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# Pathfinding algorithm

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7 replies to this topic

### #1Matthewj234  Members

Posted 08 July 2012 - 11:24 AM

So, I have been trying to sort out pathfinding for my game, but it isnt working too well. I have tried A* and it didnt work, so I found this algorithm:

1: Origin is now the current square.
2: select an adjacent square who's still set to 0.
if there's none, goto 5.
3: give the selected square a value of the current square +1.
if the selected square is the target, goto 7
4: push selected square onto a list of unfinished squares. goto 2.
5: shift the first value from the unfinished list, make it the current square.
6: goto 2.
7: Target is now the current square.
9: if selected square's value is current square -1, set it to the current square.
if it's not, goto 8.
10:store the position of the current square relative to the selected square
(Nort, East, South, West etc.)
if it's the origin, goto 12 after that.
11:goto 8.
12:return list of directions

And this is my implementation:

public void findPath(Vec2D startPos, Vec2D endPos) {
Vec2D start = startPos;
Vec2D end = endPos;

boolean finished = false;
boolean step2 = true, step5 = false, step7 = false;

while (!finished) {
Vec2D c = start;

// Step 2
while (step2) {
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
Vec2D dta = dirs[i];
int nx = c.x + dta.x;
int ny = c.y + dta.y;

if (costs[nx][ny] == 0) {
if (costs[nx][ny] != -1) costs[nx][ny] = costs[c.x][c.y] + 1;
}

runs++;

if (runs >= w * h) return;
if (nx == end.x && ny == end.y) {
// Step 7, result found.
step2 = false;
step7 = true;
break;
}

unfinished.push(new Vec2D(nx, ny));
}

if (step2) {
step5 = true;
}

// Step5
if (step5) {
Vec2D us = unfinished.firstElement();
unfinished.remove(0);
c.x = us.x;
c.y = us.y;
}
}

// Step 7 (End case)
c.x = end.x;
c.y = end.y;
if (step7) {

for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
Vec2D dta = dirs[i];
int nx = c.x + dta.x;
int ny = c.y + dta.y;

if (costs[nx][ny] < costs[c.x][c.y]) {
c.x = nx;
c.y = ny;
break;
}
}

if (c.x == start.x && c.y == start.y) finished = true;
}
}
}
Sadly, it keeps running in a circle, can anyone offer some guidance as to what I have done wrong in the implementation of it, and possibly show me a correct implementation?

### #2arkane7  Members

Posted 09 July 2012 - 02:49 PM

do you want to create a visual path or just want to find a path? I'm not sure on how you could draw the best path but i do know how to solve a maze with a queue (which is a list, but like a line, where who ever got in line first gets out of the line first, i.e. First-In First-Out). Queues (and stacks) have push (add to the end of queue) and pop (remove the front of the queue) operations

here is psuedocode to seeing a maze is solvable

push the start position onto the queue

while (queue is not empty)
{
pop off the front of the queue, this is the current location
if (current location is the end location) '
done

if (NORTH is not marked)
push to the back of the queue and mark the location in some way
repeat for SOUTH, WEST, EAST
}
Always improve, never quit.

### #3Matthewj234  Members

Posted 09 July 2012 - 03:40 PM

do you want to create a visual path or just want to find a path? I'm not sure on how you could draw the best path but i do know how to solve a maze with a queue (which is a list, but like a line, where who ever got in line first gets out of the line first, i.e. First-In First-Out). Queues (and stacks) have push (add to the end of queue) and pop (remove the front of the queue) operations

here is psuedocode to seeing a maze is solvable

push the start position onto the queue

while (queue is not empty)
{
pop off the front of the queue, this is the current location
if (current location is the end location) '
done

if (NORTH is not marked)
push to the back of the queue and mark the location in some way
repeat for SOUTH, WEST, EAST
}

### #4Waterlimon  Members

Posted 09 July 2012 - 04:53 PM

Your algorithm looks like it IS A* to me...

o3o

### #5BeerNutts  Members

Posted 09 July 2012 - 09:38 PM

So, I have been trying to sort out pathfinding for my game, but it isnt working too well. I have tried A* and it didnt work, so I found this algorithm:

Well, it isn't A* that doesn't work, it was your algorithm. What was your problem with A*? I assume you saw this link?
My Gamedev Journal: 2D Game Making, the Easy Way

---(Old Blog, still has good info): 2dGameMaking
-----
"No one ever posts on that message board; it's too crowded." - Yoga Berra (sorta)

### #6Matthewj234  Members

Posted 10 July 2012 - 12:14 AM

So, I have been trying to sort out pathfinding for my game, but it isnt working too well. I have tried A* and it didnt work, so I found this algorithm:

Well, it isn't A* that doesn't work, it was your algorithm. What was your problem with A*? I assume you saw this link?

Indeed I have thank you. And yes, it was my implementation that didnt work.

### #7Nickie  Members

Posted 10 July 2012 - 02:33 AM

Hello,
My teacher( we're studing programming in the engineering school ) said its really hard to find a way without recursion so I wrote this in C when I was 9th grade; I hope it will help you, its console app:
1. You enter your starting and ending position; X >= 0, X <= 24, Y >=0, Y < 25. Yeah I know its fixed but I was too lazy that day xD
2. FIll in the closed boxes; Places where you can't use to reach the final destination
3. It will print you a 25x25 grid where 5 is your start position, 6 is your destination, 1 is the generated way, 2 are the "locked" boxes, and 0 is the free space where you could walk but u actually didn't

Please don't jungle me for not using const and references ;/

[source lang="cpp"]#include <stdio.h>#include <math.h>typedef struct _COORD{ int x, y;}COORD;typedef struct _BOX{int info, list;float g, h;COORD parent;}BOX;COORD bestNode();void CheckNeighbours(COORD cp);float magnitute(COORD a, COORD b);//global varsBOX grid[25][25]; // main mazeCOORD ep; // end postion. ( where u must reach )void printmaze(int clear){ //clear flag -> if 1 then it will clear the grid and set it to 0 //else -> jsut print its current state int i, z; for(i = 0; i < 25; i++) { for(z = 0; z < 25; z++) { if(clear == 1) { grid[i][z].info = 0; } printf("%i", grid[i][z].info); } printf("\n"); } printf("\n");}int main(){ COORD cp, sp; int e; COORD ctemp; e = 0; printf("Start point. X: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &sp.y); printf("Start point. Y: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &sp.x); printf("End point. X: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &ep.y); printf("End point. Y: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &ep.x); printmaze(1); //add closed printf("Add a closed block? Yes = 1, No = everything else: "); scanf("%i", &e); while(e == 1) { printf("Closed Block. X: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &cp.y); printf("Closed Block. Y: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &cp.x); grid[cp.x][cp.y].list = 2; grid[cp.x][cp.y].info = 2; // with 2 I've marked the closed postions where u can't go printf("Add a closed block? Yes = 1, No = everything else: "); scanf("%i", &e); } grid[sp.x][sp.y].info = 5; // start point on the grid grid[ep.x][ep.y].info = 6; // end point on the grid printf("\n"); // find best way cp.x = sp.x; cp.y = sp.y; //add to open list; grid[cp.x][cp.y].list = 1; grid[cp.x][cp.y].g = 0; grid[cp.x][cp.y].h = magnitute(cp, ep); while(!(cp.x == ep.x && cp.y == ep.y)) // while we have not reached the target {// current postion.x == end postion.x ... //check best node from open list; cp = bestNode(); printf("checking %i-%i \n", cp.x, cp.y); //check out neighbours; if(cp.x == -25000 || cp.y == -25000) // my grid is fix sized from 0-24 so I use -25000 as a flag { printf("There is no way."); cp.x = ep.x; cp.y = ep.y; }else{ CheckNeighbours(cp); grid[cp.x][cp.y].list = 2; // closed list } } while(!(cp.x == sp.x && cp.y == sp.y)) { cp = grid[cp.x][cp.y].parent; grid[cp.x][cp.y].info = 1; if(cp.x == sp.x && cp.y == sp.y) grid[cp.x][cp.y].info = 5; } printf("\n"); printmaze(2); printf("End. \n"); scanf("%i", &e); return 0;}void CheckNeighbours(COORD cp){ int i, z; COORD ctemp; for(i = -1; i < 2; i++) { for(z = -1; z < 2; z++) { //check if alive; if(cp.x + i >= 0 && cp.x + i < 25 && cp.y + z >= 0 && cp.y + z < 25) { if(!(i == 0 && z == 0)) { if(grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list != 1 && grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list != 2) { //if open list or closed grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list = 1; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].parent.x = cp.x; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].parent.y = cp.y; //record h value ctemp.x = cp.x + i; ctemp.y = cp.y + z; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].h = magnitute(ctemp, ep); grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].g = magnitute(ctemp, cp) + grid[cp.x][cp.y].g; printf("new neighbour: %i - %i \n", cp.x + i, cp.y + z); }else if(grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list == 1) { ctemp.x = cp.x + i; ctemp.y = cp.y + z; if( grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].g > grid[cp.x][cp.y].g + magnitute(cp, ctemp)) { grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].parent = cp; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].g = magnitute(ctemp, cp) + grid[cp.x][cp.y].g; } } } // end if mid } // end if alive } // end for z } return;}COORD bestNode(){ int i, z; int bestf = -25000; int a = 0; COORD bestNode; for(i = 0; i < 25; i++) { for(z = 0; z < 25; z++) { if(grid[i][z].list == 1) { if(a == 0) { a = 1; bestf = grid[i][z].g + grid[i][z].h; bestNode.x = i; bestNode.y = z; } else { if(bestf > grid[i][z].g + grid[i][z].h) { bestf = grid[i][z].g + grid[i][z].h; bestNode.x = i; bestNode.y = z; } } } } } if(a == 0) { bestNode.x = -25000; bestNode.y = -25000; } return bestNode;}float magnitute(COORD a, COORD b){ COORD toret; float ab; if(a.x > b.x) { toret.x = a.x - b.x; }else { toret.x = b.x - a.x; } if(a.y > b.y) { toret.y = a.y - b.y; }else { toret.y = b.y - a.y; } ab = toret.x * toret.x + toret.y * toret.y; ab = sqrt(ab); return ab;}[/source]

### #8Matthewj234  Members

Posted 11 July 2012 - 03:57 AM

Hello,
My teacher( we're studing programming in the engineering school ) said its really hard to find a way without recursion so I wrote this in C when I was 9th grade; I hope it will help you, its console app:
1. You enter your starting and ending position; X >= 0, X <= 24, Y >=0, Y < 25. Yeah I know its fixed but I was too lazy that day xD
2. FIll in the closed boxes; Places where you can't use to reach the final destination
3. It will print you a 25x25 grid where 5 is your start position, 6 is your destination, 1 is the generated way, 2 are the "locked" boxes, and 0 is the free space where you could walk but u actually didn't

Please don't jungle me for not using const and references ;/

[source lang="cpp"]#include <stdio.h>#include <math.h>typedef struct _COORD{ int x, y;}COORD;typedef struct _BOX{int info, list;float g, h;COORD parent;}BOX;COORD bestNode();void CheckNeighbours(COORD cp);float magnitute(COORD a, COORD b);//global varsBOX grid[25][25]; // main mazeCOORD ep; // end postion. ( where u must reach )void printmaze(int clear){ //clear flag -> if 1 then it will clear the grid and set it to 0 //else -> jsut print its current state int i, z; for(i = 0; i < 25; i++) { for(z = 0; z < 25; z++) { if(clear == 1) { grid[i][z].info = 0; } printf("%i", grid[i][z].info); } printf("\n"); } printf("\n");}int main(){ COORD cp, sp; int e; COORD ctemp; e = 0; printf("Start point. X: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &sp.y); printf("Start point. Y: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &sp.x); printf("End point. X: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &ep.y); printf("End point. Y: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &ep.x); printmaze(1); //add closed printf("Add a closed block? Yes = 1, No = everything else: "); scanf("%i", &e); while(e == 1) { printf("Closed Block. X: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &cp.y); printf("Closed Block. Y: / 0-24 / "); scanf("%i", &cp.x); grid[cp.x][cp.y].list = 2; grid[cp.x][cp.y].info = 2; // with 2 I've marked the closed postions where u can't go printf("Add a closed block? Yes = 1, No = everything else: "); scanf("%i", &e); } grid[sp.x][sp.y].info = 5; // start point on the grid grid[ep.x][ep.y].info = 6; // end point on the grid printf("\n"); // find best way cp.x = sp.x; cp.y = sp.y; //add to open list; grid[cp.x][cp.y].list = 1; grid[cp.x][cp.y].g = 0; grid[cp.x][cp.y].h = magnitute(cp, ep); while(!(cp.x == ep.x && cp.y == ep.y)) // while we have not reached the target {// current postion.x == end postion.x ... //check best node from open list; cp = bestNode(); printf("checking %i-%i \n", cp.x, cp.y); //check out neighbours; if(cp.x == -25000 || cp.y == -25000) // my grid is fix sized from 0-24 so I use -25000 as a flag { printf("There is no way."); cp.x = ep.x; cp.y = ep.y; }else{ CheckNeighbours(cp); grid[cp.x][cp.y].list = 2; // closed list } } while(!(cp.x == sp.x && cp.y == sp.y)) { cp = grid[cp.x][cp.y].parent; grid[cp.x][cp.y].info = 1; if(cp.x == sp.x && cp.y == sp.y) grid[cp.x][cp.y].info = 5; } printf("\n"); printmaze(2); printf("End. \n"); scanf("%i", &e); return 0;}void CheckNeighbours(COORD cp){ int i, z; COORD ctemp; for(i = -1; i < 2; i++) { for(z = -1; z < 2; z++) { //check if alive; if(cp.x + i >= 0 && cp.x + i < 25 && cp.y + z >= 0 && cp.y + z < 25) { if(!(i == 0 && z == 0)) { if(grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list != 1 && grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list != 2) { //if open list or closed grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list = 1; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].parent.x = cp.x; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].parent.y = cp.y; //record h value ctemp.x = cp.x + i; ctemp.y = cp.y + z; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].h = magnitute(ctemp, ep); grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].g = magnitute(ctemp, cp) + grid[cp.x][cp.y].g; printf("new neighbour: %i - %i \n", cp.x + i, cp.y + z); }else if(grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].list == 1) { ctemp.x = cp.x + i; ctemp.y = cp.y + z; if( grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].g > grid[cp.x][cp.y].g + magnitute(cp, ctemp)) { grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].parent = cp; grid[cp.x + i][cp.y + z].g = magnitute(ctemp, cp) + grid[cp.x][cp.y].g; } } } // end if mid } // end if alive } // end for z } return;}COORD bestNode(){ int i, z; int bestf = -25000; int a = 0; COORD bestNode; for(i = 0; i < 25; i++) { for(z = 0; z < 25; z++) { if(grid[i][z].list == 1) { if(a == 0) { a = 1; bestf = grid[i][z].g + grid[i][z].h; bestNode.x = i; bestNode.y = z; } else { if(bestf > grid[i][z].g + grid[i][z].h) { bestf = grid[i][z].g + grid[i][z].h; bestNode.x = i; bestNode.y = z; } } } } } if(a == 0) { bestNode.x = -25000; bestNode.y = -25000; } return bestNode;}float magnitute(COORD a, COORD b){ COORD toret; float ab; if(a.x > b.x) { toret.x = a.x - b.x; }else { toret.x = b.x - a.x; } if(a.y > b.y) { toret.y = a.y - b.y; }else { toret.y = b.y - a.y; } ab = toret.x * toret.x + toret.y * toret.y; ab = sqrt(ab); return ab;}[/source]

Thanks, this was really helpful, showing different ways of achieving the same thing.

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