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OpenGL .dll to .a ?

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OK another question for you guys. Im trying to use freeimage to load a simple texture into my Linux openGL based project. The only thing is the library that comes with this is in .dll format. There is a read me file that mentions something about using a dos shell and some commands to convert it .... i didnt even know you could access dos on Linux ? Is there an easier way or a program that can convert this into the correct format (i assume .a or .so).

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Download the source code from here, extract the archive, open a terminal, move to the directory and execute 'make'. It should create both static library "libfreeimage.a" and the shared library "libfreeimage-3.11.0.so". To install the library run 'make install' (as root if needed).
Just as a side note, shared libraries have usually the extension .so under linux and not .dll .

If you are using Ubuntu, you can install freeimage using Synaptic (System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager).

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.dll is the runtime code they wrote for you. The .a is the interface for the DLL.

.Lib = .a on linux

It will come with both if you have downloaded the correct files.

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Ah? DLL are Windows Dynamic Linking Libraries, they don't work on other OSes, specially Linux. You're using the wrong version of the library, there should be a source version you can compile, or a linux prebuild package.

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Really big help guys im new to Linux and i forgot to make install which was my main problem. I got FreeImage to compile and i have included it and used it within my program.

Now the next problem :S. Im using Fedora Core 7 on my PS3 to program a simple particle engine using openGL. i require textured particles hence FreeImage.

Here is the code i use for the texture load. It is taken from the openGL example from FreeImage but i have chanegd it a little to make it run in C.

int LoadTexture(const char* filename, const unsigned int texID, GLenum image_format, GLint internal_format, GLint level, GLint border)
{
//image format
FREE_IMAGE_FORMAT fif = FIF_UNKNOWN;
//pointer to the image, once loaded
FIBITMAP *dib(0);
//pointer to the image data
BYTE* bits(0);
//image width and height
unsigned int width(0), height(0);
//OpenGL's image ID to map to


//check the file signature and deduce its format
fif = FreeImage_GetFileType(filename, 0);
//if still unknown, try to guess the file format from the file extension
if(fif == FIF_UNKNOWN)
fif = FreeImage_GetFIFFromFilename(filename);
//if still unkown, return failure
if(fif == FIF_UNKNOWN)
return 0;

//check that the plugin has reading capabilities and load the file
if(FreeImage_FIFSupportsReading(fif))
dib = FreeImage_Load(fif, filename);
//if the image failed to load, return failure
if(!dib)
return 0;

//retrieve the image data
bits = FreeImage_GetBits(dib);
//get the image width and height
width = FreeImage_GetWidth(dib);
height = FreeImage_GetHeight(dib);
//if this somehow one of these failed (they shouldn't), return failure
if((bits == 0) || (width == 0) || (height == 0))
return 0;

//if this texture ID is in use, unload the current texture
//if(m_texID.find(texID) != m_texID.end())
// glDeleteTextures(1, &(m_texID[texID]));

//generate an OpenGL texture ID for this texture
glGenTextures(1, &gl_texID);
//store the texture ID mapping
//m_texID[texID] = gl_texID;
//bind to the new texture ID
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, gl_texID);
//store the texture data for OpenGL use
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, level, internal_format, width, height,
border, image_format, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, bits);

//Free FreeImage's copy of the data
FreeImage_Unload(dib);

//return success
return 1;
}

As far as i can tell this is succeful as it returns 1 when i enter a correct texture file and 0 when i enter a file name that doesnt exist.

I use this to bind the texture.

void BindTexture()
{
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D,gl_texID );

}

and here is my render function for the particles and where the previous function is called.

void PSRender(ParticleSystem* ps,bool repeat)
{BindTexture(1);
glClear(GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT | GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

for(int i = 0;i<ps->NumberofParticles;i++)
{
if(ps->P.Activated == true)
{
if(ps->P.Age < ps->P.LifeSpan)
{
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);

glPushMatrix();

glTranslatef(ps->P.Posx, ps->P.Posy, ps->P.Posz);
glRotatef(ps->P.Degree,0,1,0);


glBegin(GL_QUADS);

glTexCoord2f(0.0f,0.0f);glVertex3f(-ps->P.Sizex, ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f,1.0f);glVertex3f(ps->P.Sizex, ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);
glTexCoord2f(1.0f,1.0f);glVertex3f(ps->P.Sizex, -ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);
glTexCoord2f(1.0f,0.0f);glVertex3f(-ps->P.Sizex, -ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);

glEnd();

glPopMatrix();

glFlush();

}
}

As far as i know that should bind the texture to each particle which atm is simple a square.But the aprticles are showing without a texture. I have tried several different file formats with differnt bit depth.

I have used openGL alot so im thinking i must have missed something out that im just not seeing. I appreciate that there is alot of code there guys. Any help would be appreciated.


Thanks

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void BindTexture(){
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D,gl_texID );
}
...
BindTexture(1);

I guess gl_texID is a global variable, so what is this parameter? Without a complete program, there can be all sorts of initialization problems; you don't even give the call to LoadTexture.
Quote:
Here is the code i use for the texture load. It is taken from the openGL example from FreeImage but i have chanegd it a little to make it run in C.

Do you have a working test program, such as the mentioned example, that you can modify?
Separating file format issues (which would appear if you adapt working sample code to your images) from initialization and rendering issues (which are hopefully confined to your particle engine) would be a good step forward.

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My particle engine runs and works well. I cannot get an example that came with freeimage working because, the openGL example that comes with program is for windows and coded in C++.The Linux version is not for openGL... i would need an example that was both in openGL and for Linux.

I am making the call to load texture in my main function and tex id is global, its an unsigned int.

Here is the full program which i didnt initially link due to its length and mostly irrelevant to my problem. Thankyou for any further help.

#include <GL/glut.h>
#include "stdlib.h"
#include <libvector.h>
#include "FreeImage.h"

#define HEIGHT 300
#define WIDTH 300

GLuint gl_texID;

int LoadTexture(const char* filename, const unsigned int texID, GLenum image_format, GLint internal_format, GLint level, GLint border)
{
//image format
FREE_IMAGE_FORMAT fif = FIF_UNKNOWN;
//pointer to the image, once loaded
FIBITMAP *dib(0);
//pointer to the image data
BYTE* bits(0);
//image width and height
unsigned int width(0), height(0);
//OpenGL's image ID to map to


//check the file signature and deduce its format
fif = FreeImage_GetFileType(filename, 0);
//if still unknown, try to guess the file format from the file extension
if(fif == FIF_UNKNOWN)
fif = FreeImage_GetFIFFromFilename(filename);
//if still unkown, return failure
if(fif == FIF_UNKNOWN)
return 0;

//check that the plugin has reading capabilities and load the file
if(FreeImage_FIFSupportsReading(fif))
dib = FreeImage_Load(fif, filename);
//if the image failed to load, return failure
if(!dib)
return 0;

//retrieve the image data
bits = FreeImage_GetBits(dib);
//get the image width and height
width = FreeImage_GetWidth(dib);
height = FreeImage_GetHeight(dib);
//if this somehow one of these failed (they shouldn't), return failure
if((bits == 0) || (width == 0) || (height == 0))
return 0;

//if this texture ID is in use, unload the current texture
//if(m_texID.find(texID) != m_texID.end())
// glDeleteTextures(1, &(m_texID[texID]));

//generate an OpenGL texture ID for this texture
glGenTextures(1, &gl_texID);
//store the texture ID mapping
//m_texID[texID] = gl_texID;
//bind to the new texture ID
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, gl_texID);
//store the texture data for OpenGL use
glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, level, internal_format, width, height,
border, image_format, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, bits);

//Free FreeImage's copy of the data
FreeImage_Unload(dib);

//return success
return 1;
}
void BindTexture(const unsigned int texID)
{
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D,gl_texID );
}
struct particle
{
public:
vector float Position;
float Posx,Posy,Posz,initialPosx,initialPosy,initialPosz;
float Velx,Vely,Velz,initialVelx,initialVely,initialVelz;

float Sizex,Sizey,Sizez,initialSizex,initialSizey,initialSizez;
float Colourx,Coloury,Colourz,initialColourx,initialColoury,initialColourz;

int LifeSpan;
int Age;
int Degree;
bool Alive;
bool Visible;
bool Activated;

};
typedef struct particle Particle;

struct particleSystem
{
public:
Particle* P;

int NumberofParticles;
int currentParticle;
};
typedef struct particleSystem ParticleSystem;


int timeswitch = 0;
float timeNow = 0;
float endTime = 0;
float currentTime = 0;

float RandNumber(float lowNo,float highNo)
{
return lowNo +(highNo-lowNo)*((float)rand()/((float)RAND_MAX+1.0f));
}

int AddGap(float TimeGap)
{
if(timeswitch == 0)
{
timeNow = glutGet(GLUT_ELAPSED_TIME);
endTime = timeNow + TimeGap;
timeswitch = 1;
}
currentTime = glutGet(GLUT_ELAPSED_TIME);

if(currentTime >= endTime)
{
timeswitch = 0;
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
void InitialiseParticles(ParticleSystem* ps,int numParticles)
{
ps->currentParticle = 0;
ps->P = new Particle[numParticles];

ps->NumberofParticles = numParticles;
for(int i = 0;i<ps->NumberofParticles;i = i+1)
{
ps->P.Alive = true;
ps->P.LifeSpan = 500;

ps->P.Position = (vector float){RandNumber(-50,50), 0, 0, 0};
ps->P.Posx = RandNumber(-50,50);
ps->P.Posy = 0;
ps->P.Posz = 0;

ps->P.Velx = 0;
ps->P.Vely = 0.1;
ps->P.Velz = 0;

ps->P.Sizex = 5;
ps->P.Sizey = 5;
ps->P.Sizez = 0;
ps->P.Colourx = 0;
ps->P.Coloury = 1;
ps->P.Colourz= 0;
ps->P.Age = 0;
ps->P.Degree = 0;



ps->P.initialPosx = ps->P.Posx;
ps->P.initialPosy = ps->P.Posy;
ps->P.initialPosz = ps->P.Posz;

ps->P.initialVelx = ps->P.Velx;
ps->P.initialVely = ps->P.Vely;
ps->P.initialVelz = ps->P.Velz;

ps->P.initialSizex = ps->P.Sizex;
ps->P.initialSizey = ps->P.Sizey;
ps->P.initialSizez = ps->P.Sizez;
ps->P.initialColourx = ps->P.Colourx;
ps->P.initialColoury = ps->P.Coloury;
ps->P.initialColourz =ps-> P.Colourz;
}
}
void ActivateParticles(ParticleSystem* ps,int gap,int intensity)
{
if(ps->currentParticle < ps->NumberofParticles)
{
if(AddGap(gap) == 1 )
{
for(int i = 0;i< intensity;i++)
{
ps->P[ps->currentParticle].Activated = true;
ps->currentParticle++;
}
if(ps->currentParticle >= ps->NumberofParticles)
ps->currentParticle = 0;
}
}
}
void PSUpdate(ParticleSystem* ps)
{
for(int i = 0;i < ps->NumberofParticles;i++)
{
if(ps->P.Activated == true)
{
ps->P.Posx+=ps->P.Velx;
ps->P.Posy+=ps->P.Vely;
ps->P.Posz+=ps->P.Velz;
ps->P.Age++;
}
}
}
void PSRender(ParticleSystem* ps,bool repeat)
{BindTexture(1);
glClear(GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT | GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

for(int i = 0;i<ps->NumberofParticles;i++)
{
if(ps->P.Activated == true)
{
if(ps->P.Age < ps->P.LifeSpan)
{
glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);

glPushMatrix();

glTranslatef(ps->P.Posx, ps->P.Posy, ps->P.Posz);
glRotatef(ps->P.Degree,0,1,0);

glBegin(GL_QUADS);

glTexCoord2f(0.0f,0.0f);glVertex3f(-ps->P.Sizex, ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);
glTexCoord2f(0.0f,1.0f);glVertex3f(ps->P.Sizex, ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);
glTexCoord2f(1.0f,1.0f);glVertex3f(ps->P.Sizex, -ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);
glTexCoord2f(1.0f,0.0f);glVertex3f(-ps->P.Sizex, -ps->P.Sizey, ps->P.Sizez);


glEnd();

glPopMatrix();

glFlush();

}
else{
if(repeat == true)
{
ps->P.Activated = false;
ps->P.Posx = ps->P.initialPosx;
ps->P.Posy = ps->P.initialPosy;
ps->P.Posz = ps->P.initialPosz;
ps->P.Velx = ps->P.initialVelx;
ps->P.Vely = ps->P.initialVely;
ps->P.Velz = ps->P.initialVelz;
ps->P.Sizex = ps->P.initialSizex;
ps->P.Sizey = ps->P.initialSizey;
ps->P.Sizez = ps->P.initialSizez;
ps->P.Colourx = ps->P.initialColourx;
ps->P.Coloury = ps->P.initialColoury;
ps->P.Colourz = ps->P.initialColourz;
ps->P.Age = 0;
}
}
}
}

}
/* function to be called for window display */
void display(void);
ParticleSystem *PS = new ParticleSystem;
int main(int argc, char **argv){

glutInit(&argc, argv);
glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_DEPTH);
glutInitWindowSize(WIDTH, HEIGHT);
glutInitWindowPosition(200, 100);
glutCreateWindow("Particle Engine");

FreeImage_Initialise();
int t = LoadTexture("texture.bmp",1,GL_RGB,GL_RGB,0,0);
if(t == 0)
return 0;


InitialiseParticles(PS,100);

glTranslatef(0,0,-200);
glutDisplayFunc(display);
glutIdleFunc(display);
glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);

gluPerspective(45,1.0,10.0,200.0);

glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);


/* Start the processing loop */
glutMainLoop();
return 0;
}

void display(void) {
ActivateParticles(PS,1000,2);
PSUpdate(PS);
PSRender(PS,true);

glutSwapBuffers();

}

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Quote:
Original post by Frenzy123

Here is the full program which i didnt initially link due to its length and mostly irrelevant to my problem.

Well, the source tags are your friend - and ours. Please add them to your posts, since they make them more readable.

Example:

void BindTexture(const unsigned int texID)
{
glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D,gl_texID );
}


In that call, you still don't use the texID parameter.
Did you verify that gl_texID is correct?
Did you check the error state after the glGenTextures(...), glBindTexture(...) and glTexImage2D(...) calls?

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Yea the TexID parameter was part of the code i took from the example it used a map which to simplify things i removed and replaced with the GLuint gl_texID variable, which explains why the function BindTexture(const unsigned int texID)
doesnt use texID, i changed the code so that it doesnt use the parameter and i realise i should have tidied it up a little bit more :P but i have been stuck trying to get a single texture to load for the last few days. As far as i can tell the LoadTexture function uses the right texture as it doesnt return 0 at any point. As far as "Did you check the error state after the glGenTextures(...), glBindTexture(...) and glTexImage2D(...) calls?" i am unsure of how to do this. There is no way i can debug my code using this compiler from what i have seen. The only thing i can do is throw in an if statement and return 0(or any number to stop the program from running in the Main function. Is there a simple if statement i can use to check to see if those functions are doing what theyre meant to be doing ? I have assumed that if the function has found the correct textrue file that it would be doing this correctly.

Again thankyou for any feedback


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Ok so i spent the last couple hours including FreeImage into a PC version of my particle engine. I used the exact code that the openGL example gives you(which is a texture manager class to do it all for you). But it doesnt work.It seems to get through the loadtexture function and it also manages to find the saved texture with the bindtexture function, but yet it still doesnt load the texture. Has anybody else had any problems with FreeImage. This is such a small part of my project i really didnt want to spend so much time trying to get a texture to load in my project, i guess i was naive to think that this would only take a few hours.

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      Window Class:
      #include "Window.h" #include <GL/glew.h> #include <GLFW/glfw3.h> #include "Error.h" #include "Renderer.h" #include "Scene.h" #include "Input.h" //Global Variables. int screen_width, screen_height; //On Window Resize. void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height); //Implementation Structure. struct Window::Implementation { //GLFW Window. GLFWwindow *GLFW_window; //Renderer. Renderer *renderer; //Delta Time. double delta_time; //Frames Per Second. int fps; //Scene. Scene *scnene; //Input. Input *input; //Deconstructor. ~Implementation(); }; //Window Constructor. Window::Window(std::string title, int width, int height) { //Initializing width and height. screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Try initializing GLFW. if (!glfwInit()) { std::cout << "GLFW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); exit(-1); } //Setting up OpenGL Version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ m_Impl->GLFW_window = glfwCreateWindow(width, height, title.c_str(), NULL, NULL); if (!m_Impl->GLFW_window) { std::cout << "GLFW could not create a window!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Initialize GLEW. if(glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { std::cout << "GLEW could not be initialized!" << std::endl; std::cout << "Press ENTER to exit..." << std::endl; std::cin.get(); glfwTerminate(); exit(-1); } //Enabling Blending. GLCall(glEnable(GL_BLEND)); GLCall(glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA)); //Setting the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// m_Impl->renderer = new Renderer(); m_Impl->delta_time = 0.0; m_Impl->fps = 0; m_Impl->input = new Input(this); //**********Initializing Implementation**********// //Set Frame Buffer Size Callback. glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(m_Impl->GLFW_window, OnWindowResize); } //Window Deconstructor. Window::~Window() { delete m_Impl; } //Window Main Loop. void Window::MainLoop() { //Time Variables. double start_time = 0, end_time = 0, old_time = 0, total_time = 0; //Frames Counter. int frames = 0; /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(m_Impl->GLFW_window)) { old_time = start_time; //Total time of previous frame. start_time = glfwGetTime(); //Current frame start time. //Calculate the Delta Time. m_Impl->delta_time = start_time - old_time; //Get Frames Per Second. if (total_time >= 1) { m_Impl->fps = frames; total_time = 0; frames = 0; } //Clearing The Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Clear(0, 0, 0); //Render The Scene. if (m_Impl->scnene != NULL) m_Impl->scnene->Render(this); //Updating the Screen. m_Impl->renderer->Update(m_Impl->GLFW_window); //Increasing frames counter. frames++; //End Time. end_time = glfwGetTime(); //Total time after the frame completed. total_time += end_time - start_time; } //Terminate GLFW. glfwTerminate(); } //Load Scene. void Window::LoadScene(Scene * scene) { //Set the scene. m_Impl->scnene = scene; } //Get Delta Time. double Window::GetDeltaTime() { return m_Impl->delta_time; } //Get FPS. int Window::GetFPS() { return m_Impl->fps; } //Get Width. int Window::GetWidth() { return screen_width; } //Get Height. int Window::GetHeight() { return screen_height; } //Get Input. Input * Window::GetInput() { return m_Impl->input; } Renderer * Window::GetRenderer() { return m_Impl->renderer; } GLFWwindow * Window::GetGLFWindow() { return m_Impl->GLFW_window; } //Implementation Deconstructor. Window::Implementation::~Implementation() { delete renderer; delete input; } //OnWindowResize void OnWindowResize(GLFWwindow *window, int width, int height) { screen_width = width; screen_height = height; //Updating the ViewPort. GLCall(glViewport(0, 0, width, height)); }  
      Brain Class
      #include "Brain.h" #include "Sprite.h" #include "Window.h" struct Brain::Implementation { //Just A Flag. bool started; //Window Pointer. Window *window; //Sprite Pointer. Sprite *sprite; }; Brain::Brain(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) { //Create Pointer To Implementation. m_Impl = new Implementation(); //Initialize Implementation. m_Impl->started = true; m_Impl->window = window; m_Impl->sprite = sprite; } Brain::~Brain() { //Delete Pointer To Implementation. delete m_Impl; } void Brain::Start() { } void Brain::Update() { } Window * Brain::GetWindow() { return m_Impl->window; } Sprite * Brain::GetSprite() { return m_Impl->sprite; } bool Brain::GetStart() { return m_Impl->started; } void Brain::SetStart(bool value) { m_Impl->started = value; } Script Class (Its a Brain Subclass!!!)
      #include "Script.h" Script::Script(Window *window, Sprite *sprite) : Brain(window, sprite) { } Script::~Script() { } void Script::Start() { std::cout << "Game Started!" << std::endl; } void Script::Update() { Input *input = this->GetWindow()->GetInput(); Sprite *sp = this->GetSprite(); //Move this sprite. this->GetSprite()->Move(200 * this->GetWindow()->GetDeltaTime(), input->GetKeyDown("left"), input->GetKeyDown("right"), input->GetKeyDown("up"), input->GetKeyDown("down")); std::cout << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".x = " << sp->GetPos()->x << ", " << sp->GetTag().c_str() << ".y = " << sp->GetPos()->y << std::endl; }  
      Main:
      #include "SpaceShooterEngine.h" #include "Script.h" int main() { Window w("title", 600,600); Scene *scene = new Scene(); Sprite *player = new Sprite("Resources/Images/player.png", "Player", 100,100); Sprite *other = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 400, 100); Sprite *other2 = new Sprite("Resources/Images/cherno.png", "Other", 300, 400); Brain *brain = new Script(&w, player); player->AddBrain(brain); scene->AddSprite(player); scene->AddSprite(other); scene->AddSprite(other2); w.LoadScene(scene); w.MainLoop(); return 0; }  
       
      I literally can't find what is wrong. If you need more code, ask me to post it. I will also attach all the source files.
      Brain.cpp
      Error.cpp
      IndexBuffer.cpp
      Input.cpp
      Renderer.cpp
      Scene.cpp
      Shader.cpp
      Sprite.cpp
      Texture.cpp
      VertexArray.cpp
      VertexBuffer.cpp
      VertexBufferLayout.cpp
      Window.cpp
      Brain.h
      Error.h
      IndexBuffer.h
      Input.h
      Renderer.h
      Scene.h
      Shader.h
      SpaceShooterEngine.h
      Sprite.h
      Texture.h
      VertexArray.h
      VertexBuffer.h
      VertexBufferLayout.h
      Window.h
    • By Cristian Decu
      Hello fellow programmers,
      For a couple of days now i've decided to build my own planet renderer just to see how floating point precision issues
      can be tackled. As you probably imagine, i've quickly faced FPP issues when trying to render absurdly large planets.
       
      I have used the classical quadtree LOD approach;
      I've generated my grids with 33 vertices, (x: -1 to 1, y: -1 to 1, z = 0).
      Each grid is managed by a TerrainNode class that, depending on the side it represents (top, bottom, left right, front, back),
      creates a special rotation-translation matrix that moves and rotates the grid away from the origin so that when i finally
      normalize all the vertices on my vertex shader i can get a perfect sphere.
      T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, 1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(180.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[0] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, T * R, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_FRONT)); T = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::dvec3(0.0, 0.0, -1.0)); R = glm::rotate(glm::dmat4(1.0), glm::radians(0.0), glm::dvec3(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)); sides[1] = new TerrainNode(1.0, radius, R * T, glm::dvec2(0.0, 0.0), new TerrainTile(1.0, SIDE_BACK)); // So on and so forth for the rest of the sides As you can see, for the front side grid, i rotate it 180 degrees to make it face the camera and push it towards the eye;
      the back side is handled almost the same way only that i don't need to rotate it but simply push it away from the eye.
      The same technique is applied for the rest of the faces (obviously, with the proper rotations / translations).
      The matrix that result from the multiplication of R and T (in that particular order) is send to my vertex shader as `r_Grid'.
      // spherify vec3 V = normalize((r_Grid * vec4(r_Vertex, 1.0)).xyz); gl_Position = r_ModelViewProjection * vec4(V, 1.0); The `r_ModelViewProjection' matrix is generated on the CPU in this manner.
      // No the most efficient way, but it works. glm::dmat4 Camera::getMatrix() { // Create the view matrix // Roll, Yaw and Pitch are all quaternions. glm::dmat4 View = glm::toMat4(Roll) * glm::toMat4(Pitch) * glm::toMat4(Yaw); // The model matrix is generated by translating in the oposite direction of the camera. glm::dmat4 Model = glm::translate(glm::dmat4(1.0), -Position); // Projection = glm::perspective(fovY, aspect, zNear, zFar); // zNear = 0.1, zFar = 1.0995116e12 return Projection * View * Model; } I managed to get rid of z-fighting by using a technique called Logarithmic Depth Buffer described in this article; it works amazingly well, no z-fighting at all, at least not visible.
      Each frame i'm rendering each node by sending the generated matrices this way.
      // set the r_ModelViewProjection uniform // Sneak in the mRadiusMatrix which is a matrix that contains the radius of my planet. Shader::setUniform(0, Camera::getInstance()->getMatrix() * mRadiusMatrix); // set the r_Grid matrix uniform i created earlier. Shader::setUniform(1, r_Grid); grid->render(); My planet's radius is around 6400000.0 units, absurdly large, but that's what i really want to achieve;
      Everything works well, the node's split and merge as you'd expect, however whenever i get close to the surface
      of the planet the rounding errors start to kick in giving me that lovely stairs effect.
      I've read that if i could render each grid relative to the camera i could get better precision on the surface, effectively
      getting rid of those rounding errors.
       
      My question is how can i achieve this relative to camera rendering in my scenario here?
      I know that i have to do most of the work on the CPU with double, and that's exactly what i'm doing.
      I only use double on the CPU side where i also do most of the matrix multiplications.
      As you can see from my vertex shader i only do the usual r_ModelViewProjection * (some vertex coords).
       
      Thank you for your suggestions!
       
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