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## Game doesn't crash if currently printing

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### #1DrNicholas  Members

Posted 13 July 2014 - 06:34 PM

I am a little confused as to why this happens in what I have been working on.

if( game_debug == true ) {
render_var( 16, 184, TEXT_LEFT, "FPS:", (int)framespersecond, true );
render_var( 16, 16, TEXT_LEFT, "CAMERA X:", (int)camera_x, true );
render_var( 16, 32, TEXT_LEFT, "CAMERA Y:", (int)camera_y, true );
if( lvl_name != NULL ) {
render_text( 320 - 16, 16, TEXT_RIGHT, "LEVEL: ", true );
render_text( 320 - 16, 32, TEXT_RIGHT, lvl_name, true );
}
} else {
render_text( 320 - 16, 16, TEXT_RIGHT, "F1: View Debug Info", true );
}


when I call upon change_level

int change_level( const char* filename ) {
/* clear any current level assets */
/* level information */
lvl_name = "";
...
/* camera coordinates */
camera_x = 0;
camera_y = 0;
/* tiles */
...
/* objects */
/* parse new level */
parse_level( filename );
/* tell user level has been changed */
printf( "level has been changed to: %s\n", lvl_name );
}


while game_debug is currently true, the game will crash. However, if I comment out the first three parts (rendering the framespersecond, camera_x, and camera_y) then the crash does not occur. The crash does not occur either if I put game_debug = false; somewhere within the change_level() function. Another weird thing (this is where the thread title comes in) is the game does not crash if I am currently printing something over and over again, so I could put printf("printing!\n"); above the line of code that renders framespersecond, and when I change levels (game_debug is not set to false in this instance), the crash does not occur.

Do you have any ideas as to why this anomaly happens? Thanks

### #2frob  Moderators

Posted 13 July 2014 - 06:45 PM

POPULAR

Could be a huge number of things. Memory corruption, race conditions, and improper shared state all immediately jump to mind. In your code snippet null pointers and uninitialized values also seem likely.

"Crash" is usually a good thing, a hard stop that triggers the OS to stop the program. Trap it in a debugger, or review the crash dump, and collect all the useful bits of information at the time of the crash.

What kind of crash-hunting techniques have you tried so far?

Check out my book, Game Development with Unity, aimed at beginners who want to build fun games fast.

Also check out my personal website at bryanwagstaff.com, where I occasionally write about assorted stuff.

### #3DrNicholas  Members

Posted 13 July 2014 - 08:07 PM

Don't know what you mean by crash-hunting, I listed some possible scenarios where crashing may/may not occur. If I don't have debug info toggle-able, and everything is just already out there, then the game doesn't crash either. I see if game_debug is true, the game crashes AFTER change_level is done. However say everything is commented out inside game_debug, then there is no crash at all. So it has to do something with rendering the text on screen, but nothing printed is erased when the level changes. So it's very confusing.

### #4Buckeye  GDNet+

Posted 13 July 2014 - 08:08 PM

You strongly imply that the three render_var lines appear to cause the "crash." In those lines, the only arguments that would seem to be a problem are framespersecond, camera_x and camera_y. As a wild guess, assuming those are float variables, have you tried converting them to int variables, and using the int variables as the render_var arguments?

I.e.,

int fps = (int)framespersecond;
render_var(..., fps,..);


EDIT: What does render_var do?

Edited by Buckeye, 13 July 2014 - 08:13 PM.

Please don't PM me with questions. Post them in the forums for everyone's benefit, and I can embarrass myself publicly.

You don't forget how to play when you grow old; you grow old when you forget how to play.

### #5DrNicholas  Members

Posted 13 July 2014 - 08:52 PM

int render_text( int x, int y, int allignment, char* text, int outline ) {
int i;
int text_length = strlen(text) * text_w;
int o_x, o_y;
for( i = 1; i < strlen(text) + 1; i++ ) {
double t_x = x + (text_w * i);
if( allignment == TEXT_LEFT )
t_x = x + (text_w * i) - text_w;
if( allignment == TEXT_CENTRE )
t_x = (x + (text_w * i)) - text_length/2 - text_w;
if( allignment == TEXT_RIGHT )
t_x = (x + (text_w * i)) - text_length - text_w;
if( outline == true )
for( o_x = -1; o_x <= 1; o_x++ )
for( o_y = -1; o_y <= 1; o_y++ )
draw_letter( t_x + o_x, y + o_y, text[i - 1], true );
draw_letter( t_x, y, text[i - 1], false );
}
free(text);
}
int render_var( int x, int y, int allignment, char *text, int var, int outline ) {
render_text( x, y, allignment, text, outline );
int var_spot = 0;
if( strlen(text) != 0 )
var_spot = (strlen(text))*text_w;
char var_text[20];
sprintf( var_text, "%d", var );
render_text( x + var_spot, y, allignment, var_text, outline );
}


### #6DrNicholas  Members

Posted 13 July 2014 - 08:58 PM

Couldn't add more text after I made that code bubble. They are converted to integers, as you can see, they render just fine. It's just weird that the game only crashes if game_debug is true and code for rendering text (is active) is inside the statement; if it's outside the game_debug statement, no crash; or if I am constantly printing anything inside the statement, no crash.

### #7ApochPiQ  Moderators

Posted 13 July 2014 - 09:08 PM

Wielder of the Sacred Wands

### #8DrNicholas  Members

Posted 13 July 2014 - 10:07 PM

I am just confused with this crashed, however I moved the function to another line (one line above it's comment) and now (for now) it works. I am baffled by this.

### #9frob  Moderators

Posted 13 July 2014 - 10:39 PM

Don't know what you mean by crash-hunting, I listed some possible scenarios where crashing may/may not occur. If I don't have debug info toggle-able, and everything is just already out there, then the game doesn't crash either. I see if game_debug is true, the game crashes AFTER change_level is done. However say everything is commented out inside game_debug, then there is no crash at all. So it has to do something with rendering the text on screen, but nothing printed is erased when the level changes. So it's very confusing.

It *might* have something to do with that. It might not. That is what debuggers were invented for.

I asked what you had done for crash hunting for the additional information linked to by ApochPiQ. For example, when the crash occurs in the debugger, where does the crash occur? Does it appear inside a function you know, inside a system function, or in some seemingly random memory location? What does your call stack look like? What was your previous instruction?

Crashes typically include some sort of message indicating the error, or provide a minidump or other useful data. If an error message what exactly does it say? If a minidump what happens when you load it up with your debug info? Those random numbers mean things, and the guide linked to above can help you understand them. (Or we could retype the information hundreds of times, doing it yet again for your post. Please just go read the other links.)

Other than uncommenting some lines and moving a bit of code around to hide the bug, what have you actually done (you know, like a computer scientist rather than code monkey) to experiment on the issue, identify it, and correct it?

Check out my book, Game Development with Unity, aimed at beginners who want to build fun games fast.

Also check out my personal website at bryanwagstaff.com, where I occasionally write about assorted stuff.

### #10DrNicholas  Members

Posted 13 July 2014 - 11:51 PM

I am not sure if there is a bug, I just changed the order of some things and it worked. Maybe it was an order issue. Console did not give any error messages, even when I had a friend look at it and supply me a document of the console of what he ran.

Posted 14 July 2014 - 12:01 AM

Do include stdio.h?

The printf-functions have a variable parameter list. Often make problems if no prototype available.

### #12LennyLen  GDNet+

Posted 14 July 2014 - 12:13 AM

POPULAR

I am not sure if there is a bug, I just changed the order of some things and it worked. Maybe it was an order issue. Console did not give any error messages, even when I had a friend look at it and supply me a document of the console of what he ran.

It is a bug.  Changing the order may have made it appear to go away for now, but it could pop back up later if you add more code or change existing code.

Change the code back so that the crash is occurring and debug the code properly. In other words, use the debugger. That's what it's for.

edit: One odd thing I just noticed in your code is that you are freeing memory in your render_text function that you are not allocating yourself, since you are passing literal strings to the function.

Edited by LennyLen, 14 July 2014 - 12:18 AM.

### #13kunos  Members

Posted 14 July 2014 - 05:22 AM

I agree with LennyLen.. you HAVE a bug, and you are lucky enough to have found a way to reproduce it reliably. Moving things around will just hide the bug..it'll be back, on some of your users' PC and you will have no way to fix it. Fix it NOW that you can see it.

### #14DrNicholas  Members

Posted 14 July 2014 - 04:27 PM

In response to LennyLen, could you show me what you notice or how I might fix it?

Posted 14 July 2014 - 04:49 PM

As mentioned by LennyLen you're freeing memory in render_text (the line: free(text);) that was never allocated with malloc or new.  When you call a function with a literal string (example: function("hello")), it does not need to be freed.  Also the function render_var calls render_text which frees the text string and then render_var tries to operate on that text afterwards with strlen(text). These things can lead to a crash.

### #16DrNicholas  Members

Posted 14 July 2014 - 05:25 PM

So just remove the clean up part?

### #17fastcall22  Moderators

Posted 14 July 2014 - 05:31 PM

Well, it's a bit more complicated than that:

void thing(const char* text) {
// Do stuff with text

free(text);
}

int main() {
const char* a = "abc";
const char b[] = "def"
char* c = malloc(4);
char* d = new char[4];

sprintf(c,"ghi");
sprintf(d,"jkl");

thing("mno"); // No!
thing(a);     // No!
thing(b);     // No!
thing(c);     // Okay
thing(d);     // No!

// free(c);
// delete[] d;
}

Here, thing is assuming ownership of text which isn't always the desired behavior, as shown in the sample program here.
zlib: eJzVVLsSAiEQ6/1qCwoK i7PxA/2S2zMOZljYB1TO ZG7OhUtiduH9egZQCJH9 KcJyo4Wq9t0/RXkKmjx+ cgU4FIMWHhKCU+o/Nx2R LEPgQWLtnfcErbiEl0u4 0UrMghhZewgYcptoEF42 YMj+Z1kg+bVvqxhyo17h nUf+h4b2W4bR4XO01TJ7 qFNzA7jjbxyL71Avh6Tv odnFk4hnxxAf4w6496Kd OgH7/RxC

### #18DrNicholas  Members

Posted 14 July 2014 - 09:36 PM

ah I get it now

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