Not with a simple function call, no. You render to a texture and then draw a full screen quad (or whatever dimension you like) and a pixel shader simply sampling said texture. The texture needs to have both D3D11_BIND_SHADER_RESOURCE and D3D11_BIND_RENDER_TARGET for BindFlags and you create ID3D11ShaderResourceView and ID3D11RenderTargetView to use for this scenario. Make sure you unbind one view first before using the other, the pipeline disallows simultanous read/write and will nullify such an attempt.
On the other hand, you can achieve the same more directly with a proper camera/viewport/coordinate system which accounts for the output dimension.
Indeed. A flexible 2D camera is not only a good exercise in transformations, but since it results in changing only one matrix (usually) for the shader - which you do need anyway - it is practically free on the GPU side. Drop those magic numbers!