on how to implement a very simple error-diffusion dithering algorithm

in C/C++. If you have a graphics reference book lying about, please

let me know if it has anything of interest about this subject.

-Tank2k

Started by Sep 15 1999 09:02 AM

,
8 replies to this topic

Posted 15 September 1999 - 09:02 AM

Perhaps someone can help me out. I am looking for any information

on how to implement a very simple error-diffusion dithering algorithm

in C/C++. If you have a graphics reference book lying about, please

let me know if it has anything of interest about this subject.

on how to implement a very simple error-diffusion dithering algorithm

in C/C++. If you have a graphics reference book lying about, please

let me know if it has anything of interest about this subject.

-Tank2k

Posted 09 September 1999 - 11:07 PM

Once the element is matrix I have been assigned intensity level values, we than map the matrix to some area of a display device. We cannot disperse the error past the last matrix column (j = n) or below the last matrix row (i = m). You might find the following nice to know to know what the paramneters are for distributing the error:

a + ß + y + ø <= 1

7/16 3/16 5/16 and 1/16 produces fairly good results.

Hope this helps a little......I'll make you some little source later this day, when I'm off work. Ciao

------------------

Dance with me......

Posted 10 September 1999 - 02:05 PM

I have some questions:

So, if I wanted to dither a 16-bit 640x480 screen,

array 'I' would probably be an array of 3-byte RGB values like:

BYTE intensity_values[640][480][3];

according to what I understand from your post.

So, how do you determine 'the nearest available pixel-intensity level'?

How do you compute the error from these two values?

Thanks for any additional info.

-Tank2k

[This message has been edited by Tank2k (edited September 10, 1999).]

Posted 10 September 1999 - 10:21 PM

Okay.....I will try to show you how a mathematican would do it

I don't know how to write down those lower-characters, so I write them down italic, and the rest bold.

**I***i,j* = **I***k*

Error = **M***i,j*-**I***i,j***M***i,j+1* = **M***i,j+1* + a*Error**M***i+1,j-1* = **M**i+1,j-1[/i] + ß*Error**M***i+1,j* = **M***i+1,j* + y*Error**M***i+1,j+1* = **M***i+1,j+1* + ø*Error

do this for the whole image you have and use (for example) the values I showed you before.

More questions?

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Dance with me......

Posted 12 September 1999 - 01:27 PM

I think I understand now how the error is distributed from your

last post, but can you do a simple step through of dithering 1 pixel

to its neighbors?

last post, but can you do a simple step through of dithering 1 pixel

to its neighbors?

Let's say I want to dither a 24-bit image to a 16-bit image.

The first 24-bit pixel has RGB values (0,0,255). So the error

value for blue, for example, would be:

error = 31 - 255 = -224

I would then distribute this blue error value to its 4 neighboring pixels.

Let's say all the neighbor blue values have the same value 255. I have the

array Image defined as Image[640][480] with red,green,blue members.

Image[x+1][y ].blue += error * 7/16 = 255 + -98 = 157

Image[x-1][y+1].blue += error * 5/16 = 255 + -70 = 185

Image[x ][y+1].blue += error * 3/16 = 255 + -42 = 213

Image[x+1][y+1].blue += error * 1/16 = 255 + -14 = 241

So when I advance to the next pixel to dither, the blue value will

already be 157 from my last calculation.

I tried several attempts to dither a blue to black gradient, however I

must be doing something wrong as I can clearly see distinct bands.

-Tank2k

[This message has been edited by Tank2k (edited September 12, 1999).]

Posted 12 September 1999 - 07:22 PM

Heres the basic pipeline for each pixel.

a)retrive pixel color

b)find closest mapping in destination color space (16 bit, 8 bit palletted , misc)

c)add error componenets from previous pixels into each approriate color component.

d)take difference of each color component between the original color value vs the remapped color value plus error in source color space.

e)convert error into destination color space.

f)distribute error to adjacent pixel in any manner you prefer.

g)repeat for next pixel.

So for example lets do 24 bit -> 16 bit conversion.

source : 24 bit, 8 bit per channel color space

desintation : 16 bit, 5 bit per channel color space

(step A)

source pixel : 0,0,255 (RGB format)

(step B)

remapped into destionation we get :

destination pixel : 0, 0, 31 (RGB format)

(step C)

since this was the first pixel there are no error values to contribute for this pixel.

(step D)

to take the difference between the oringal color value and the ramapped color value in source color space we have to convert the ramapped color value back into source color space. Lets do this for each component:

ramapped pixel color : 0,0,31

delta_R = orignal_R - remapped_R*convert;

delta_G = orignal_G - remapped_G*convert;

delta_B = orignal_B - remapped_B*convert;

convet = some scaling factor which remaps the destination color space into the source in this case its 8.2258

delta_R = 255 - 31*8.2258;

delta_G = 0 - 0*8.2258;

delta_B = 0 - 0*8.2258;

delta_R = 0.025;

delta_G = 0;

delta_B = 0;

So we have a small red error component, mostly due to our low precesion remap value.

(step E)

remaped_error = error/convert;

convert all the color componenets.

(step F)

let do a simple error diffusion where all the error just goes to the next pixel. So add the errors into the next pixel error buffer, since we dont need to keep track of any pixel other then the next one we can use a preallocated reusable fixed buffer, no need to generate one for each pixel.

(step G)

Ya, now you do the next pixel, and so on.

Hope this helps, Good luck!

-ddn

Posted 14 September 1999 - 12:10 PM

Just a couple remarks:

It doesn't seem like step © is needed since step (f) already distributes

the error into the neighboring pixels.

I don't clearly understand step (f) since the difference seems to be

always zero since the 16-bit color value times 8.2258 will always

equal the original 24-bit color value if we didn't lose any precision

when dividing in the first place.

I haven't got my code working yet, but I feel I am very close. I think

I may be using 16-bit values instead of 24-bit values in places where I

shouldn't be using them.

Anyway, does anyone know of any Windows graphic programs that you can apply

different kinds of dithering algorithms to a color image? I would like

to compare results to see if I am doing this right.

-Tank2k

[This message has been edited by Tank2k (edited September 14, 1999).]

Posted 15 September 1999 - 09:02 AM

Ya sorry, it was late at night, and there are some errors and important omissions. Well to your question as whether there will be error, rememebr your destination pixel format is an 5 bit, not a float so fractional componenets are loss. Ya, and another thing you will have to clip the error, so it doesnt exceed the bounds of your bitdepht. So clip the error to between 31 and 0. Good luck!

-ddn