Please continue doing so. If you don't know, and you honestly tried to find out about it and failed, you're not the only one with this problem.
I first figure out how to solve the problem, first in big steps then checking for all the edge cases, on paper, in my head, or on a white-board. Then I code the steps. The latter isn't very interesting any more at that point in time, since I know that my solution is solid and will work. Coding has become just a lot of typing to to show that it works.
If it so big and complicated with so many details that it's not possible to first think things through, there isn't much else you can do but start coding, and see where it goes wrong. The most important information there is why does it go wrong, ie what step did I miss in my design? You integrate that information in the design and try again.
Yep, everybody here is a math wizard!
Nah, just kidding The minimum required is of course enough such that you can do your work. However, as time progresses, work will change, computers will change, your interest will change, etc. Embrace the life-long-learning idea, don't stop learning ever. I have been doing that for 35 years or so, and still having fun reading about new ideas, discovering new things, and doing new computer tricks.
I am still puzzled how math is a problem for a programmer though. In programming you restrict yourself to a small artificial world with concepts like variables and control flow, and its own rules, where you can express solutions to problems. Math is exactly the same in my view, it's also an artificial world with its own concepts and rules, where you solve a problem within that rule set.
For understanding jargon you don't know, for 9.9 out of 10 cases, any jargon is explained at wikipedia. That covers trying to understand what someone is trying to say mostly. If you're not 110% sure about it, explain how you interpret it in the context of what you're discussing, and ask for confirmation. It's extremely important that everybody has the same ideas about a topic, or things will derail later due to different assumptions and reasoning steps. Programming is engineering work, highly complex, where things only work if everything is correct down to literally the last bit. A simple confirmation check can easily save hours to days or months of work.
As for using jargon, use only what you know is correct, and what the other person is understanding. For all other cases, use normal words, as Tom said. It's a bit longer to read or say, but getting the correct idea across is what counts, using fancy words doesn't count.