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# Tractor Trailers with Rigid Bodies in 2D (hinge constraints)

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### #1prushik  Members

Posted 02 December 2012 - 07:06 PM

Basically what I want to do is implement some basic tractor trailer physics using rigid bodies. Right now I have rigid body physics that look decent (good enough for me right now) for a single segment vehicle (car, bus, etc...), however, tractor trailers are important in my game. I've been thinking about this problem for some time and searching the internet, and have come up with so much information, but nothing that really solves the problem. It seems it should be easy, this is just a simple 2d game.
Should I create a point on both rigid bodies that acts similar to a wheel and applies force to the rigid body equivalent to what is needed to keep the bodies connected? or is there some other way that this should be done?
Both segments will need to exert forces on each other.

I found a guy who wrote an algorithm here: http://gamedev.stack...-physics-system

It seems to be what I was looking for, but from the page it seems there may be some problems with it. And the author seems unsure of himself. So, is that the right approach to take?

(I'm using C and SDL2, if you want to know)

EDIT: Also note that my simulation should be simpler than the article I linked to, since I only have one hinge point where it looks like the article actually has 2.

Edited by prushik, 03 December 2012 - 12:17 AM.

### #2prushik  Members

Posted 03 December 2012 - 09:10 AM

UPDATE:
Ok, so I have implemented something based on what I was thinking. Both the tractor and the trailer are rigid bodies. I calculate forces generated by the wheels in both objects, then integrate the forces. Then I calculate the speed difference between the attachment points on both objects and multiply by mass to get the force vector. Then I add that force vector to one object and an opposite response force vector to the other. Then integrate the forces again.
Does this make sense?

The result is something that looks almost right. They stay (almost) together, and pivot around the hinge point. However, sometimes weird problems occur. The trailer drifts off the hinge point (very slowly) after substantial use, and sometimes the trailer pulls the tractor into unexpected high speed turns, not sure why.

I'll post the relevant code:

[source lang="cpp"]struct image{const char *fname;void *texture; //SDL_Textureint w,h;double angle;};struct rigidBody{VEC2 coord;VEC2 speed;VEC2 force;double mass;double angle;double angleV;double torque;double inertia;};struct wheel{VEC2 coord, forward, side;double angle, speed, radius;double inertia, torque;double steer,throttle,brake;};struct vehicle{struct rigidBody chassis;struct wheel wheel[4];struct vehicle *trailer;VEC2 hinge,pin;struct image img;};void updateHinge(struct vehicle *obj){ //Don't apply forces from trailer if there is no trailer if (obj->trailer==NULL) return; VEC2 hoffset,poffset,hspeed,pspeed,wspeed,force; relativeToWorld(obj,&obj->hinge,&hoffset); relativeToWorld(obj->trailer,&obj->trailer->pin,&poffset); pointVel(obj,&hoffset,&hspeed); pointVel(obj->trailer,&poffset,&pspeed); subtractVEC(&hspeed,&pspeed,&wspeed); reverseVEC(&wspeed,&wspeed); multiplyVEC(&wspeed,obj->chassis.mass,&force); addForce(&obj->chassis,&force,&hoffset); reverseVEC(&wspeed,&wspeed); multiplyVEC(&wspeed,obj->trailer->chassis.mass,&force); addForce(&obj->trailer->chassis,&force,&poffset); return;}int main(){struct vehicle user,trail;initVehicle(&user,20.0);user.chassis.coord.x=100.0;user.chassis.coord.y=200.0;user.chassis.angle=0.0;initWheel(&user,0,30.0,15.0,2.0);//FLinitWheel(&user,1,30.0,-15.0,2.0);//FRinitWheel(&user,2,-30.0,15.0,2.0);//RLinitWheel(&user,3,-30.0,-15.0,2.0);//RRuser.wheel[0].throttle=0;user.wheel[1].throttle=0;//Initialize test trailerinitVehicle(&trail,40.0);trail.chassis.coord.x=100.0-32;trail.chassis.coord.y=200.0;trail.chassis.angle=0.0;initWheel(&trail,0,-25.0,15.0,5.0);//FLinitWheel(&trail,1,-25.0,-15.0,5.0);//FRinitWheel(&trail,2,-30.0,15.0,5.0);//RLinitWheel(&trail,3,-30.0,-15.0,5.0);//RRtrail.wheel[0].throttle=0;trail.wheel[1].throttle=0;trail.wheel[2].throttle=0;trail.wheel[3].throttle=0;//Attach tractor and traileruser.trailer=&trail;user.hinge.x=-32+14;user.hinge.y=0;trail.pin.x=14;trail.pin.y=0;//Set more stuff up... while (1){//......Other stuff updateWheels(&user); updateWheels(&trail); updateRigidBody(&user.chassis); updateRigidBody(&trail.chassis); updateHinge(&user); updateHinge(&trail); updateRigidBody(&user.chassis); updateRigidBody(&trail.chassis);//....Draw the stuff here}}[/source]

Now, obviously, there is a lot of code left out, but this should be the relevant parts. If there is something else that you need to see then let me know and I will provide. I intend to release my project open source, so I won't be hiding anything.

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