog
  • sinopgames
  • Space Warfare Blog
  • EdenAeternum's Blog
  • APPTUTTi's Blog
  • SlammaJammaMovie's Blog
  • Village Monsters Dev Diary
  • Rox087's Blog
  • THEDARKMEME's Blog
  • Progorion's Blog
  • lexnewgate's Blog
  • Starminer7Z7 of Fullpower's Blog
  • Progorion's Blog
  • DualTD
  • OandO's Blog
  • From UltDip to ...
  • io games
  • .io Games
  • JohnTheRipper88's Insight and Ramblings
  • Moosehunt
  • VBexEngine
  • Games Development Notes
  • Eart - a similar to an rpg but with typical elements of a bullet hell games
  • Valley of Crescent Mountain
  • Charly Men's BIZARRE
  • 울산오피 ○1○《⑻⑼⑷⑺)⑥⑥④⑧ 세계일등클래스
  • 청담안마 OlO⇔2816⇔2526 〃최저가 청담안마방 청담역안마 청담안마시술소 청담안마추천 청담역안마가격 청담안마위치 청담동안마방 청담동안마추천 청담안마예약
  • 인천출장샵
  • ⅸ강원도출장샵 阝카톡gg882출장콜걸.홈피 kiss45.COM출장안마/ 출장마사지/출장샵/출장업소/콜걸연락처/섹파/콜걸아가씨카톡/업소연락처.
  • Michael Zhou
  • が대구출장샵阝카톡gg882출장콜걸.홈피 kiss45.COM출장안마/ 출장마사지/출장샵/출장업소/콜걸연락처/섹파/콜걸아가씨카톡/업소연락처.
  • Battle of Millenia Update #1
  • ⅸ아산출장샵 阝카톡gg882출장콜걸.홈피 kiss45.COM출장안마/ 출장마사지/출장샵/출장업소/콜걸연락처/섹파/콜걸아가씨카톡/업소연락처.
  • A Passive Gamer's Blog
  • Newbie Gamer
  • Android, the most popular mobile platform throughout the world these days
  • Aggressive Gaming
  • 경마사이트추천 ⟡->『 AA77.ME 』<-⟡인터넷경마사이트
  • The Yii Development Framework for fast, extremely professional performance
  • Psychology in game design
  • Check out my Game!
  • Hell Warders Development blog
  • Wildlife control service
  • EP (A Platform Game)
  • Outentiq
  • See Gee Eye
  • Jenny's Magical Adventure
  • Last Hills Teaser Trailer (Horror Game) - Red Projekt -
  • Want to help make a game
  • New Game - ArcAngel is released.
  • Corona Labs Blog
  • Java&Python game development
  • How to write outstanding game reviews
  • Exactly how Does the Euromillions Millionaire Raffle Work?
  • puppysss
  • World Game Info
  • Rick Henderson And The Artifact Of Gods
  • Mobile Application Development Today
  • Runica: The Ancient Dungeon
  • Benefits of Mobile Application Development
  • Enterprise App Development you need to know
  • Mobile Application Development
  • krkrgames
  • My First Success - Dev Blog
  • Alchemica
  • Elemento : Development Blog
  • Remote Jobseekers
  • Bird With Toes Development Log
  • Forward Creating
  • ギ일산출장마사지 << ㅇIㅇ / ②8ㅇ④ / ③⑧⑧⑤ >>キ빠끈신속 정확선입금 NO24시간 일산출장마사지
  • ゴ여천동출장마사지 ☎ 0①ⓞ.2⑧O④.③885 コ입니다.출장 콜걸뜨거운핫한 여천동출장마사지
  • ズ매곡동출장마사지 << ㅇ①ㅇ / ②⑧ⓞ④ / 3885 >>ス시원빠끈 신속후불선입금 NO 매곡동출장마사지
  • セ진천동출장마사지 < 0!0=2⑦1⑥=!8②⑧ >ズ빠끈신속 정확선입금 NO24시간 진천동출장마사지
  • Drunken Monday, developers of Slash Arena: Online
  • pythoblack
  • Game Developer
  • Levels of Lean Six Sigma Certification
  • Josh Grams - WoA V
  • POSTWORLD Development Diaries
  • Week of Awesome V
  • Journal of development
  • WOA - 5
  • Week of Awesome V - Dev Blog
  • WoA ProjectCastle
  • Ludologists
  • bestpharmacy
  • Micro Brood Games Devlog
  • Bouncy Bob crunch journal
  • golds
  • Mobile App Development Company
  • Why Brands Are Missing Out On Mobile Games
  • RPG Grind!
  • Kade Markoux
  • Project XSYS - WIP
  • Higame
  • Chromasia
  • BITSZER SOFTWARE/EARN BITCOINS
  • This is for my rpg game i am working on
  • ggd
  • Kavarna's blog
  • Mobile App And Game Development Blog
  • opensource & javascript game development
  • Fooliery: Build with tiles
  • Super Reaction Speed Arcade Game
  • Mobile Application & Game Development Blog
  • How To Choose The Right Learning App For Your Preschooler?
  • Project Industry[Unity Indie Game]
  • hello World
  • From Zero To VR
  • Mobile Game App Blog
  • A cute casual game
  • WoA Game Design
  • Project Idra
  • Kung Fu Runner
  • PistacheGames
  • Dream Build Play - Resources
  • Modern game narratives - Writing better, stronger, more intriguing game stories.
  • onqtam
  • How to turn off Windows, Mac computers remotely using smartphone?
  • Game Testing and a Cup of Coffee
  • Mobile App Technologies, Unity3D Game Development Blog
  • Android Application Development and Growing Importance of Android Developers
  • disini
  • PandemicZ
  • Picswars.io devlog
  • First Blog
  • New Free Sound For You Guys
  • Cool Designing Tips They Don’t Teach You in Classes #1
  • Blog by Mobile App Development Company
  • 7 Things Every Mobile Team Needs to now
  • 선릉역안마 ゥェ1ゥェ。ィ.2816_〃2526 윤실장 ω환상의코스ω24Open #선릉역안마윤실장 선릉역안마연예인급사이즈 선릉역안마아가씨 #선릉역안마실장 선릉역안마정보 선릉역안마안내
  • Shinji's Game Development Blog
  • Web and Mobile Tech
  • Beneath the Waves
  • Mobile App and Game Programming Blog
  • Take my heart to this game
  • Mobile App, Web & Game Design News

Group


About Me


Website


Industry Role


Twitter


Github


Twitch


Steam

Found 29 results

  1. Hi, I came across this udk article: https://docs.unrealengine.com/udk/Three/VolumetricLightbeamTutorial.html that somewhat teaches you how to make the volumetric light beam using a cone. I'm not using unreal engine so I just wanted to understand how the technique works. What I'm having problems is with how they calculate the X position of the uv coordinate, they mention the use of a "reflection vector" that according to the documentation (https://docs.unrealengine.com/latest/INT/Engine/Rendering/Materials/ExpressionReference/Vector/#reflectionvectorws ) it just reflects the camera direction across the surface normal in world space (I assume from the WS initials) . So in my pixel shader I tried doing something like this: float3 reflected_view = reflect(view_dir, vertex_normal); tex2D(falloff_texture, float2(reflected_view.x * 0.5 + 0.5, uv.y)) view_dir is the direction that points from the camera to the point in world space. vertex normal is also in world space. But unfortunately it's not working as expected probably because the calculations are being made in world space. I moved them to view space but there is a problem when you move the camera horizontally that makes the coordinates "move" as well. The problem can be seen below: Notice the white part in the second image, coming from the left side. Surprisingly I couldn't find as much information about this technique on the internet as I would have liked to, so I decided to come here for help!
  2. Hey I want to try shade particles by compute a "small" number of samples, e.g. 10, in VS. I only need to compute the intensity of the light, so essentially it's a single piece of data in 2 dimensions. Now I want to compress this data, pass it on to PS and decompress it there (the particle is a single quad and the data is passed through interpolators). I will accept a certain amount of error as long as there are no hard edges, i.e. blurred. The compressed data has to be small and compression/decompression fast. Does anyone know of a good way to do this? Maybe I could do something fourier based but I'm not sure of what basis functions to use. Thanks
  3. I'm writing a short article on game balance, specifically dealing with typical combat attributes, combat resolution systems, and how those values tie in to game balance, character progression, etc. What I want are some examples of the "to hit" rolls, or skill checks, or other similar contests or evaluations (there must be a word for this!), so I can compare and classify them, along with their balance implications. It's important that the mechanic is documented or otherwise known, rather than just being an opaque "68% To Hit" or whatever. They don't have to be from computer games; alongside some simple classic ones from Civilization and Age of Wonders, I'm also looking at the d20 attack roll from Dungeons and Dragons, a couple from Warhammer, etc.
  4. I was reworking on my LightProbe filter, and I wrote some code to generate the Reference Cubemap, but then I noticed some discontinuous on the border of each face.(Top:CPU implementaion, Bottom: GPU implementation, the contrast has been adjusted on the right side) At first I think it maybe caused by the interpolation, but then I tried the same algorithm in 2D (like a slice in the normal light probe prefiltering) for better visualization, and the result really confused me. See the attachments, the top half is the Prefiltered Color value, displayed per channel, it's upside down because I used the ColorValue directly as the y coordinate. The bottom half is the differential of the color, it's very clearly there is a discontinuous, and the position is where the border should be. And as the roughness goes higher, the plot gets stranger . So, I am kinda of stuck in here, what's happening and what to do to remove this artifact? Anybody have any idea? and here is my code inline FVector2D Map(int32 FaceIndex, int32 i, int32 FaceSize, float& SolidAngle) { float u = 2 * (i + 0.5) / (float)FaceSize - 1; FVector2D Return; switch (FaceIndex) { case 0: Return = FVector2D(-u, -1); break; case 1: Return = FVector2D(-1, u); break; case 2: Return = FVector2D(u, 1); break; case 3: Return = FVector2D(1, -u); break; } SolidAngle = 1.0f / FMath::Pow(Return.SizeSquared(), 3.0f / 2.0f); return Return.SafeNormal(); } void Test2D() { const int32 Res = 256; const int32 MipLevel = 8; TArray<FLinearColor> Source; TArray<FLinearColor> Prefiltered; Source.AddZeroed(Res * 4); Prefiltered.AddZeroed(Res * 4); for (int32 i = 0; i < Res; ++i) { Source[i] = FLinearColor(1, 0, 0); Source[Res + i] = FLinearColor(0, 1, 0); Source[Res * 2 + i] = FLinearColor(0, 0, 1); Source[Res * 3 + i] = FLinearColor(0, 0, 0); } const float Roughness = MipLevel / 8.0f; const float a = Roughness * Roughness; const float a2 = a * a; // Brute force sampling with GGX kernel for (int32 FaceIndex = 0; FaceIndex < 4; ++FaceIndex) { for (int32 i = 0; i < Res; ++i) { float SolidAngle = 0; FVector2D N = Map(FaceIndex, i, Res, SolidAngle); double TotalColor[3] = {}; double TotalWeight = 0; for (int32 SampleFace = 0; SampleFace < 4; ++SampleFace) { for (int32 j = 0; j < Res; ++j) { float SampleJacobian = 0; FVector2D L = Map(SampleFace, j, Res, SampleJacobian); const float NoL = (L | N); if (NoL <= 0) continue; const FVector2D H = (N + L).SafeNormal(); const float NoH = (N | H); float D = a2 * NoL * SampleJacobian / FMath::Pow(NoH*NoH * (a2 - 1) + 1, 2.0f) ; TotalWeight += D; FLinearColor Sample = Source[SampleFace * Res + j] * D; TotalColor[0] += Sample.R; TotalColor[1] += Sample.G; TotalColor[2] += Sample.B; } } if (TotalWeight > 0) { Prefiltered[FaceIndex * Res + i] = FLinearColor( TotalColor[0] / TotalWeight, TotalColor[1] / TotalWeight, TotalColor[2] / TotalWeight); } } } // Save to bmp const int32 Width = 4 * Res; const int32 Height = 768; TArray<FColor> Bitmap; Bitmap.SetNum(Width * Height); // Prefiltered Color curve per channel float MaxDelta = 0; for (int32 x = 0; x < Width; ++x) { FColor SourceColor = Source[x].ToFColor(false); Bitmap[x] = SourceColor; FColor Sample = Prefiltered[x].ToFColor(false); check(Sample.R < 256); check(Sample.G < 256); check(Sample.B < 256); Bitmap[Sample.R * Width + x] = FColor(255, 0, 0); Bitmap[Sample.G * Width + x] = FColor(0, 255, 0); Bitmap[Sample.B * Width + x] = FColor(0, 0, 255); if (x > 0) { const FLinearColor Delta = Prefiltered[x] - Prefiltered[x - 1]; MaxDelta = FMath::Max(MaxDelta, FMath::Max3(FMath::Abs(Delta.R), FMath::Abs(Delta.G), FMath::Abs(Delta.B))); } } // Differential per channel const float Scale = 128 / MaxDelta; for (int32 x = 1; x < Width; ++x) { const FLinearColor Delta = Prefiltered[x] - Prefiltered[x - 1]; Bitmap[int32(512 + Delta.R * Scale) * Width + x] = FColor(255, 0, 0); Bitmap[int32(512 + Delta.G * Scale) * Width + x] = FColor(0, 255, 0); Bitmap[int32(512 + Delta.B * Scale) * Width + x] = FColor(0, 0, 255); } FFileHelper::CreateBitmap(TEXT("Test"), Width, Height, Bitmap.GetData()); } Roughness 0.5.bmp Roughness 1.bmp
  5. UDP Server Authoritative What I'm doing right now is syncing the players position periodically and using some interpolation while any ability the player uses gets sent and played as soon as possible. Everything seems to work ok in parallel if the abilities don't involve the player moving. If I were to use the same system for movement based skills I would have some trouble syncing VFX with the movement part of the skill because movement would only be managed by state sync. So my question is what would be the best approach to deal with this issue? Should the players position get "locked" at the start of the ability so the ability code could take care of the movement instead, should the state sync take care of both: positions and abilities or is there a better solution? I understand I can't just have state sync take care of the movement and ability code take care of the VFX because of abilities such as teleport for example.
  6. Composition 101: Balance

    In physics, Balance is that point where a specific distribution comes to a standstill. In a balanced composition, all elements are determined in such a way that no change seems possible. The piece must give the feel of steadiness, otherwise, it will just seem off. Rudolf Arnheim, in his Art and Visual Perception book, stands that there are 3 elements to balance: shape, direction, and location. He also says that in the case of imbalance “the artistic piece becomes incomprehensible […] the stillness of the work becomes a handicap”. And that’s what gives that frustrating sensation of frozen time. In this simple example, you can see all this. Having the sphere off center gives the sensation of unrest. The sphere seems to be being pulled to the corner almost. It’s if like an invisible force is pulling it from the center. These pulls are what Arnheim calls Perceptual Forces. And with the sphere in the center of the walls, you have the sense of balance, where all the forces pulling from the sides and corners of the square are equal. Returning to physics, we can say that when talking about Balance the first thing that pops into our heads is Weight. And that’s what it is all about, what we think. Because, as I said before, perception is just the brain processing images. So, if when we talk about balancing something we think of weight it definitely has to have something to do with it in art, right? Exactly. Arnheim talks about knowledge and weight in balance referring to the fact that anyone who sees a picture of a scale with a hammer on one side and a feather in the other knows that the first one is heavier. If the scales are perfectly balanced it will just seem off. But balance does not always require symmetry, as we might tend to think. Isn’t equilibrium that brings balance. If the scales tilt to the “correct” side (the hammer) perceptual balance would have been achieved. In Art, as in physics, the weight of an element increases in relation to its distance from the center. So an object in the center can be balanced by objects to the sides, and objects on one side of the frame must be balanced with objects in the opposite location. But this doesn’t mean that the objects must be the same (symmetry and equilibrium), for there are properties that give objects weight besides their actual apparent weight. SIZE. The larger the object, the heavier. COLOR. Red is heavier than blue. Also, bright colors are heavier than dark ones. ISOLATION. An isolated object seems heavier than the same object accompanied by smaller ones all around it. Arnheim puts the moon and stars as an example here. SHAPE. Experimentation has shown that different shapes affect the way we perceive weight. Elongated, taller, figures seem heavier than short ones (even though they both have the same area size). To expand on this matter I recommend you to go back to the books I will reference in the sources down bellow. Even though these are really simple examples, I plan to move on with this theory applied to environment art. The whole take on Balance gives all the world building process a solid base stone. Embracing these principles will help you understand and better plan object placement in your scene to avoid the feared feel of steadiness Arnheim warned us about. There is still a bit more to explain about Balance so I will be expanding a bit more on this matter in future posts. Thumbnail art: Madame Cezanne in a Yellow Chair, c.1891 - Paul Cezanne Sources: Arnheim, Rudolf (ed.) Art and Visual Perception. A psycology of the creative eye. University of California. 1954. Bang, Molly. (ed) Picture This. (1991) Baker, David B. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of the Psychology. Oxford University Press (Oxford Library of Psychology), 2012.
  7. The Quest for the Custom Quest System

    Intro - "The challenges of dynamic system design" Custom Quest evolved during development, from a minor quest system used for our own needs in our own game production Quest Accepted, to something entirely more dynamic and customizable, now finally released, these are our thoughts on quest design and developing standalone subsystems. Splitting what is a major production for a small indie team, into smaller installments such as a quest system was a good idea we thought, this way we can get some releases out there and fuel the development of our game. But building a system that works for yourself is one thing, building a unity plugin that will let other developers create quests, missions, and objectives, you would never have thought of is something else entirely. The first thing we had to realize was that when building a quest system, the task is not to design great quests, the task is to enable the users to create great quests. That still meant we had to find out what good quest design is and what a quest really is. Our task was to create a system where the user is free to create creative engaging and rewarding mission experiences for their players. What is a quest? - "Cut to the core" First off, we need to know what a quest really is. A quest is the pursuit, search, expedition, task or assignment a person(s) does in order to find, gain or obtain something. In games, quests and missions function in many different ways depending on the genre. A single game can contain a multitude of different types of quests put together in just as many ways. In an MMO, for instance, quests are vehicles for the story and the player's progression. In many cases they are formulaic and simple, some can even be repeated, there are hundreds of them and everyone can do them. In other games quests are for single player campaigns only, here they shape each level giving the player a sense of purpose. Quests can span the whole game or just be a minor optional task on the way, there are so many design philosophies and creative quest designs that we had to narrow it down and really cut to the core of what is needed for good quest design. What all quests have in common is the task, the criteria for successful completion of the quest, and the reward, the goal of the quest, what the player gets out of doing what we ask of him. Quests cover an incredible variety of tasks so it was important for us to base our decisions on thorough research. In our research, we found that there are three layers to quest design. The type, the pattern and the superstructure. Quest types exist within quest patterns and quest patterns exist within the quest superstructure. We found that there are 8 basic types of quests these are the various tasks/criteria the player must do in order to complete the specific quest. There are 12 quest patterns. These are ways designers can use their quests, connect multiple quests set them up in engaging ways or teach players how to interact with and get the most out of the game world creating variety and engaging the player. Enveloping the patterns is the quest superstructure, the overall structure of quests in the game, we found that there are two main ways of structuring your quests. Historically quest have a quest giver, an NPC or object that informs the player about the quest, what they need to do, the story behind it and perhaps even what their reward will be should they complete the quest. Quest types - "Do this, do that" The core task each quest consists of, the criteria for completing part of or all of a single quest. These are the actions we want Custom Quest to be able to handle. Kill Probably the most basic quest type, the task is to kill something in the game, for example; kill 10 goblins. Gather Again very simple, the task is to gather x things in the game world, collecting berries or the like. Escort The player must escort or follow a person or object from point A to B while keeping it safe. FedX The player is the delivery boy, they must deliver an item to a person or point. Defend The player has to defend a location from oncoming enemies, often for a set number of waves or time. Profit The player must have a certain amount of resources to complete the quest, contrary to gather quests these resources are resources the player would otherwise be able to use himself. Activate The player's task is to activate/interact with one or more objects in the game world or talk to a number of NPC’s. In some cases, this must be done in a certain order for a puzzle effect. Search Search an area, discover an area of the game world. This is useful for introducing areas of the map to the player and giving them a sense of accomplishment right off the bat, showing them a new quest hub or the like. Quest Patterns - "An engaging experience" Tasks are one thing, and in many games, that might be plenty but we wanted custom quest to let the users create chains of quests, specialize them and set them up in ways that draw the player into the experience, there are many ways to go about this. Arrowhead The most basic quest pattern, the quest chain starts out broad and easy, the player has to kill some low-level cronies. The next quest is narrower, the player must kill fewer but tougher enemies, lets say the boss' bodyguards. The last quest is the boss fight, the player has killed the gang and can now kill the boss. This quest pattern is very straightforward and works well, giving rewards either at every stage or only when the boss is dead. Side stub A side stub is an optional part of the overlapping quest. Lets say quest A leads to quest C but there is an option to complete a side objective B, which makes completing C easier or it changes the reward, for example. The player must escape prison, the side stub is “free the other prisoners” in this example escaping with all the prisoners is voluntary but it might make it easier to overpower the guards or the prisoners might reward the player when he gets them out. The side stub differs from a generic side quest in that it is tied to the main quest directly. Continuous side-quests These are side-quests that evolve throughout the game, one unlocks the next, but they are also affected by external requirements such as story progress. This pattern is often found with party members in RPG games, where the player must befriend the party member to unlock their story quests. Deadline As the name implies these quests are time sensitive. The task can be of any type, the important thing is that the quest fails if time runs out. This could also be used for a quest with a side quest where the side quest is timed for extra rewards but the main objective is not. Deja-vu quests This kind of quest pattern gives the player a quest they have done or seen before. In some cases, this “new” quest will have a twist or something that sets it apart. It can also be the same sort of quest that exists in different areas of the game world, perhaps there is more than one goblin camp? or perhaps the player has to pick berries daily. Delayed impact Delayed consequences of a previous decision. Often used in games where the story is important and the players’ choices matter. These quests are tied together without the player knowing. Let's say the player is set the optional task of giving a beggar some gold to feed himself. The player gives the beggar a few gold and is on his way. The next time he meets the beggar the beggar has become rich and rewards the player for his kindness with ten times what he gave. One of many The player is presented with a number of quests, they have to choose which one to complete, they can only choose one. The others will not be available. Hidden quests Hidden tasks that aren’t obviously quests at first glance or are hidden away for only the most intrepid players to find. This could be an item the player picks up with an inscription in it if the player then finds the person the inscription is about he can get a reward for delivering it. A good quest pattern for puzzles, these kinds of quests can really make the game world come alive and feel a lot more engaging, allowing the player to uncover secrets, Easter eggs and discover all of the world created for them Moral dilemma Punish the bread thief who stole to feed his family? often used in games that have a good/ evil alignment level for the players, these kinds of quests make the player make a choice about what kind of character they want to play, they get to choose if their character is good or evil. Side quests Optional quests, these quests are often found in level based games where the overall quest must be completed to get to the next level, the player can optionally do some extra tasks to get more points. The important part is that these are optional but they give the player a reward for, getting everything they can out of the game. Tournament Tournament style quests, a series of quests that get harder as the player progresses. An example could be a gladiatorial arena if the player defeats five enemies one after the other he gets rewarded as the champion of the arena, but if for example, he fails at the third, the whole tournament is failed and he has to start all over from quest 1. Vehicle missions Despite the name these quests are not confined to being about cars, these are simply quests where the players control scheme changes to complete the quest(s). An example could be; changing from running around in the game world to driving a tank to destroy a fort. Quest superstructure - "The whole package" With quest superstructures, we are venturing into general game design. The superstructure is how the player is allowed to complete quests in the game world. It's basically a question of whether the game is “open world” or a linear experience. The diamond structure The open world model, think games like The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, the player is introduced to the game through a quest, but after that, they can go wherever and do whatever quests they want. There are tons of quests of the above types and patterns, the player is free to pick and choose which to do, giving the player the illusion of freedom within the game world (the diamond). However, the game still ends by completing a quest that is locked and always a requirement to complete the game. This can, of course, be varied by different choices the player has made throughout the game or even have multiple endings. Quests can be concentrated into quest hubs, i.e. towns with lots to do or the like, but they don't have to be completed in a linear fashion Linear hub structure This structure consists of a number of required “bridge” quests that need to be completed in order to unlock the next area or “hub”, each hub can have any number of quests, this could be a town full of people in trouble, each with their own quests and quest chains to complete, when they are all done, the player moves on to the next hub through another bridge quest. Limiting the quest size of the hubs will make the quest structure feel more linear and thereby the game linear, and creating larger more open hubs can make the player feel freer. Outcome - "So many options!" The development of custom quest has been the quest to allow game developers to create quests and missions that use these types. However, no matter how well we have researched, some one will come up with a new and creative way of doing quests. The solution for us was to make the system more customizable. Letting users convert their quest prefabs to quest scripts that automatically inherits the core functionality, so the user can freely add their own additional functionality on top of the existing core Asset development as fuel - "A learning experience" Developing this way, splitting the production into sub systems that can function on their own and even be used by others is not something that should be taken lightly, but if you can build something lasting, something others can find value in using, then the final product will be all the better for it. Custom Quest started as a project we thought could be completed in a couple of months, it ended up taking 7. In part this is because we realised that if we were going to release the system, we might as well do it right, that meant creating a system that was customizable and robust, a system that can be added to the users game and not the other way around, a system we could be proud of. The experience of developing for other developers is quite different to developing a game. One that has made us much stronger as programmers and as a company, it forced us to think in new ways, in order to create a dynamic and customizable solution. Custom quest has evolved from an asset we could use in Quest Accepted, into a tool others can use to create a unique game experience. All in all, the experience has been a good one and Random Dragon is stronger for it, I would, however, recommend thinking about your plugin and extra time before you start developing. Sources: www.pcgamesn.com -"We know you aren't stupid" - a quest design master class from CD Projekt RED http://www.pcgamesn.com/the-witcher-3-wild-hunt/the-witcher-quest-design-cd-projekt-masterclass http://www.gamasutra.com/ - Game Design Essentials: 20 RPGs - http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/4066/game_design_essentials_20_rpgs.php?print=1 Extra credits - Quest Design I - Why Many MMOs Rely on Repetitive Grind Quests https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otAkP5VjIv8&t=219s Extra credits - Quest Design II - How to Create Interesting MMO and RPG Quests https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ur6GQp5mCYs Center for Games and Playable Media - Situating Quests: Design Patterns for Quest and Level Design in Role-Playing Games - http://sokath.com/main/files/1/smith-icids11.pdf Center for Games and Playable Media - RPG Design patterns https://rpgpatterns.soe.ucsc.edu/doku.php?id=patterns:questindex Special thanks to Allan Schnoor, Kenneth Lodahl and Kristian Wulff for feedback, constructive criticism and background materials.
  8. Hi. To be honest, but the game design for me has always been something unique and interesting. My path of game development first started with programming. After I began to draw, in order to be universal, but later, I discovered the game design and that was for me, on a pedestal favorite direction. Today I would like to touch on the types of players, why they play the games and pleasures of games. Be brief and clear. In our nature there are 4 types of players: explorers, killers, sociable and those who like committed to something. Crooks. This type of players are focused more on the quick passing game. It does not matter the study and details in the game. Killer. These guys love to destroy everything and kill everybody. Just put them in the tank, tell them where it is necessary to blow - trust me, they will not leave anything alive there. Sociable. They love socializing, but most of all they love online games where can someone make friends, work in team and to tell you the recipe for a delicious mother's cookies. Researchers. How do you think, what you like to do this group of players? I also think that they are exploring every path in the game where you can collect all achievements. Every time you create a game, ask yourself the question: "what kind of player I do my game? Is it possible to combine these types of players in my game, changed some part of it?" Incidentally, with regard to online games. Why do you think people play online games? First, they like competition, will compete to get to the top and gain respect. Secondly, people like to work in a team. Personally I play team games and more hours spent in team modes rather than in single. I love this mode. Thirdly, people play online games in order to meet and chat with friends, spend time with them online and meeting them to have constant, friendly contact. As you know, men play more games than girls. Their main game is the first 20 years. Action and aesthetics - their element. From 20 to 30 years, men are already playing something more calm and tactical, where you do not need a lot of push on the joystick, but need to think. And about men from 30-35 years to play in something calm, for example in genres "I'm search" and "Farm". But women, as a rule, begin actively playing with for 30 years. More women in the world, but I don't like the game. But often after 30 years of playing farm frenzy. Identify the main fun of the players: Fantasy. We love to feel part of another world, which could be anyone. Plot. Sometimes the plot can cause a pleasant sense of his sudden change of events, a dramatic denouement and linearity. Partnership. Teamwork is enjoyable. Discovery. The opening of the new - is the main game fun. Expression. Everyone loves to brag about. Obedience. Cool when you can control others. Feeling. When you realize that step the expected event, then the waiting becomes a pleasure. The gloating. When you killed your enemy, it's nice. Gifts. We love to receive gifts? Humor. No comment. Choice. To go left or right? I have a choice? Fulfilled goal. We love to reach goals and to feel pride because of this. Surprise. We love to be surprised. The Japanese are masters at it. Fear. We love to be frightened and to feel the shaking. This is an interesting kind of fun that we both and hate. A miracle. When we are strongly of something was surprised and experienced a wild delight from something. A tough win. That moment, when initially there was little chance to win, but you win. So when making a game, think of the fun highlights of your game and how much to add. My name is Flatingo and I love to make games. If you also like to make games, welcome to my YouTube channel. Good luck in your projects.
  9. I want to share my experience and collected here the most common mistakes in creating and advertising your games. I'll be glad if it helps you.
  10. I was developing a 2D game engine in c++ and it went pretty well, until I got to the point of exporting the game. You see, I was using lua in a virtual machine (sandbox) for the scripting of the game; now I realized that my game engine is just a lua interpreter if I try to share the game I'll distribute the game files (sounds, images, etc..), my scripts and my "interpreter" .exe this means that if I share my game with someone they'll have access to the game logic instead of a stand-alone .exe. How do other engines compile scripts into a stand-alone executable i'm really confused on this mater.
  11. http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/perceiving-is-believing-the-game-design-edition/ Perceiving is believing, or is it really? We have five basic senses which we use to perceive the world with: smell, taste, touch, seeing and hearing. But there is a difference between sensing and perceiving. Our senses provide us with raw data from the environment around us. This raw data can be visuals from our eyes, airborne chemicals our noses pick up, tastes on our tongue, soundwaves via our ears or tactile (touch) information from our skin. Perception, on the other hand, is the way our brain organizes and interprets this raw data. We use our perception to make sense of what we sensed. Perception can be influenced by the context in which the stimuli (what we have sensed) presented, our expectations and our current mood. What you see isn’t always what you get and that is true for all senses. Perceiving isn’t always believing. Our brain works in weird ways which affects our perception too. Sometimes you don’t perceive something you’ve sensed or you perceived something that wasn’t there in the first place (Gosselin & Schyns, 2003). Our brain can also play tricks on our perception. It can interpret the stimuli in weird ways. Optical illusions are a fun example of how our perception works, below are a couple examples. How can two colors be the same while you perceive them as different? Illusion 1 is an example of how context and expectations shape your perception. Square A and B are the same shade of grey but your brain interprets them as completely different. You see a checkerboard and expect a certain pattern, A is supposed to be black and B is supposed to be white. Combine this with the contexts of the shadow: your brain expects the squares in the shadow to be darker. Sometimes your brain makes you see things that aren’t there. You probably sees a black triangle laying on top of three circles and a white triangle in illusion 2. That is your brain filling up the gabs. There is no black triangle, the triangle is a lie! There are just three white pizza’s all with a missing slice and three lines with the same angles. Illusion 3 is a picture of two faces or a vase. It all depends on the angle you are looking from, but you can never see both at the same time. How we perceive these illusions depends on our perceptual sets. A perceptual set is the tendency to interpret a stimulus in a certain way only. It is what makes you see the faces before the vase in illusion 3 (or the vase before the faces). Our perceptual sets are heavily influenced by our emotions, expectations, beliefs, context and past experiences. Perception is sometimes weird and that our brain words in strange ways. You might wonder why we have such a thing as perception in the first place. Why can we not just perceive the world as we sensed it? And what is the function of perception? Perception is quite useful for filtering out the necessary information only. We would go crazy by all the stimuli around us if we would perceive the world as we sense it. We use our perception for attention, to figure out what information is coming in. The incoming information can be filtered through our selective attention, that way our brain ignores anything else but the stimuli of interest. Selective attention is what we use when we become immersed in a game. We only focus our attention to the stimuli from the game and ignore the outside world. Perception is also used for localizing where the information of interest is coming from. When you walk through your town and smell something amazing you might want to wonder where it’s coming from. Or your perception already did the work and you know it was from the bakery across the street. Perception can also help you recognize a stimuli. You smell the bakery and immediately recognize that they just finished baking their bread. We can also filter out unnecessary information with our senses directly. Our sensory cells respond less and less when a stimulus stays the same for a while. After a while we no longer register the stimulus. This is called sensory adaptation. Think about the pressure of your clothes, you notice it when you put them on and when you move. Most of the day you just won’t notice them due to sensory adaptation. The same happens to the noise your fridge makes or the ticking of your clock. The smell cells in your nose will even stop responding for a while. They need to be given a chance to recover before you can smell again (Dalton, 2000). Not all senses are equally important to games. Smell isn’t used in games since the smell-o-console hasn’t been invented yet. You’re also not very likely to lick your screen to see what the game tastes like. The only senses we can use in games are vision, hearing and tactile (touch, vibration and pressure). As designers we only have to account for hearing and vision. We have very little control over the feel of the keyboard or controller. Do think about adding vibration occasionally when your game is played with a controller. Thomas was alone is a favorite of mine because of the excellent use of emotional narration but the game also works well perception-wise. When you play the game for the first time you immediately understand who Thomas is. Considering Thomas is a red rectangle, that is kind of amazing. Thomas was alone shapes the player’s perception with its title, expectations and context. From the title you immediately expect to play or interact with a character named Thomas. You expect Thomas to be one of the characters or perhaps the playable character. The narration adds to this as well once the player starts the game. There is no need to show a big arrow with the word ‘playable character’ written on it, your perception worked it out already. Without its art, the game would be nowhere. The choice for abstract art was a conscious one. It’s not just to play with our perception, it helps our perception. The color scheme of the game is mostly monochrome except for the characters, they really pop-out. From the first interaction it is clear that these colorful rectangles are the objects of interest. Your gaming knowledge matters to your perception as well. It helps you understand where the characters need to go, where you can and can’t go and how to interact with the game in general. Tips and suggestions These tips and suggestions can be applied to all types of games. For some genres it might be easier than others but it is good practice to make use of player expectations. Do a little research into other games your target audience plays or research similar games. Find out what these games have in common with each other or what popular gaming conventions are in the genre. If you plan to make a mobile game where players have to slice things in half, look at other games where players slice things in half (hint: Fruit Ninja). How do players interact with the game? Is it a common way to interact with these types of games? Are all good questions to ask yourself. Don’t just blindly copy mechanics and features from a similar game, find out what is common knowledge among your players and what they expect. Help the player’s selective attention by making use of the pop-out effect for objects of interest. Think about the little shake animation in candy crush. The shake grabs the player’s attention immediately, it’s even visible from the corners of your eyes. Or make use of colors that are brighter than others for objects of interest. This might be the domain of the artists but it is very important for game designers to take this into account as well. It’s the game designer’s task to guide the art team into making decisions that benefit and complement the game design. Audio can also be used in interesting ways to help the player’s perception in the game. You can use it as a mechanic to lure the players or as a way to foreshadow an upcoming monster. Perception is an interesting thing our brain does. We can aid it through our game design or play with it. The possibilities are endless. References and stuff Crash course psychology: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=unWnZvXJH2o&t=9s Gosselin, F. & Schyns, P. G. (2003). Superstition perception reveal properties of internal representations. Psychological Science, 14(5), 505-509. Dalton, P. (2000). Psychophysical and behavioral characteristics of olfactory adaptation. Chemical senses, 25, 487-492
  12. I'm trying to write a simple quadcopter simulation. It doesn't need to be 100% accurately simulated and I don't intend to write an actual drone controller, it's just supposed to "look" right in the simulation, and I'm trying to get a better understanding of PIDs. As such, I don't need to worry about sensors, or an accelerometer or gyroscope, I get all of the information from the simulation directly. I'm new to quadcopter physics and PIDs, so there are a few things I'm a bit unclear on. I'm not asking for concrete solutions, I'd just like to know if my ideas go in the right direction and/or if I'm missing anything. 1) Let's say the quadcopter has the world coordinates Q(0 -50 0) (y-axis being the up-axis) and I want it to fly to O(0 0 0). The velocity I need is O -Q, so I need to accelerate the drone until I reach that velocity (Correcting it every simulation tick). To do that, I need a PID, with the setpoint being the desired velocity O -Q, and the process variable being the current velocity of the drone (both on the y-axis), and 1/4th of the PID output is then applied as force to each rotor (Let's ignore the RPM of the rotors and assume I can just apply force directly). Is that correct? 2) The drone is at the world coordinates Q(0 0 0) and should fly to P(100 0 100). It also has the orientation (p(itch)=0, y(aw)=0 and r(oll)=0). I want the drone to fly to point P, without changing its yaw-orientation. How would I calculate the target pitch- and roll-angles I need? I can work with euler angles and quaternions (not sure if I need to worry about gimbal lock in this case), I just need to know what formulas I need. Of course I also want to make sure the drone doesn't overturn itself. 3) I want to change the drone's orientation from (p=0, y=0, r=0) to (p=20, y=0 r=0) (With positive pitch pointing downwards). To do so, I'd have to increase the force that is being applied by the front rotors, and/or decrease the force of the back rotors. I can use a PID to calculate the angular velocity I need for the drone (similar as in 1) ), but how do I get from there to the required forces on each rotor? 4) Am I correct in assuming that I need 6 PIDs in total, 3 for the angular axes and 3 for the linear axes?
  13. How to learn to draw game graphics

    So, drawing. How to learn how to draw game graphics and how to learn to draw at all, when is your maximum this? Okay, then let's discuss this. To begin with, I'm not a cool artist, but I persistently develop this skill in myself, every day drawing and stacking tons of paper. By the way, I advise this to you. This is good advice. As in the beginning of any business that you start, you do not need to show yourself a super genius, have super equipment and immediately invest huge amounts of money in your development. No, my dear friend, start small, and everything else will come with time. Therefore, to begin with, choose the style of drawing that you want and just practice in it. Just do not paint in all styles at once. To begin with, determine what you like and understand what styles there is. Watching how the games and their style develop, I can say with confidence that now the pixel art, cartoonish and comic graphics are in fashion. Who needs hyperrealistic humanoids and canons now? This is a huge zamorochki in creating games and stereotyped. Do not be afraid to draw a fist bigger than your head, and legs are the size of a joystick. Fashion, where beautifully painted drawings and brought them to realism, gradually disappears. Minimalism, simplicity and violation of proportions is what is now actual. Look at the latest games, because they became easier in style and no less beautiful (Overwatch, Dota2, Pixel Piracy, etc.). I will also say that I am a big fan of vector graphics and how it looks. What not to say about China and the eastern countries that can not live without it. This is not a joke, because in fact, Chinese developers are styling their games for a bright cartoon graphics with the addition of anime. In the east This is popular. Here are the games of Klei Entertainment. Pay attention to the style. You see? He's alone in all games and it's cool. This is the most important thing - to find your own style. I'm sure the director will not fire this artist. Look at other industries: advertising, television, etc. Everywhere simple graphics are used, for it is easy to perceive. People are now very lazy and quickly get used to everything, so vector graphics are now gaining good growth. By the way, to draw graphics for games, you need and do not need a graphics tablet. Look, the point is that you can draw a vector and pixels with your mouse. Believe me, this will be enough for you. But the tablet is relevant when you are drawing something more or less detailed. More often it is used for detailing and texturing an object in Photoshop. I once read Christopher Hart's book about drawing comics. You can also read the book of your chosen style, as well as redraw the different pictures you like. Why? Over time, the hand and the brain will memorize the outline and images, and it will be easier for you to come up with something new in the future, as well as draw already existing pictures in your head. Well, I probably will finish this, but this is not my last article. I will be happy if you need my experience. By the way, more information about the development of games and everything related to it you can find out on my YouTube channel. With you was a Ukrainian developer of indie games - Flatingo. Good luck to you.
  14. Hi there, it's been a while since my last post. I was creating a bunch of games but there was always something missing. Something which makes the game (maybe unique)... After a few tries I decided to start a side project for a combat system which should be used for fighting games. I did a lot of research and programming to finally get something that makes actually fun to play. Well... it is only a prototype and I do not want to share it (yet). Now I decided to share my ideas of the basics of a combat system for fighting games. Don't get me wrong... This is only my way of doing stuff and I want as many feedback as possible and maybe it will help people with their games. I will provide a few code snippets. It will be some sort of OOP pseudo code and may have typos. Content 1. Introduction 2. Ways of dealing damage 1. Introduction What makes a combat system a combat system? I guess it could be easy to explain. You need ways of dealing damage and ways of avoiding damage. At least you need something for the player to know how to beat the opponent or the game. As i mentioned before, I will focus on fighting games. As it has ever been there is some sort of health and different ways to reduce health. Most of the times you actually have possibilities to avoid getting damage. I will focus on these points later on. 2. Ways of dealing damage How do we deal damage by the way? A common way to do so, is by pressing one or more buttons at one time in order to perform an attack. An attack is an animation with a few phases. In my opinion, an attack consists of at least four phases. 1. Perception 2. Action 3. Sustain 4. Release Here is an example animation I made for showing all phases with four frames: Every one of those has its own reason. One tipp for our designers out there is to have at least one image per phase. Now we should take a closer look at the phases itself. 2.1. Perception The perception phase should include everything to the point, the damage is done. Lets say, it is some sort of preparing the actual attack. Example: Before you would punch something, you would get in position before doing the actual action, right? Important note: the longer the perception phase is, the more time the opponent has to prepare a counter or think about ways to avoid the attack. Like having light and heavy attacks. The heavy attacks mostly have longer perception phases than the light ones. This means, that the damage dealt is likely greater compared to the light attacks. You would like to avoid getting hit by the heavy ones, right? 2.2. Action The action phase is the actual phase where damage is dealt. Depending on the attack type itself the phase will last longer or shorter. Using my previous example, heavy attacks might have a longer action phase than light attacks. In my opinion, the action phase should be as short as possible. One great way to get the most out of the attack animation itself is by using smears. They are often used for showing motion. There's ton of reference material for that. I like using decent smears with a small tip at the starting point and a wide end point (where the damage should be dealt). This depends on the artist and the attack. 2.3. Sustain At first sight, the sustain phase may be irrelevant. It is directly after the attack. My way of showing the sustain phase is by using the same image for the action phase just without any motion going on. The sustain phase should be some sort of a stun time. The images during the sustain phase should show no movement - kind of a rigid state. Why is this phase so important? It adds a nice feel to the attack animation. Additionally, if you want to include combos to your game, this is the phase, where the next attack should be chained. This means, while the character is in this phase of the attack, the player could press another attack button to do the next attack. The next attack will start at the perception phase. 2.4. Release The release phase is the last phase of the attack. This phase is used to reset the animation to the usual stance (like idle stance). 2.5. Dealing damage Dealing damage should be only possible during the action phase. How do we know, if we land a hit? I like using hit-boxes and damage-boxes. 2.5.1. Hit-boxes A hit box is an invisible box the character has. It shows it's vulnerable spot. By saying "Hit-box" we do not mean a box itself. It could be any shape (even multiple boxes together - like head, torso, arms, ...). You should always know the coordinates of your hit-box(es). Here is an example of a hit-box for my character: I am using Game Maker Studio, which is automatically creating a collision box for every sprite. If you change the sprite from Idle to Move, you may have a different hit-box. Depending on how you deal with the collisions, you may want to have a static hit-box. Hit-boxes could look something like this: class HitBox { /* offsetX = the left position of you hit-box relative to the players x coordinate offsetY = the top position of you hit-box relative to the players y coordinate width = the width of the hit-box height = the height of the hit-box */ int offsetX, offsetY, width, height; /* Having the players coordinates is important. You will have to update to player coordinates every frame. */ int playerX, playerY; //initialize the hit-box HitBox(offsetX, offsetY, width, height) { this.offsetX = offsetX; this.offsetY = offsetY; this.width = width; this.height = height; } //Update (will be called every frame) void update(playerX, playerY) { //you can also update the player coordinates by using setter methods this.playerX = playerX; this.playerY = playerY; } //Getter and Setter ... //Helper methods int getLeft() { return playerX + offsetX; } int getRight() { return playerX + offsetX + width; } int getTop() { return playerY + offsetY; } int getBottom() { return playerY + offsetY + height; } } When using multiple hit-boxes it would be a nice idea to have a list (or array) of boxes. Now one great thing to implement is a collision function like this: //check if a point is within the hit-box boolean isColliding(x, y) { return x > getLeft() && x < getRight() && y > getTop() && y < getBottom(); } //check if a box is within the hit-box boolean isColliding(left, right, top, bottom) { return (right > getLeft() || left < getRight()) && (bottom > getTop() || top < getBottom()); } 2.5.2. Damage-boxes Damage-boxes are, like hit-boxes, not necessarily a box. They could be any shape, even a single point. I use damage-boxes to know, where damage is done. Here is an example of a damage-box: The damage box does look exactly like the hit-box. The hit-box differs a bit to the actual damage-box. A damage-box can have absolute x and y coordinates, because there is (most of the times) no need to update the position of the damage-box. If there is a need to update the damage-box, you can do it through the setter methods. class DamageBox { /* x = absolute x coordinate (if you do not want to update the coordinates of the damage-box) y = absolute y coordinate (if you do not want to update the coordinates of the damage-box) width = the width of the damage-box height = the height of the damage-box */ int x, y, width, height; /* The damage the box will do after colliding */ int damage; //initialize the damage-box DamageBox(x, y, width, height, damage) { this.x = x; this.y = y; this.width = width; this.height = height; this.damage = damage; } //Getter and Setter ... //Helper methods int getLeft() { return x; } int getRight() { return x + width; } int getTop() { return y; } int getBottom() { return y + height; } } 2.5.3. Check for collision If damage-boxes and hit-boxes collide, we know, the enemy receives damage. Here is one example of a hit: Now we want to check, if the damage box collides with a hit-box. Within the damage-box we can insert an update() method to check every frame for the collision. void update() { //get all actors you want to damage actors = ...; //use a variable or have a global method (it is up to you, to get the actors) //iterate through all actors foreach(actor in actors) { //lets assume, they only have one hit-box hitBox = actor.getHitBox(); //check for collision if(hitBox.isColliding(getLeft(), getRight(), getTop(), getBottom()) { //do damage to actor actor.life -= damage; } } } To get all actors, you could make a variable which holds every actor or you can use a method you can call everywhere which returns all actors. (Depends on how your game is set up and on the engine / language you use). The damage box will be created as soon as the action phase starts. Of course you will have to destroy the damage-box after the action phase, to not endlessly deal damage. 2.6. Impacts Now that we know, when to deal the damage, we should take a few considerations about how to show it. There are a few basic elements for us to use to make the impact feel like an impact. 2.6.1. Shake the screen I guess, I am one of the biggest fans of shaking the screen. Every time there is some sort of impact (jumping, getting hit, missiles hit ground, ...) I use to shake the screen a little bit. In my opinion, this makes a difference to the gameplay. As usual, this may vary depending on the type of attack or even the type of game. 2.6.2. Stop the game This may sound weird, but one great method for impacts is to stop the game for a few frames. The player doesn't actually know it because of the short time, but it makes a difference. Just give it a try. 2.6.3. Stun animation Of course, if we got hit by a fist, we will not stand in our idle state, right? Stun animations are a great way to show the player, that we landed a hit. There is only one problem. Lets say, the player is a small and fast guy. Our enemy is some sort of a big and heavy guy. Will the first punch itch our enemy? I guess not. But maybe the 10th one will. I like to use some damage build up system. It describes, how many damage a character can get before getting stunned. The damage will build up by every time the character will get hit. After time, the built up damage reduces, which means, after a long time without getting hit, the built up shall be 0 again. 2.6.4. Effects Most games use impact animations to show the player, that he actually hit the enemy. This could be blood, sparkles, whatever may look good. Most engines offer particle systems, which makes the implementation very easy. You could use sprites as well. 2.7. Conclusion By using the four phases, you can create animations ideal for a fighting game. You can prepare to avoid getting hit, you do damage, you can chain attacks and you have a smooth transition to the usual stance. Keep in mind, the character can get hit at phases 1, 3 and 4. This may lead to cancel the attack and go into a stun phase (which i will cover later). A simple way to check for damage is by using hit-boxes and damage-boxes. 3. Ways of avoiding damage Now we are able to deal damage. There is still something missing. Something that makes the game more interesting... Somehow we want to avoid taking damage, right? There are endless ways of avoiding damage and I will now cover the most important ones. 3.1. Blocking Blocking is one of the most used ways to avoid damage (at least partially). As the enemy starts to attack (perception phase) we know, which attack he is going to use. Now we should use some sort of block to reduce the damage taken. Blocking depends on the direction the player is looking. Take a look at this example: If the enemy does an attack from the right side, we should not get damage. On the other side, if the enemy hits the character in the back, we should get damage. A simple way to check for damage is by comparing the x coordinates. Now you should think about how long the character is able to block. Should he be able to block infinitely? You can add some sort of block damage build up - amount of damage within a specific time the character can block (like the damage build up). If the damage was to high, the character gets into a stunning phase or something like that. 3.2. Dodging Every Dark Souls player should be familiar with the term dodging. Now what is dodging? Dodging is some sort of mechanism to quickly get away from the current location in order to avoid a collision with the damage box (like rolling, teleportation, ...) Sometimes the character is also invulnerable while dodging. I also prefer making the character shortly invulnerable, especially when creating a 2D game, because of the limited moving directions. 3.3. Shields Shields may be another good way to avoid taking damage. Just to make it clear. I do not mean a physical shield like Link has in the Legend of Zelda (this would be some sort of blocking). I mean some sort of shield you do have in shooters. Some may refill within a specific time, others may not. They could be always there or the player has to press a button to use them. This depends on your preferences. While a shield is active, the character should not get any damage. Keep in mind. You do not want to make the character unbeatable. By using shields which are always active (maybe even with fast regeneration), high maximum damage build up / block damage build up you may end up with an almost invulnerable character. 3.4. Jump / duck These alternatives are - in my opinion - a form of dodging. The difference between dodging and jumping / ducking is, that you do not move your position quickly. In case of ducking, you just set another hit-box (a smaller one of course). While during a jump, you are moving slowly (depends on your game). The biggest difference in my opinion is, jumping or ducking should have no invulnerable frames. I hope you enjoyed reading and maybe it is useful to you. Later on, I want to update the post more and more (maybe with your help). If you have any questions or feedback for me, feel free to answer this topic. Until next time, Lukas
  15. Hi, community. I am writing a series of articles about Lighting related with real-time computer graphics. The purpose is to get information from a lot of great resources like computer graphics books, blogs, and forums, and try to explain them as easy and clear as I can. I am going to update the list periodically. Lighting Series The first post in the list is the following Lighting Series Part 1 - Light and Radiometry Update (2017.07.05) Lighting Series Part 2 - Radiant Energy and Radiant Power Update (2017.07.16) Lighting Series Part 3 - Radiance Update (2017.07.25) Lighting Series Part 4 - Irradiance and Radiant Intensity Update (2017.08.02) Lighting Series Part 5 - Photometry All suggestions for improvements, corrections, and new topics, are very welcome because in this way I am going to learn a lot and, and why not, maybe this helps anybody with the same doubts than me. Hope you find this useful!
  16. Can there be too many choices?

    http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/can-there-be-too-many-choices/ Last week I wrote an article on the dual-process theory which covered how we make decisions. This week I’ll discuss if it is possible to have too many options to choice from. As you know from last week’s article people can use system 1 thinking to narrow down their options and then use system 2 thinking to make the actual decision. It is important to narrow the options down to just a couple since system 2 is effortful and slow. Unfortunately, narrowing down your options is getting more difficult in this day and age. This is exactly what choice overload is about: there is just too much to choose from. Choice overload was first mentioned by Iyengar and Lepper (2000) when they conducted a study about people choosing jams. They compared two conditions where people could sample a number of jams in a supermarket. During condition 1 the researchers displayed 6 different flavors of jams and during condition 2 there were 24 different flavors to choose from. During both conditions people were given coupons to buy the jams with as well. They found that when they displayed 24 different flavors, 60% of the people tasted but from those only 3% went on to buy a jam. Surprisingly, when only 6 flavors were displayed 40% of people tasted but a whopping 30% of those people bought a jam. Iyengar and Lepper concluded that people are initially attracted by many options but then had a difficult time choosing. We are better at choosing when we are presented with fewer options. This surprising result let Schwartz (2004) to develop the idea of choice paradox. Choice paradox states that people like the idea of more options but when you are given more options they have difficulty choosing. The idea takes into account that all options are somewhat equal and that not choosing is also an option. Both the choice paradox and choice overload are related to the dual-process theory. If we want to make the most optimal decision based on reason and logic we have to rely on system 1 thinking. However this system of thinking can only help when there are just a few options to choose from (Payne & Bettman, 2004). Why do we experience choice overload? Of course we need to have lots of options to experience overload. So many options that we get overwhelmed and decide not to choose. But why do we get overwhelmed? Why can’t we just make a decision? If all options are equal in some way than there is no optimal choice. We won’t have a problem choosing if one of the options is better than the others in some way. Another problem is that when we choose anything we limit our freedom. People tend to react negatively to the limitation of their freedom, we don’t like it. This reaction is known as reactance. Keeping your options open and not choosing means we don’t have to feel bad because of reactance. Age of Wonders 3 – a micromanagement game During my internship I worked on Age of Wonders 3, a strategy game with a huge number of options. As a player you can decide on which strategies to use but there are also options to customize your hero, chose a race, a class etc. There are many choices the player has to make right from the start. According to the choice overload theory, there probably are too many choices for a newbie. But a fan of the series would be used to it. They expect the next Age of Wonders to have more options and features. Furthermore, the nature of the strategy game ensures that while there are many options, they aren’t balanced equally and not all options are unlocked right from the start. Take for example the units, not all units will be unlocked right from the start of a session. The player has to unlock them by doing research or building the right city structure. Once the player processes, there the option of units increases. Early-game units will be less attractive to players since units that are unlocked late game are much stronger. Micromanagement games – design tips and suggestions Just like last article, micromanagement games are the ones to look out for when it comes to the choice overload theory. Strategy games, city builders and many simulators can benefit from many well-balanced choices but can also overwhelm the player. However, games are a bit special in a way because a wrong choice can easily be undone. Players can simply by going back to a previous save or restart the game. But still games can have so many options right from the start that players get overwhelmed and quit the game. Luckily there is a way to maintain a large number of options and reducing choice overload at the same time. Break up the choices the player can make into a series of choices, each with a limited number of options (Besedes et al. 2014). You can do this in the form of categories like for example Tropico does. Pokemon Go – a mobile game Think about Pokemon Go, which was a very successful game in many countries last summer (2016). They kept the number of items in the shop limited. They didn’t add 8 different options for the number of pokeballs you can buy, there are just 3 options. You either buy 20, 100 or 200 poke balls at a time. The different options for the number of coins you can buy is also limited. They have 6 different options for buying coins. Although I would have opted for 4 different options (for choice overload sake), I can understand they chose 6 to increase the money with small steps for the player. Mobile games – design tips and suggestions Especially mobiles games in which players can buy items should keep the choice overload theory in the back of their mind. You don’t want your players to be overwhelmed by the many item they can buy. In that case, players will view not buying as their best option. It is the cheapest option for them anyways. Keep the number of options small especially when they have equal value within your game. You can also add a ‘recommended’ or ‘best value’ label to certain items to make them stand out. An option with such a label will seem like a more optimal choice to the player. Do you still want your players to have many options? Consider selling a few package deals: boxes that contain several items (random) items. References https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qosYJvMZJFA Besedeš, T., Deck, C., Sarangi, S., & Shor, M. (2015). Reducing choice overload without reducing choices.Review of Economics and Statistics, 97(4), 793-802. Schwartz, G., Ward, A. H., Monterosso, J., Lyubomirsky, S., White, K., & Lehman, D. (2002). Maximizing versus satisficing: Happiness is a matter of choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1178-1197 Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (2000). When choice is demotivating: Can one desire too much of a good thing?.Journal of personality and social psychology, 79(6), 995. Payne, J. W. & Bettman, J. R. (2004). Walking with the scarecrow: The information-processing approach to decision research. In D. J. Koehler & N. Harvey (eds), Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Descision Making. Malden, MA: Bkackwell Publishing. Scheibehenne, B., Greifeneder, R., & Todd, P. M. (2010). Can there ever be too many options? A meta-analytic review of choice overload.Journal of Consumer Research, 37(3), 409-425.
  17. http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/groups-divided-competition-among-groups/ Last week I talked about the power of groups. I discussed the advantages and disadvantages of groups and how we behave in group. This week I’d like to continue on about groups, how we behave in them and how we behave towards other groups. Knowing how we behaving in groups and towards other groups is very useful in social games and multiplayer games, especially games where groups compete against other groups. On one summer’s day, eleven 12-year-olds went to a camp in Robbers cave state park. Over the course of a week the boys bonded while playing games and formed a tight friendly group. The boys gave their group a name as well: the Rattlers. Soon the Rattlers found out there was another group of eleven 12-year-old boys who stayed at the other side of the park. The other group of boys also bonded over games to form a tight friendly group. They called themselves the Eagles. Both groups of boys started to dislike each other and decided to fight out which group was better over a series of competitions. The rivalry between the Rattlers and the Eagles got worse over the course of the competition. The boys became aggressive and hateful towards each other. The camp staff changed the situation around. They integrated the groups and gave the boys shared goals they could only complete if all boys helped out. Soon, the two groups became one big group of 22 boys. All boys had become friends and formed a big tight friendly group. These boy camps at Robbers cave state park were more than just camps, they were Sherif’s experiment (1961). He wanted to test his Realistic conflict theory: conflict happens when you combine negative prejudices with competition over resources. While isolation and competitions made enemies of the boys, common goals and cooperation turned the enemies into friends. The boys were a classic example of the outgroup-ingroup phenomena or “us vs them”. The two boy groups became aggressive toward each other based on very little more than because they belonged to different groups. The boys favored their own group and hated the other group, even though all boys were the same age and had a similar background. The fact that people favor in-group members based in very little is called minimal group effect and it happens even if membership of the groups is randomly determined. People who belong to the same group as you are ingroup members. People who belong to a different group are outgroup members. The boys who belonged to the Rattlers would be outgroup members for the Eagle boys. The Rattler boys would view each other as ingroup members. Members of a group will start to view members from another group (outgroup members) as more similar to each other than their own members. This phenomena is called outgroup homogeneity bias and it is what happens when we are stereotyping for example people from other countries. Of course Germans aren’t all beer-lovers and always on time. The same is true for Americans, not all Americans are obese and only eat at McDonalds. The opinions of ingroup members can shift towards more extreme views because of group discussions when members of the group have similar opinions. This is called group polarization and it is what often happens when people share their opinions online. Your opinion of view might be confirmed when someone of your group shares their opinion online. Multiplayer games and the community The ‘us vs them’ or ingroup-outgroup phenomena is a huge problem for many games, it drives online rants, bullying and harassment. Now-a-days there are many games that offer an online multiplayer that should keep the ingroup-outgroup phenomena in the back of their minds. The ingroup-outgroup phenomena is a problem that designers need to deal with, with sexism at its core in many hardcore multiplayer games. I hear you thinking: “oh no not another article about sexism in game”. Yes, I’m sorry but it is one of the biggest problems the entertainment industry is dealing with at the moment. You might think why can’t women or girls who enjoy video games not just avoid the sexism online. Just avoid Gamergate and other online platforms. But this is not possible when you enjoy playing hardcore multiplayer games, sexism is still present among its players. Many female players are afraid to ‘come out’ as a girl and turn off their microphone so other will not find out (McLean & Griffiths, 2013). Many of these games have a predominantly male audience, they all belong to a group: gamers (or male gamers). Similar to the Rattlers and the Eagles, this gamer group see their domain being taken over and invaded by another group: girl gamers. The internet has a role in all this as well which is where male gamer group discuss their (negative) views and opinions among each other. While you might have been just a little annoyed by female gamers at first, now your views are being confirmed and get more extreme. The same happens to female gamers and group polarization is complete. Sherif’s Realistic conflict theory is very much present in the gamer community, both online and in games. However it’s good to keep in mind that not everyone falls victim to group polarization. Most of the time there are only a few that spoil it for the rest. How can we fix group polarization? It won’t be easy but the Robber’s cave experiment can be a good start. Remember how the researchers turned the situation around for the Rattler and Eagle boys? Both groups were forced by the researchers to work together. The boys were given goals they could only complete when they all worked together. While this might be impossible for the gaming community as a whole, we can start small with one multiplayer game at a time. Keep the Realistic conflict theory in the back of your mind when you are thinking about adding multiplayer to your game. Design systems where all players need to work together from time to time, just like the researchers did with the Rattlers and the Eagles. We’re all just gamers Knowledge is power, knowing about group polarization and realistic conflict theory can help you understand why someone acts sexist in a video game or why someone becomes a social justice warrior. I don’t believe in social justice warriors and their rants about sexism. It can only make group polarization worse and making the gap between the groups bigger. Instead of ranting towards either of those groups react more nuanced and empathize. It might be very difficult but it’s the best way. References and further reading https://simplypsychology.org/robbers-cave.html University of Oklahoma. Institute of Group Relations, & Sherif, M. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers Cave experiment(Vol. 10, pp. 150-198). Norman, OK: University Book Exchange. McLean, L., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Female gamers: A thematic analysis of their gaming experience. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 3(3), 54-71.
  18. This article was first published on https://medium.com/@ricardo.valerio/make-it-difficult-not-punishing-7198334573b8 Difficulty plays a big role in keeping players motivated, engaged and, unintuitively, in marketing. Some games have it better designed than others. Some design it even to make it satisfyingly hard, like Dark Souls. But others have it poorly designed, with a very high difficult bar set from the very start, or none to little difficulty altogether, combined with too steep or too shallow difficulty increase. So how do we go about designing good difficulty? The first thing that we need to do is to define difficulty. What is difficulty? Difficulty is the amount of skill required by the player to accomplish a goal or progress through the game experience. It can be as simple as jumping from one platform to another, killing a character, defeat a boss fight — which could be designed respectively to be easy, medium or hard to accomplish. Difficulty goes hand in hand with the challenge presented and the skill of the player related to that challenge and the game. Present a too high challenge for a less skilled player, and it becomes a hard barrier from which players can turn away from; present too little challenge for high skilled players, and it won't be interesting for them. The optimal difficulty is one in which the challenge presented is always slightly greater than the skill of the player when he first encounters it, so defeating the challenge provides a climax, small or big, and satisfaction. This provides for an optimal flow state, where the player knows accomplishing the goal is possible, and investing energy will provide for a satisfying resolution. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, a Hungarian psychologist, proposed the following graph that defines flow as the channel where there is an optimal level of skill vs. challenge. Difficulty is the amount of skill required by the player to accomplish a goal or progress through the game. Later on, he proposes a more detailed mental map, matching certain areas of skill and challenge to specific mental states. Image from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_(psychology) As we can see here, a difficult challenge for an average skilled player will at first provoke arousal — the player knows it’s hard right now, but it is within his grasp, and he only needs to become a little more skilled, or perhaps acquire an ability that is key for the challenge, and become skilled at it. But eventually, a player will be in full control of the challenge, as riding a bike. And over time, it will become a somewhat relaxing, or boring, activity. So it’s important that to keep players engaged, more difficult challenges must be presented, or alternatively, different ways of accomplishing goals and avoiding having a single solution for resolving them. So if the player does defeat a challenge, it is always possible to increase their mastery by going back and trying to make it better. And this leads us to motivation. Motivation So what drives someone to perform an activity? We can separate motivations into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic. When someone is intrinsically motivated, he performs the activity because he likes it, it is satisfying, regardless. An extrinsically motivated person, however, will perform for an external reward — praise, fame, an item, an achievement. Because of this, an extrinsically motivated player needs external factors, but on the other hand, an intrinsically motivated player has his own flame of desire to perform a task. This is important to understand because whenever possible, the primary motivations that should be focused on are the intrinsic ones. This leads us to Self-Determination Theory. The theory states that humans have three fundamental needs, as described in its Wikipedia page: Autonomy, or “to be causal agents of one’s own life and act in harmony with one’s integrated self” Competence, or “seek to control the outcome and experience mastery” Relatedness, or “ the universal want to interact, be connected to, and experience caring for others” Directly connected to skill is competence. It is important for the player to feel he can use his mastery and feel he can control the outcome. Designing good difficulty We know that difficulty will derive from the challenge presented and the player’s skill. Skill is a combination of mental and physical effort and capabilities, which culminate in mastery. And players can vary heavily in skill, depending on their previous experiences, motor skills, cognitive capabilities in the game context, etc. But on the other hand, challenge is easier to define and can be designed to require an increasing amount of mastery. What is a good challenge? The problem mostly lays in defining good challenges. Consider these two boss fights: The boss will randomly kill a player every 5 to 10 seconds without any kind of warning The boss will every 10 seconds place a deadly void zone on the player’s feet, that will explode after 3 seconds and kill anyone on top of it The first one is very punishing, and there is nothing the player can do about it, no matter how much skill he has and earns. But if we look at the second boss, we have many elements that provide a great challenge and promote learning: There are cues The player can react to it There is feedback The player can, therefore, increase his skill in dealing with it Consider riding a bicycle. First times, we are clumsy, lose balance, go slowly. Over time, we focus rather more on the environment than the process of riding the bike itself, because we already are familiar with it, we learned the required techniques for each activity, such as pedalling, balancing, braking, turning, and our skill is high. Same with video games. A good activity should be learnable, to such an extent that it can become mostly automatic, so we can focus on reacting to the environment. A good challenge should present cues, allow a reaction and provide feedback, so when the player fails, he will feel that he could have done better. This will foster learning and increase of skill. If we look at any boss fight in World of Warcraft, we can see they are carefully designed to always provide cues, feedback and allow the player to react. All the mechanics are carefully set in the fight to make it possible to accomplish without it being overly frustrating. The goal is always within reach, and practice takes the player closer to defeating it. Difficult raid bosses have a set of abilities, and sometimes phases in the fight, that as they are defeated get the raiding team steps closer to defeating the challenge. This has a potent effect because as players get closer to their goal, tension rises and builds towards a climax. And after hitting the climax, it provides a great deal of satisfaction — even euphoria and shouting, I have witnessed it first hand with my own guild. A challenge doesn’t need to be solved in the first attempts. But there should be a sense of progress. Even in games as difficult as Super Meat Boy, where a player dies multiple times before clearing a level, players remain engaged. There are clear visual cues of the threats, there is a great deal of feedback, and after death, the player character respawns quickly. With each attempt, the player learns what works better. Perhaps timing, or jumping closer or farther from an edge, etc. When Flappy Bird went viral in 2014, players were raging with the difficulty of the game. A quick search reveals a plethora of videos with raging players. And yet, it went viral, and people were relentlessly trying to get better at it. The fact that cues were presented and the player could react means that there is a chance to become skilled. And it is in fact so hard, that just passing a few pipes can be a reason for bragging and a great sense of one’s growing mastery. Artificial vs Designed difficulty We can add difficulty in two ways: artificial or designed. Designed difficulty is when you design a boss with a certain set of abilities, perhaps adding or removing depending if you are doing a raid with 10 or 25 players, or a hard mode. It is difficulty which requires learning new skills or using them in a certain way, as opposed to just performing better with existing ones. Generally speaking, artificial difficulty is about changing stats. Designed difficulty is about introducing or combining different mechanics, which force the player to learn and master specific skills. Examples of artificial difficulty are increasing health, defences, attacks, number of enemy characters or reduce the time limit if it exists. Examples of designed difficulty are the boss getting a new ability, different kinds of enemies joining the fight or requiring coordination with other players. Artificial difficulty is cheap. It’s easier to tweak than designed difficulty. But at the same time, it might feel cheap for the player. If by going hard mode only changes stats, then the player won't get anything new out of it — unless it challenges his assumptions and forces him to be creative or rethink his strategy. For example, a boss that beats much harder and for longer periods might force the players to rotate their survival abilities carefully; and in team efforts, it might even lead them to coordinate survival abilities. To make a point, imagine a game where you have only one single enemy character that appears with increasing amounts of health and attack. Now imagine one where the enemy characters vary in abilities. The first would become boring faster, and the second one has more chances for using skills differently. As with everything, moderation is key. Use both and combine them to present the best challenge for the player. But it’s not just boss fights While boss fights are in many games a point of climax, and therefore usually are taken more seriously when it comes to difficulty, it doesn’t stop there — in fact, it doesn’t even start there. Setting the difficulty starts right from the beginning of the game. As simple as learning movements, learning to jump, use a skill. The initial game experience of the player is crucial to sparking the desire to play and keep playing. In Super Mario Bros, the player starts with an empty scenario and is left with the only option which is to move. Then he is presented with a cube with an interrogation mark, which will likely trigger curiosity and try to interact with it. Soon after, the first NPC appears, he looks angry and moves towards the player — there are signs he is a threat, and the player needs to react to it. If he touches it, Mario will die — feedback — and the player learned he can’t touch them by walking to them — he has to try something else. The most likely step afterwards will be to try to avoid or jump on top of it, as to smash it, and there will be feedback that the player successfully defeated the challenge presented — his skill level now allows him to deal with these type of NPCs successfully. From the start, the player feels he is learning. Wrapping it up When designing good challenges, it is important that the player is able to learn from it and increase his mastery. In order to do that, we should present cues, visual, audio, vibration, etc, that signal the player something is about to happen. This creates an opportunity to react, and eventually prove one’s mastery. And finally, there should be feedback. With each attempt, the player will become more skilled, defeat the challenge and become satisfied. If the player fails, you want to have him feel there was something better he could have done, and not leave him frustrated and helpless. Avoid having single solutions to defeating a challenge and let play sessions vary — this allows the player to get better, as opposed to a static solution. Make it a difficult challenge but within reach. And avoid making it punishing. Conclusion We went through a definition of difficulty, what drives players, and what is an optimal difficulty level that promotes flow. Allowing the player to learn is fundamental, which ultimately drives progress, and gives a sense of competence and autonomy. And in the end, players will want to seek more challenges. So when it comes to difficulty, make it hard, but not punishing. Stay tuned Stay tuned for follow-ups on this series on game design, where I will explore other aspects that help to deliver a great experience to players and create great games. Follow me on Medium If you liked this article, please upvote or leave review or comment to let me and others know you found this useful, I would be very happy and greatly appreciate it. Thanks!
  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    As you might have guessed, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is all about motivation. It tries to classify our reasons for being motivated to do something and explains why we are motivated. Although much research into motivation has been done and quite some theories have been proposed to explain motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is just one of those. Actually, I already wrote an article on another theory in motivation called: ‘wanting vs liking’. Here is a link if you haven’t read it already: The striking difference between liking and wanting. Back to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and what these actually are. Any reason that explains our motivation to do something can be classified as an intrinsic motivator or an extrinsic motivator. When you are intrinsically motivated it means that you do something simply because you enjoy doing it. In other words, we think it is fun to do (Schmitt & Lahroodi, 2008). Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is when you are being motivated to do something because of an incentive. The incentive can be a reward but also a punishment, anything that motivates us as long as it doesn’t come from within our self. So if you like drawing simply because you enjoy drawing it is intrinsic motivation. But when you draw for an art class so you can get a good grade, it is extrinsic motivation. The grade is the incentive. What intrinsically motivates you is very personal, it is different for everyone. What you find extrinsically motivating is also personal but also relies on something called incentive salience: how noticeable is the incentive? (Berridge, 2007). Emotion has a role in this as well: associating an incentive with a specific emotion can make the incentive be more salient and motivating (Robinson & Berridge, 2001). It is important to keep intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in mind when you design your game because it can have an effect on your player’s behavior and how they like the game. Relying on extrinsic motivation too much can kill creativity and problem-solving. According to Glucksberg (1962), people can become distracted by (monetary) rewards when they are offered one. This distraction inhabits people to solve a problem which requires creative thinking. Extrinsic motivation can also kill motivation. Especially rewards can undermine the intrinsic motivation people have for an activity (Deci, 1999). People will enjoy the activity less and not do it as often anymore. And as we know from my previous article, people can ‘want’ to do something without actually liking the activity anymore. So how can you know that players are playing your game because they ‘like’ it from looking at your game’s analytics? How can you know whether your players are just mindlessly playing your game because they became addicted to it? Sure, if your goal is to just generate money and not caring whether or not your players acutely like playing your game, go ahead, it can be a conscious choice. But if you want your players to look forward to your game and actually liking to play it, consider relying more on your player’s intrinsic motivation. Intrinsically motivation games are games without any form of reward or punishment. We often regard these kinds of games as ‘just play’. Because most forms of play are intrinsic motivation: it is a voluntary action, there is no pressure and there is no rewards or punishment for participating or not. Some other good intrinsic motivators are exploration and curiosity. Examples of games that (mostly) rely on intrinsic motivation are games such as the Stanley parable, Flow, Minecraft and Flower. None of these games have scores and you can’t lose or win, there are no incentives. Games that rely on external motivation are games you play solely for the rewards. Gamification is a good example: it tries to make every day, boring tasks fun by rewarding the player. Duolingo uses gamification to make learning a new language more fun and gamey (though you might start learning a language because you’d like to learn the language, which is an intrinsic motivator). Most games, however, are a mix of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators. Some games might rely more on intrinsic motivators while others rely more on extrinsic motivators. You probably start playing a game out of curiosity, an intrinsic motivator. While failing a level or dying, for example, often is an extrinsic motivator. Especially if it makes you want to try again. Some ideas for your own games Extrinsic motivators aren’t bad and are naturally present in games. Think of any form of punishment such as failing a level, losing a life or losing a battle. But also reward such as a score or stars you get for finishing a level. Time is also often used in games as an external motivator, to pressure players. Think about solving a puzzle within a certain time. Another extrinsic motivator is competition, especially because it is rewarding for the player(s) who won. It can also motivate the others to try harder next time. And then there are extrinsic motivators that are less part of a game like daily rewards you get if you log in to the game every day or notifications to remind you that you haven’t played yet today. When designing more for intrinsic motivators keep this quote in mind: “The reward is the activity itself” (Ryan & Deci, 2002). People will play your game because they enjoy playing your game, it is that simple. Rely more on the natural curiosity people have. What if you design a match-3 game with power-ups. You can choose to create guided tutorials and explain to players how to create and use them. But what if you choose to leave those tutorials out and leave it up to the player to discover what is possible? Ask yourself if someone can play the game without understanding this mechanic or feature. In that case, maybe you should leave it to the player’s curiosity to discover the feature or mechanic. Of course, you might consider a tutorial if your game is not playable before the player understands the mechanic or feature. You can also try to make your game “easy to play, hard to master”. Mastery is one of those intrinsic motivators that will make people play a game or level over and over. You could even consider adding an extrinsic motivator in the form on competition to create some social pressure. I always find it important to ask questions during the design process. Some good questions to ask yourself if you are designing a mobile game where retention is important are: Why will player’s want to come back to my game? Are they given a reward for login every day? Could it be they only play because they get a reward that is useful in your game? Maybe they don’t play your game because they like it anymore, but because of the rewards. But maybe you design a game that requires players to think creatively or to find a solution to the puzzle outside the box. It might not be a good idea to include too many rewards or punishments, player since people who are offered a reward become distracted by it and their creativity suffers (Glucksberg, 1962). Try to stay away from time limits, they can make it harder for players to come up with a solution. Some good reads and references http://www.spring.org.uk/2009/10/how-rewards-can-backfire-and-reduce-motivation.php Schmitt, F. F & Lahroodi, R. (2008). The epistemic value of curiosity. Educational Theory, 58(2), 125-149. Berridge, K. & Kringelbach, M. (2008). Affective neuroscience of pleasure: Rewards in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology, 199(3), 457-480. Robinson, T.E. & Berridge, K. C. (2001). Incentive-sensitization and addiction. Addiction (England), 96(1), 103-114. Berridge, K. C. (2007). The debate over dopamine’s role in reward: The case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology, 191(3), 391-431. Glucksberg, S. (1962). The Influence of Strength of Drive on Functional Fixedness and Perceptual Recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36-44 Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic definitions and new Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology (25), 54-67 Note: This article was originally published on the author's blog, and is republished here with kind permission. Visit to read lots more of Sita's fantastic posts on psychology in games.
  20. http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/the-stiking-difference-between-liking-and-wanting/ There are two different kinds of pleasures we experience every day, we have anticipatory pleasure or ‘wanting’ and consummatory pleasure or ‘liking’. ‘Wanting’ is pleasure for looking forward to future events. On the other hand we have ‘liking’, this is pleasure for things in the moment. Think of it this way: when you play a game right now and enjoying it, you experience consummatory pleasure (liking). You might experience anticipatory pleasure when you are at your day job or school but can’t wait to be home this evening so you can play your favorite game. It might surprise you, it certainly surprised me, but these two pleasures are very different from each other and even have their own neural system in the brain. This means that according to your brain, liking and wanting aren’t the same thing. The wanting-type pleasure relies of the dopamine system. Dopamine is released each time you’re looking forwards to something you enjoy. The liking-type pleasure relies on your reward-driven system. When you do something you enjoy doing, opiates such as endorphins are released as a reward. These chemicals of the brain make you feel good. While wanting and liking are very different, it’s good to realize that you have to like or enjoy the thing at first before the wanting system for that same thing kicks in. However, you can have liking without wanting and wanting without liking. Think about a party you are dreading to go to. You really don’t ‘want’ to go but you know that you will ‘like’ being there once you get to the party. Addiction is probably the best example of wanting without liking. An addict will ‘want’ his drug but he doesn’t ‘like’ the effect of the drug anymore. So be careful with too much wanting though, this can create addiction (Berridge & Robinson, 1998). I realize it’s an ethical debate whether you as a designer are responsible for a player being addicted to your game. In most cases you simply want people to enjoy your game on a regular basis and a healthy player shouldn’t become seriously addicted (where gaming becomes a problem for their daily lives). While not everyone is equally susceptible for addiction it’s important never to design for it. The difference between ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ doesn’t seem to be very logical and not much research has been done. It’s only logical that I couldn’t find many games that apply this theory. The closest application of the wanting-system to a game I could find was It takes forever before I can play again! Candy Crush. Candy Crush and other similar mobile games want their players to come back every day. The design of these games is driven by retention and that’s why they often have a lives-system and short levels. The short levels encourage the player to try another level. Once the player fails too many levels and runs out of lives, he or she has to wait before they are restored. Most games with such a lives-system have cycles of about 20 hours. This means that if a player runs out of lives, it takes about 20 hours for all lives to be fully restored. Both the wanting- and liking-systems can be applied to all types of games. However, mobile games can probably benefit most from these different neural-systems. Chances are that you aim for high retention when you design a mobile game. The wanting system is important here, your players should look forward to play your game every day. And of course they should ‘like’ playing your game as well, especially the first time they play. Games with micromanagement can also benefit from the wanting-system, especially if the player has to use a limited resource that replenished over time. Imagine that you have people as a resource and you can use them to build stuff. Of course building stuff isn’t instant, it takes time. There is nothing for the player left to do after a while because all people are building things. The player will than leave the game with the intention to come back when his people are finished building his stuff. The player won’t be annoyed or dislike the game because there is nothing left to do since it’s the nature of the game. Some design ideas for you When designing for retention, it’s good practice to ask yourself why the player should come back to play your game a second time. In my opinion your first answer should always be: “because they liked playing the game”. There is no point in playing a game you didn’t like the first time. The other answers are up to you to think about. Designing your game to be ‘liked’ is much more difficult that designing your game to be ‘wanted’. whether you like something or not is very personal. Some people can’t get enough of shooters while others (like myself) aren’t a big fan. But there are a couple of things that can help the player like your game. Completing or finishing something feels good. When your game is level-based, it helps to keep the first couple of levels short. You can increase the time spend in a level slowly as the player progresses. Finishing each level leaves the player wanting more: “just one more level, then I’ll stop”. Designing your game to be ‘wanted’ is a lot easier. Design your game in such a way that player has some unfinished business when he or she finished the first session. Think about a good cliff-hanger at the end of an episode: it leaves you wanting more. It’s the reason you and your friends are dying to see the new game of thrones season. You can design cliff-hangers for your game as well. The only difference is that you might have to “force” the player out of your game somehow. Add a resource-system to your game that is time-based but is depletes when you are playing. It can be a lives-system like in candy crush or a resource such as money or people in a micro-management game. There is no reason to stay in the game once the player runs out of the resource. Balance the resource in such a way that the player runs out of it when he or she is enjoying your game the most. It’s always important to make sure your player ends the game on a high note. It leaves them wanting more and have them looking forwards to the next session. If you want, you can send the player a reminder when the resource is replenished. But there is no need for daily rewards, this kills the player’s intrinsic motivation (I will talk more about intrinsic motivation the next time) and they won’t like to play your game anymore. References and further research Berridge, K. & Kringelbach, M. (2008). Affective neuroscience of pleasure: Rewards in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology, 199(3), 457-480. Litman, J (2005). Curiosity and the pleasure of learning: Wanting and liking new information. Cognition & Emotion, 19(6), 793-814. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756052/ http://lsa.umich.edu/psych/research&labs/berridge/research/affectiveneuroscience.html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070302115232.htm https://www.researchgate.net/publication/245823962_Curiosity_and_the_pleasures_of_learning_Wanting_and_liking_new_information https://www.marketingsociety.com/the-gym/liking-vs-wanting#6ZiiMdJXqRtJvGSX.97
  21. Hello I've taken it upon myself to finally start learning how game engines work by making a toy engine myself. I've never done any game programming or anything like that but as an avid gamer and someone with a physics degree I've always wondered how these things are done. Today I implemented a basic spring force using Hooks Law. I was surprised however when over a short time span, maybe 30s, my default integrator of Velocity Verlet caused the spring's motion to escalate wildly. I tried stepping down to Symplectic Euler and the motion became normal. At first I was thinking there might be a bug in my code, but I can't see one so now I'm wondering if the good people of this forum might help shed some light on this. It does not make any sense to me that Symplectic Euler would be a better integrator than Velocity Verlet. Both are time reversible and symplectic, but Velocity Verlet is second order accurate. I've been writing up what I learn on a little blog, feel free to check it out to see my current understanding of these methods Symplectic Euler Velocity Verlet Code Symplectic Euler void SymplecticEuler::Solve( const NetForceAccumulator& net_force_accumulator, const std::vector<std::shared_ptr<PhysicsEntity>> &entity_ptrs, const std::shared_ptr<PhysicsEntity> entity_ptr) { Vector3Gf xi = entity_ptr->GetPosition(); Vector3Gf vi = entity_ptr->GetVelocity(); GLfloat mass = entity_ptr->GetMass(); Vector3Gf F; F.setZero(); net_force_accumulator.ComputeNetForce(entity_ptrs,entity_ptr,F); Vector3Gf vf = vi + m_dt*(1/mass)*F; Vector3Gf xf = xi + m_dt*vf; entity_ptr->SetNextPosition(xf); entity_ptr->SetNextVelocity(vf); }; Velocity Verlet void Verlet::Solve( const NetForceAccumulator& net_force_accumulator, const std::vector<std::shared_ptr<PhysicsEntity>> &entity_ptrs, const std::shared_ptr<PhysicsEntity> entity_ptr) { Vector3Gf xi = entity_ptr->GetPosition(); Vector3Gf vi = entity_ptr->GetVelocity(); GLfloat mass = entity_ptr->GetMass(); Vector3Gf Fi,Ff,ai,xf,af,vf; Fi.setZero(); net_force_accumulator.ComputeNetForce(entity_ptrs,entity_ptr,Fi); ai = (1/mass)*Fi; xf = xi + m_dt*vi + 0.5f*m_dt*m_dt*ai; entity_ptr->SetPosition(xf); // Load xf into position slot for computing F(x(t+h)) Ff.setZero(); net_force_accumulator.ComputeNetForce(entity_ptrs,entity_ptr,Ff); // Compute F(x(t+h)) af = (1/mass)*Ff; vf = vi + 0.5f*m_dt*(ai + af); entity_ptr->SetPosition(xi); // Load xi back into position slot as to not affect force calulations for other entities entity_ptr->SetNextPosition(xf); entity_ptr->SetNextVelocity(vf); }; Spring force void SpringForceGenerator::AccumulateForce( const GLfloat k, const GLfloat l0, const std::shared_ptr<PhysicsEntity> entity1_ptr, const std::shared_ptr<PhysicsEntity> entity2_ptr, Vector3Gf &F) const { Vector3Gf x1 = entity1_ptr->GetPosition(); Vector3Gf x2 = entity2_ptr->GetPosition(); Vector3Gf n = x2 - x1; GLfloat l = n.norm(); n = n/l; F += k*(l - l0)*n; } Thanks!
  22. Reactance theory in games

    http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/reactance-theory/ You can make something more desirable by forbidding it. That something can be anything: an item, an action, an idea. Well this is possible and known as the reactance theory. Reactance is the feeling you get when someone limits your freedom or option. Basically when you’re not allowed to do something or when you are told you have to do something. This feeling results in you: 1. Wanting forbidden option even more. 2. Trying to reclaim your lost option. 3. Experiencing aggressive and angry feelings towards the person (this person may be fictional as well, or and AI) who limited your options or freedom in the first place. (These feelings can be very subtle and barely noticeable but motivate you to do the opposite from what you have been told to do.) The first scientist to talk about the idea reactance was Brehm in a theory of psychological reactance. He was the first to research the reactance theory and explains reactance as a motivational state people experience when their freedom is removed or threatened (1966). But you probably already know the reactance theory as reverse psychology. And that’s what reactance basically comes down to: Getting people to do something by telling them they are not allowed to do that something or the other way around. Unfortunately, it doesn’t always work. Some people are just not as sensitive to experience reactance as others and circumstances matter too. For instance: reactance breaks down when people can rationalize why they shouldn’t do something. If someone told you not to buy the bag you really wanted, you’d probably buy the bag anyway. But if that someone explained that he bought the same bag and it broke after 2 days, you’d probably think twice before buying the bag. Portal 2 applies the idea of reactance brilliantly in their level design when the player enters Aperture’s dungeons. Along the way back up, the player encounters several warning messages as you can see in the picture below: “warning”, “do not enter”. Of course these warnings are not to discourage the player, they are meant to lore the player closer. Reactance helps the storyline feel less linear than it actually is. Player is more attracted to this option and goes on to explore it. It also guides the player through the level more naturally because they want to explore this forbidden option rather than going somewhere else. You probably want to know what’s behind those walls The Stanley parable applied the reactance theory to their gameplay using narrative. The player is encouraged to try all storylines since the end is never the end in the game. In fact, the game is all about discovering new endings and alternative storylines and that means you don’t want listen to the narrator most of the time. The blue door ending is a great example of this: The narrator tells Stanley to walk through the red door when the player approaches a room with a red and blue door. When you ignore the narrator and walk through the blue door, he’ll send the player back and tells Stanley to walk through the red door again. The blue door becomes a more attractive option now, so the player choices the blue door again. The player will be send back to choose the red door again but this time the blue door is moved behind the player and the narrator stresses Stanley he has to walk through the red door. The blue door has never been a more attractive option. Such an attractive blue door! Look at those curves! The reactance theory can easily be applied to your own games. It can help you design interesting levels or create interesting narrative for games that rely on (branching) narration. When you want to implement the idea of reactance into your own game you can make something more desirable by forbidding it or you can make something less attractive by forcing it. This something can be anything: an item, a choice you want the player to make, a path the player should walk, an action you want the player to perform. Be creative! Keep in mind that not everybody is equally sensitive to reactance and that the effect breaks down when the player can rationalize why they shouldn’t do something. Here are some ideas for you. Level design: – Use some art! Show something is dangerous or advise the player not to go there with signs or writing on the walls. Doesn’t have to be art-heavy, just tell them a certain area is closed off and that they are not allowed to enter. Narration games: – Somewhere in the narrative you can tell the player they are not allowed to make a certain choice (remember: don’t explain why). You can also “force” players to make a certain decision like the red door in the Stanley parable. – Empower the player by telling them they aren’t good enough to do something, they will do it. – Tell the player that he/she has to do something a certain way, they will do the opposite. Items: – Tell your player is a forbidden item and they shouldn’t take it. Want to read more (scientific) stuff on the reactance theory? Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. London: Academic Press. Jack W. Brehm (1989) ,”Psychological Reactance: Theory and Applications”, in NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, eds. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 72-75. https://books.google.nl/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=gd4iAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT317&dq=reactance+proneness&ots=RSjeInAUj2&sig=xBekeKqXAkdk5JPYckJvlgZkDdQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
  23. http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/how-your-players-thinking-develop-throughout-their-lives/ Developmental psychology is the study of how our cognitive processes change throughout our lives. The field used to focus on children and how their cognitive abilities develop, but nowadays it is understood that we keep developing throughout our lives. This field of psychology might be one of the most interesting for game design. It can help you as a game designer understand players, how they think and what is challenging for them. Developmental psychology started when psychologist began studying children and saw how their cognitive abilities were different from adults. Piaget was one of those psychologists, he proposed a stage theory based on his findings. His stage theory basically means that our cognitive abilities develop according to distinct stages. Children don’t understand object permanence until 1 or 2. Object permanence is the idea that objects still exist when they are hidden from view. That is why it’s so much fun to play peek-a-boo with little babies. They are genuinely surprised when they see you again. Conservation is understood around the age of 6. Children will start to understand that something doesn’t just magically become more because you manipulated it. For example: give a 4-year-old 1 cookie and give yourself 2 cookies. When you ask the child whether you fairly devided the cookies, he’ll say no. Then you take his cookie, break it in half. Now when you ask the child if you fairly devided the cookies he’ll say: “Yes, because we both have 2 cookies now”. Children before the age of 6 can’t make a distinction between appearance and reality yet (De Vries, 1969). Piaget’s experiment for testing if a child understand conservation are a little bit mean but also quite funny (and super cute): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnArvcWaH6I. Children aren’t able to take someone else’s point of view until they are around the age of 6 or 7. Piaget tested this ability in children with the picture story of Sally and Anne you see below. A child who says Sally should look in the box isn’t yet able to take someone else’s perspective. These children have trouble forming empathy as well, they don’t realize yet that other people have feelings too. Now you understand that creating a cooperative game for kids below the age of 6 might not be a good idea. Logical and hypothetical thinking develops around the age of 11 to 12. That is why children below 11 often have a hard time understanding games like chess or checkers. 11 or 12 is also the age children start to understand the idea of reversibility. Before this age, children don’t understand that numbers or object can be changed or returned to their original condition. Children don’t get that when their favorite ball isn’t broken when it is deflated and that it can be filled up again. The ability to think abstractly and hypothetically doesn’t develop until the age of 12 or later. However, it’s good to realize that cognitive development is personal. Some children’s cognitive abilities develop quicker than others. But these ages can be good guidelines when you design a game for kids. As we age we change physically, we get a wrinkle and some grey hair but that’s just the outside. Our brain also changes as well, whether we like it or not. As we age, our reaction time declines and the same happens to our problem solving abilities (Ornstein & Light, 2010; Freedman et all., 2001). Around your 40s or 50s it starts becoming more difficult to learn something new like a new skill. That’s why your granny still doesn’t understand how to use her smart phone even though you’ve explained it a thousand times. You can understand why many older people don’t like to play hardcore games. Beyond your 40s or 50s you have to invest a lot more time to learn how to play the game. This doesn’t even take into account that many elderly people were already older than 40 or 50 when PC’s and game consoles became popular. Your memory declines with age as well. The decline actually already starts in your 20s (Park & Reuter-Lorenz, 2009). But it’s not all downhill from your 20s onwards. As you age, knowledge based on facts increases. You get exposed to facts every day, you will pick information up along the way. That’s probably why your granny likes the daily crossword puzzle from the newspaper and why Wordfeud is still popular with older people. The ‘Tovertafel’ I’d like to talk about a console instead of a game this time: the ‘tovertafel’ (translates to magic table). ‘The tovertafel’ is an interactive projector that was first developed for elderly people with dementia (https://tovertafel.nl/). People can play games together on the ‘tovertafel’. Several games are included that can be played by anyone who suffers from dementia. Players interact with the ‘tovertafel’ by touching the projections on the table. Because of direct manipulation, there is no need for players to learn something new. Players can just touch a projection and see what happens. All the games that come with the ‘tovertafel’ are based on metaphors and knowledge older people remember from when they were younger such as a jigsaw puzzle, a game with flowers and a proverbs game. While some games require a bit of knowledge based on facts others games are more like play, so there is no need for a perfect memory. None of the games require a good reaction time from the player, they can interact with the game whenever they feel like. Tips and suggestions when designing games for older people (40+) Use metaphors, something the players are already familiar with. This can be anything from things they know from their youth to things they are familiar with on a daily basis. Direct manipulation interfaces such as touch screen are always a good idea. Touch screens allow you to design interactions players are used to from every day interaction such as touching or dragging. Don’t forget to keep the player’s reaction time in mind as well. Allow the player to interact with the game at their own speed. Dr. Panda’s bath time Dr. Panda makes games kids can play on a Ipad, Iphone or Android. One of their games is called dr. panda bath time (https://drpanda.com/games/dr-panda-bath-time). It is a semi-educational game that teaches children about hygiene habits while also being fun. Children use direct manipulation to drag the characters and things around. The controls are very similar to what kids are used to on a daily basis. Players cannot make mistakes in the game, they are not punished. The game is ideal for children who don’t yet understand conservation. Children do not need to be familiar with abstract or hypothetical thinking. The game doesn’t have a score system and kids can just try things to see what happens. Tips and suggestions when designing for children Metaphors are not just useful for older people, kids can understand them as well. Just make sure that you use metaphors kids use on a daily basis. For small children, touch interfaces would be the way to go. Direct manipulation doesn’t require the abstract thinking a mouse or keyboard would. It might seem simple to link a character’s movement to something like a mouse, but it already requires more abstract and hypothetical thinking. Since conservation isn’t developed until 6, it’s good practice to keep the mistakes a player can make to a minimum. It would be even better when every interaction a player makes is either right or neutral. Keep your age-range small when designing kids games. Children’s cognitive and mental abilities develop very quickly. References and stuff Paiget’s tasks for kids: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnArvcWaH6I Ornstein, P. A., & Light, L. L. (2010). Memory development across the life span.The handbook of life-span development. Freedman, V. A., Aykan, H., & Martin, L. G. (2001). Aggregate changes in severe cognitive impairment among older Americans: 1993 and 1998.The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(2), S100-S111.Park, D. C., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2009). The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annual review of psychology, 60, 173-196. Müller, U., & Racine, T. P. (2010). The development of representation and concepts.The handbook of life-span development. De Vries, R. (1969). Constancy of generic identity in the years three to six.Monographs of the society for research in child development, 34(3), iii-67. Bialystok, E., & Craik, F. I. (2010). Structure and Process in Life‐Span Cognitive Development.The handbook of life-span development.Kesselring, T., & Müller, U. (2011). The concept of egocentrism in the context of Piaget’s theory. New Ideas in Psychology, 29(3), 327-345. Phillips, J. L. (1975).The origins of intellect: Piaget’s theory (Vol. 1).
  24. The power of a group

    http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/the-power-of-a-group/ Groups are very interesting to psychologists. You might not think about it, but groups are very powerful. They can change your behavior and the way you think. Groups can even make you do things you wouldn’t normally do. According to Brown (1988) a group consists out of two or more people. Some groups are more group-like than groups, if that makes sense. For example: when you are a game designer, you form a group with all other game designers in the world. You’d call other game designers your colleagues even if they work in a different company. But you also form group with the people you work with every day: your team. You and your team are more group-like than you and all the other game designers in the world. A group is more group-like when it has a group structure, its individuals share a common identity and are interdependent. Groups usually are made up of well-defined roles. Each member of the group has his or her own tasks and these complement the tasks of other group members. A successful group like your game-dev team has unique roles for each member. When these roles are vague or blend together, the group becomes less successful. We are social beings, groups are necessary for our survival and happiness. But there are other benefits to groups as well. Your performance goes up when you perform a simple task when others are present. This effect is called social facilitation (Zajonc, 1965). Social facilitation can help many athletes perform better when they are competing. Even the presence of virtual others can aid social facilitation (Park & Catrambone, 2007). Unfortunately the effects of social facilitation work the other way around when it comes to complex tasks or tasks that require concentration. The presence of others will hinder performance in those cases. There are more disadvantages to groups beside performance on complex tasks. The presence of others can also cause social loafing (Latané, 1979). People will put less effort into a task when they are part of a group compared to when they are working alone. You might remember this group school projects: there were always free riders. Social loafing is contagious as well. When one person slacks off, others will follow. Would you like to avoid social loafing for future (school) project? Make tasks meaningful, important and make personal effort identifiable. Having a more cohesive and tight group can help as well. Go out for dinner with your game-dev team sometimes, it’s fun as well. Another disadvantage to groups is that it can lead to groupthink in certain cases. Groupthink is the tendency of group members to think alike. This can lead to some pretty bad decisions (Janis, 1971). Groupthink usually occurs in very cohesive groups where members are similar to each other. There often is pressure towards conformity as well. To combat groupthink, groups have to diversify their members. A group can think about recruiting people who think differently or people who belong to minorities. That is why many people want to increase diversity in the games industry. Many studios and companies have mostly white male employees in their dev teams and they are at risk of groupthink. Strong and directive leaders can also increase groupthink, especially when they are not open to someone else’s point of view. Group members can become afraid to express their ideas or concerns. It’s best to become the devil’s advocate if you see this happen. Question your leader’s point of view even when you agree. Others will follow your example. In certain cases groups can lead to deindividuation. Deindividuation is the loss of individuality that can happen when members of the group lose individual accountability and self-awareness. The interest of the group becomes more important than a member’s self-interest. Anonymous is a good example of deindividuation but so are most fascist groups and football (soccer) hooligans. Within groups like anonymous there are no individual roles and members are not individually accountable. Deindividuation can make groups incredibly powerful but dangerous as well. I’d like to end with a little disclaimer: the effects of groups are studied in the field of social psychology. Most of the research on groups and its effects are done in western countries. There is no question that culture is also a huge factor in how we behave in groups. There is no doubt that there are differences per culture. The theories discussed in this article may not apply to eastern, middle eastern or african cultures. You should take that into account when planning to release your game to a certain country. Also, the knowledge we have on group behavior now is based on averages and not individuals. There will always be people who don’t follow the effects. Dungeons & Dragons Cooperation of a group is very important in the pen and paper roleplaying game Dungeons & Dragons. Each player creates a character before the party can begin their journey together. Those of you who are familiar with the game know that the most successful parties have characters from diverse backgrounds. One member can be a half-orc fighter who takes and deals the damage during a fight, another member could be a human cleric who heals the party members after a fight and yet another member could be a elven ranger who guides the party through the forest. Each character has his or her own well-defined role that complement the other characters. During a session there is very little social loafing when the group is just right. Each member’s personal efforts are identifiable and the tasks are meaningful even when there is no combat. Unfortunately there is no social facilitation. Your dice roll won’t improve because of the group. A very diverse group Mobile games Social mobile or casual games can also benefit from knowing a little about the psychology of groups. Unfortunately, many social casual games out there today do a poor job. They don’t make any use of any of the benefits from groups. In many games each player has the same role as the next player and there is no clear group. While everyone who plays Candy Crush form a group, they are not as group-like as a Dungeons & Dragons party. A mobile and social game that did, to some extent, apply the psychology of groups is Pokémon Go. Last summer the game was very popular in the Netherlands (and many other countries). Player’s interacted with each other even though they had never met before. Everyone who played Pokémon Go automatically formed a group with all the other players. Players could also join another group when they reached a certain level: their team. A player can choose to join one of three teams: team Mystic (blue), team Valor (red) and team Instinct (yellow). When players were catching Pokémon or fighting a team, they met other players. One of the first questions they asked you was which team you joined. If you are not a member of their team, you are trash. That’s pretty powerful considering that the groups are based on very little but a personal preference of color or leader. There is a risk of deindividuation since there are no individual roles in Pokémon Go or personal accountability. The fact that players have self-interest is the only thing that saves people from deindividuation. Which team did you join? Ideas and suggestions for game design Any game were multiple people play together can benefit from the psychology behind group processes. Think about social games and MMO(rpgs), but also cooperative games or team based games. When designing these games try to avoid groupthink, reduce the risk of deindividuation and create individual roles that complement other roles. You can avoid groupthink by having diverse characters and roles. Also consider attracting a diverse target audience(s) to the game. Think about using Bartle’s taxonomy (Bartle, 1996) to attract players who enjoy different aspects of the game (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxpW2ltDNow). Having individual roles and tasks can combat groupthink as well. To reduce the risk of deindividuation you can design systems that keep players individually accountable for their actions. For example: add a mechanic that punishes players when they do something you don’t want them to do. Besides the interest of the group or party, players should also have a self-interest. Maybe players have their own XP to think about or they have to collect their own gold. References https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGxGDdQnC1Y Bartle’s taxonomy http://mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm Bartle, R. (1996). Hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades: Players who suit MUDs. Journal of MUD research, 1(1), 19. Park, S., & Catrambone, R. (2007). Social facilitation effects of virtual humans. Human Factors, 49(6), 1054-1060. Zajonc, R. B. (1965). Social facilitation. Ann Arbor: Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Janis, I. L. (1971). Groupthink. Psychology today, 5(6), 43-46. Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. Free Press. Brown, R. (1988). Group processes: Dynamics within and between groups. Basil Blackwell. Latané, B., Williams, K., & Harkins, S. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 37(6), 822.
  25. Curiosity killed the Warlock

    http://www.tinker-entertainment.com/sitavriend/psychology-and-games/curiosity-killed-the-warlock-but-improved-the-game/ Curiosity is the pleasure of learning and not knowing. It sparks the desire to learn or the desire to figure out how stuff works. Curiosity is closely related to the difference between ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’. When you are curious you feel anticipation, you want to know or try out something. Curiosity involves trial-and-error which comes very natural to games. As a player you constantly try out stuff in games and when it doesn’t work, you try again. There is a little bit of curiosity in every game. Games are a safe environment in which players learn the rules of the game. It’s the reason we start playing any game in the first place and it’s often the reason we cannot stop. We need to know what happens next. Psychologists are divided when it comes to curiosity as a personal trait. Some research suggests that we are born curious, which it makes sense because children are naturally curious. On average a child will ask 26 questions per hour (Chouinard, 2007), that’s how curious they are. Think about a child you know and you will agree, they ask anything. Some questions are very silly: “Why are they called cupcakes?” and “Why do I have to wait to eat?”, Others are more scientific: “Why is the sky blue?” and “Why is the sea salty”. But sometimes they ask very tough-to-answer questions like “Why do people die?”. At the other side, researcher acknowledge that some adults are more curious that others. Not every child becomes a curious scientist when they grow up. From experience we can tell that children become less curious when they grow up. Research also confirms this, curiosity becomes less robust over time (Coie, 1974). It’s no wonder that developmental psychologist Piaget became interested studying the phenomena as well. Piaget (1969) describes curiosity as the urge to explain the unexpected. But being curious is hugely beneficial, not just for kids. People who are curious about something learn more and better (Berlyne, 1954). Curiosity allows for deep understanding in the subject you’re curious about. Older children who are intrigued by unexpected or mysterious descriptions in their reading are more likely to remember it and understand the content more deeply (Garner, Brown, Sanders, & Menke, 1992). But what about games? How can curiosity be beneficial for improving your game design? Games are about learning, you’d like the player to learn how to play your game while playing. When players are curious about your game they’ll pick up the mechanics and features much better and quicker. It’s more likely your players will keep playing as well. Furthermore, when a player’s curiosity is satisfied they feel pleasure (Kang et al. 2009). Curiosity can make your game more fun for any player as long as you satisfy that hunger for getting to know your game and its mechanics. Curiosity is also a motivational prerequisite for exploratory behavior (Berlyne, 1960). It could be that you want your player to explore more of your game. Curiosity is a great intrinsic motivator as well that encourages players to learn and try new things. To get your players curious you can use the idea of uncertainty and surprise. When parts of the game take a surprising or unexpected turn, players get curious about what happens next. Predictability is the enemy here. You should be cautious with fear however. Scaring the player will stop them from exploring or trying. But also fear of failure is detrimental for exploration and curiosity. When a player is afraid to fail they will become cautious and keep to what they already know. They won’t become curious and they won’t try something new. Fowler (1965) has done research into what makes people curious. He found that boredom is one prerequisite or motivator for curiosity. Boredom can push the player to explore your game, find its secrets and possibilities. According to Fowler’s research you should make parts of your game boring. It’s a weird and counter-intuitive idea but is great for sandbox and exploration games. The players of these games are used to trying stuff out on their own. Being a bit boring from time to time can make the player crave for more and start exploring on their own. Subnautica Exploration and survival games naturally evoke curiosity in players. Often players are told very little when they start the game. Sometimes there is a small tutorial that explains the player how to interact with the game but that’s it. Players are supposed to figure most of the game out by themselves. Subnautica is a good example, the player is told next to nothing when they start. One of the reason might be because the game is still in early access but it works wonders for this game. According to the story, your spaceship has crashed on an unknown alien world. As a player you are given as much information as the character you play. The crafting system feeds the player’s curiosity as well. The player is constantly trying out things and figure out how to get certain items. Before you can craft and item you need to explore the world to gather the resources. While you are gathering the necessary resources you get to know the alien world. You explore new animals and plants you have never seen before. Suggestions for design According to psychological theory there are a couple of things you should take into account when designing an exploration or survival game. Be careful with scary surprises. Players shouldn’t be afraid to explore and try new things. You should also limit punishment in your game when possible. Of course you want to let your players know what’s good and what’s bad but too much punishment can make players think they are playing the game ‘wrong’. They will try to play the game ‘right’ which means they won’t feel the need to explore in order not to mess up the game. To aid more curiosity in your game, you can design for pleasant surprises. Think about an unexpected combination of resources to make a certain item in a crafting game or system. You can think about leaving some hard-to-reproduce bugs and glitches in your game (as long as they don’t break the game). Glitches and bugs are good conversation material among players that stumble across them. The same is true for Easter eggs, although they require more development time. Go and explore the world! Narrative elements can create curiosity as well when done right. The narrative should keep the player craving more of your game. Subnautica is a very good example of how to do good game narration. The narration is barely noticeable but it leaves every player with a ton of questions. Every time a part of the story is told and bits of information are given. While it might answer some questions it also creates many more. It leaves room for imagination and speculation. As mentioned before curiosity is very natural to games. Games are a safe environment that encourages trial-and-error. Of course there are things any game type and genre can use to improve its curious nature. When it comes to tutorials it’s good to realize that there is no need to explain every detail of the game to the player. Keep to the core mechanics and the bare essentials the player needs to know to get started. You can leave it up to the player’s curiosity to figure out other mechanics, features and possibilities. Losing a level because the player doesn’t understand an element isn’t bad either as long as players understands why they lost and how it can be overcome. Fog of war is also a great tool for exploring and curiosity. Traditionally fog of war is used in strategy games but the idea can be applied to many games, even to the world map of a casual puzzle game like 10×10 ice cream adventure. 10X10 ice cream adventure References and stuff https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29Lw0k7HNdg http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/curiosity1.htm Berlyne, D. (1954). A theory of human curiosity. British Journal of Psychology, 45, 180–191. Coie, J. (1974). An evaluation of the cross-situational stability of children’s curiosity. Journal of Personality, 42, 93–116. Garner, R., Brown, R., Sanders, S., & Menke, D. J. (1992). “Seductive details” and learning from text. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi, & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development(pp. 239–254). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Piaget, J., & Buey, F. F. (1969). Psicología y pedagogía. Barcelona: Ariel. Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. Fowler, H. (1965). Curiosity and exploratory behavior. Kang, M. J., Hsu, M., Krajbich, I. M., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. M., Wang, J. T. Y., & Camerer, C. F. (2009). The wick in the candle of learning: Epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory. Psychological Science, 20(8), 963-973.