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  1. Below is my preliminary draft design for the AI system within Spellbound. I'm slowly migrating away from scripted expert systems towards a more dynamic and fluid AI system based on machine learning and neural networks. I may be crazy to attempt this, but I find this topic fascinating. I ended up having a mild existential crisis as a result of this. Let me know what you think or if I'm missing something. Artificial Intelligence: Objectives: Spellbound is going to be a large open world with many different types of characters, each with different motives and behaviors. We want this open world to feel alive, as if the characters within the world are inhabitants. If we went with pre-scripted behavioral patterns, the characters would be unable to learn and adapt to changes in their environment. It would also be very labor intensive to write specific AI routines for each character. Ideally, we just give every character a self-adapting brain and let them loose to figure out the rest for themselves. Core Premise: (very dense, take a minute to soak this in) Intelligence is not a fixed intrinsic property of creatures. Intelligence is an emergent property which results directly from the neural topology of a biological brain. True sentience can be created if the neural topology of an intelligent being is replicated with data structures and the correct intelligence model. If intelligence is an emergent property, and emergent properties are simple rule sets working together, then creating intelligence is a matter of discovering the simple rule sets. Design: Each character has its own individual Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This is a weighted graph which uses reinforcement learning. Throughout the character's lifespan, the graph will become more weighted towards rewarding actions and away from displeasurable ones. Any time an action causes a displeasure to go away or brings a pleasure, that neural pathway will be reinforced. If a neural pathway has not been used in a long time, we reduce its weight. Over time, the creature will learn. A SIMPLE ANN is just a single cluster of connected neurons. Each neuron is a “node” which is connected to nearby neurons. Each neuron receives inputs and generates outputs. The neural outputs always fire and activate a connected neuron. When a neuron receives enough inputs, it itself fires and activates downstream neurons. So, a SIMPLE ANN receives input and generates outputs which are a reaction to the inputs. At the end of neural cycle, we have to give response feedback to the ANN. If the neural response was positive, we strengthen the neural pathway by increasing the neural connection weights. If the response was negative, we decrease the weights of the pathway. With enough trial runs, we will find the neural pathway for the given inputs which creates the most positive outcome. The SIMPLE ANN can be considered a single cluster. It can be abstracted into a single node for the purposes of creating a higher layer of connected node networks. When we have multiple source inputs feeding into our neural network cluster and each node is running its most optimal neural pathway depending on the input, we get complex unscripted behavior. A brain is just a very large collection of layered neural nodes connected to each other. We’ll call this our “Artificial Brain” (AB) Motivation, motivators (rule sets): -All creatures have a “desired state” they want to achieve and maintain. Think about food. When you have eaten and are full, your state is at an optimally desired state. When time passes, you become increasingly hungry. Being just a teensy bit hungry may not be enough to compel you to change your current behavior, but as time goes on and your hunger increases, your motivation to eat increases until it supersedes the motives for all other actions. We can create a few very simple rules to create complex, emergent behavior. Rule 1: Every creature has a desired state they are trying to achieve and maintain. Some desired states may be unachievable (ie, infinite wealth) Rule 2: States are changed by performing actions. Actions may change one or more states at once (one to many relationship). Rule 3: “Motive” is created by a delta between current state (CS) and desired state (DS). The greater the delta between CS and DS, the more powerful the motive is. (Is this a linear graph or an exponential graph?) Rule 4: “relief” is the sum of all deltas between CS and DS provided by an action. Rule 5: A creature can have multiple competing motives. The creature will choose the action which provides the greatest amount of relief. Rule 6: Some actions are a means to an end and can be chained together (action chains). If you’re hungry and the food is 50 feet away from you, you can’t just start eating. You first must move to the food to get within interaction radius, then eat it. Q: How do we create an action chain? Q: How do we know that the action chain will result in relief? A: We generally know what desired result we want, so we work backwards. What action causes desired result (DR)? Action G does (learned from experience). How do we perform Action G? We have to perform Action D, which causes Action G. How do we cause Action D? We perform Action A, which causes Action D. Therefore, G<-D<-A; So we should do A->D->G->DR. Back propagation may be the contemporary approach to changing graph weights, but it's backwards. Q: How does long term planning work? Q: What is a conceptual idea? How can it be represented? A: A conceptual idea is a set of nodes which is abstracted to become a single node? Motivators: (Why we do the things we do) Hunger Body Temperature Wealth Knowledge Power Social Validation Sex Love/Compassion Anger/Hatred Pain Relief Fear Virtues, Vices & Ethics Notice that all of these motivators are actually psychological motivators. That means they happen in the head of the agent rather than being a physical motivator. You can be physically hungry, but psychologically, you can ignore the pains of hunger. The psychological thresholds would be different per agent. Therefore, all of these motivators belong in the “brain” of the character rather than all being attributes of an agents physical body. Hunger and body temperature would be physical attributes, but they would also be “psychological tolerances”. Psychological Tolerances: {motivator} => 0 [------------|-----------o----|----] 100 A B C D E A - This is the lowest possible bound for the motivator. B - This is the lower threshold point for the motivator. If the current state falls below this value, the desired state begins to affect actions. C - This is the current state of the motivator. D - This is the upper threshold point for the motivator. If the current state exceeds this value, the desired state begins to affect actions. E - This is the highest bounds for the motivator. The A & E bounds values are fixed and universal. The B and D threshold values vary by creature. Where you place them can make huge differences in behavior. Psychological Profiles: We can assign a class of creatures a list of psychological tolerances and assign their current state to some preset values. The behavioral decisions and subsequent actions will be driven by the psychological profile based upon the actions which create the sum of most psychological relief. The psychological profile will be the inputs into an artificial neural network, and the outputs will be the range of actions which can be performed by the agent. Ideally, the psychological profile state will drive the ANN, which drives actions, which changes the state of the psychological profile, which creates a feedback loop of reinforcement learning. Final Result: We do not program scripted behaviors, we assign psychological profiles and lists of actions. Characters will have psychological states which drive their behavioral patterns. Simply by tweaking the psychological desires of a creature, we can create emergent behavior resembling intelligence. A zombie would always be hungry, feasting on flesh would provide temporary relief. A goblin would have a strong compulsion for wealth, so they'd be very motivated to perform actions which ultimately result in gold. Rather than spending lots of time writing expert systems styled AI, we create a machine learning type of AI. Challenges: I have never created a working artificial neural network type of AI. Experimental research and development: The following notes are crazy talk which may or may not be feasible. They may need more investigation to measure their merit as viable approaches to AI. Learning by Observation: Our intelligent character doesn’t necessarily have to perform an action themselves to learn about its consequences (reward vs regret). If they watch another character perform an action and receive a reward, the intelligent character creates a connection between an action and consequence. Exploration Learning: A very important component to getting an simple ANN to work most efficiently is to get the neurons to find and establish new connections with other neurons. If we have a neural connection topology which always results in a negative response, we’ll want to generate a new connection at random to a nearby neuron. Exploration Scheduling: When all other paths are terrible, the new path becomes better and we “try it out” because there’s nothing better. If the new pathway happens to result in a positive outcome, suddenly it gets much stronger. This is how our simple ANN discovers new unscripted behaviors. The danger is that we will have a sub-optimal behavior pattern which generates some results, but they’re not the best results. We’d use the same neural pathway over and over again because it is a well travelled path. Exploration Rewards: In order to encourage exploring different untravelled paths, we gradually increase the “novelty” reward value for taking that pathway. If traveling this pathway results in a large reward, the pathway is highly rewarded and may become the most travelled path. Dynamic Deep Learning: On occasion, we’ll also want to create new neurons at random and connect them to at least one other nearby downstream neuron. If a neuron is not connected to any other neurons, it becomes an “island” and must die. When we follow a neural pathway, we are looking at two costs: The connection weight and the path weight. We always choose the shortest path with the least weight. Rarely used pathways will have their weight decrease over a long period of time. If a path weight reaches zero, we break the connection and our brain “forgets” the neural connection. Evolutionary & Inherited Learning: It takes a lot of effort for a neural pathway to become developed. We will want to speed up the development. If a child is born to two parents, those parents will rapidly increase the neural pathways of the child by sharing their own pathways. This is one way to "teach". Thus, children will think very much like their parents do. Other characters will also share their knowledge with other characters. In order for knowledge to spread, it must be interesting enough to be spread. So, a character will generally share the most interesting knowledge they have. Network Training & Evolutionary Inheritance: An untrained ANN results in an uninteresting character. So, we have to have at least a trained base preset for a brain. This is consistent with biological brains because our brains have been pre-configured through evolutionary processes and come pre-wired with certain regions of the brain being universally responsible for processing certain input types. The training method will be rudimentary at first, to get something at least passable, and it can be done as a part of the development process. When we release the game to the public, the creatures are still going to be training. The creatures which had the most “success” will become a part of the next generation. These brain configurations can be stored on a central database somewhere in the cloud. When a player begins a new game, we download the most recent generation of brain configurations. Each newly instanced character may have a chance to have a random mutation. When the game completes, if there were any particular brains which were more successful than the current strain, we select it for “breeding” with other successful strains so that the next generation is an amalgamation of the most successful previous generations. We’ll probably begin to see some divergence and brain species over time? Predisposition towards Behavior Patterns via bias: Characters will also have slight predispositions which are assigned at birth. 50% of their predisposition is innate to their creature class. 25% is genetically passed down by parents. 25% is randomly chosen. A predisposition causes some pleasures and displeasures to be more or less intense. This will skew the weightings of a developing ANN a bit more heavily to favor particular actions. This is what will create a variety in interests between characters, and will ultimately lead to a variety in personalities. We can create very different behavior patterns in our AB’s by tweaking the amount of pleasure and displeasure various outputs generate for our creature. The brain of a goblin could derive much more pleasure from getting gold, so it will have strong neural pathways which result in getting gold. AI will be able to interact with interactable objects. An interactable object has a list of ways it can be interacted with. Interactable objects can be used to interact with other interactable objects. Characters are considered to be interactable objects. The AI has a sense of ownership for various objects. When it loses an object, it is a displeasurable feeling. When they gain an object, it is a pleasurable feeling. Stealing from an AI will cause it to be unhappy and it will learn about theft and begin trying to avoid it. Giving a gift to an AI makes it very happy. Trading one object for another will transfer ownership of objects. There is no "intrinsic value" to an object. The value of an object is based on how much the AI wants it compared to how much it wants the other object in question. Learning through Socialization: AI's will socialize with each other. This is the primary mechanism for knowledge transfer. They will generally tell each other about recent events or interests, choosing to talk about the most interesting events first. If an AI doesn't find a conversation very interesting, they will stop the conversation and leave (terminating condition). If a threat is nearby, the AI will be very interested in it and will share with nearby AI. If a player has hurt or killed a townsfolk, all of the nearby townsfolk will be very upset and may attack the player on sight. If enough players attack the townsfolk, the townsfolk AI will start to associate all players with negative feelings and may attack a player on sight even if they didn't do anything to aggravate the townsfolk AI.
  2. I agree. You should be able to create this on your own. The MMORPG part is concerning though. Do you know how many people try to make an MMORPG as their first game? Do you know how hard it is to create a server-client networked game which can handle thousands of concurrent connected users? It's highly challenging. I would start by scaling back your scope a bit. And this is your first and only post on this site, so that's also concerning. Are you new to game development, or new to the site? You should also spend a ridiculous amount of time detailing out your design document. Treat it like a movie script which you write, seal in a packaged envelope, drop in a mail slot and send off to a production studio. The director follows your GDD and creates your product without having to pick up the phone and ask you a single question.
  3. I just wrote this article a few days ago: https://medium.com/@Slayemin/your-indie-game-dev-team-will-fail-108d4b663e7e Check it out. Having your team members work 2 hours a day is going to be the biggest flaw in your plan. Also, having 5-8 people is also a major problem. Your game should be something that 1-2 people can produce in 3 weeks spending 40 hours a week -- keep your scope small enough to satisfy that criteria! Also, be prepared to spend 50% of your budget on advertising and marketing.
  4. Tomorrow morning, I have to fire someone. It's been a tough three months with a lot of big life changes. My girlfriend and I were unable to pay our apartment rent in downtown Seattle, for the months of April and May. So, we were strongly encouraged to move out. We were paying $2461 per month in rent, plus $200 a month for parking, plus utilities, all for a 940 square foot two bedroom apartment with no air conditioning. Then they raised the rent. So, we moved out and found a house to rent in Edmonds, a small sleepy town about 12 miles north of Seattle. We doubled the square footage and only pay $2000 a month in rent. It's amazing. It's so peaceful and quiet. It is far superior to living in an apartment. The Seattle apartment was two blocks away from a fire station, so you would often have fire engines roaring down the street with sirens blaring at 3am. Or, there'd be someone unloading product all night for the business next door, operating a hydraulic lift. Or, maybe there'd be homeless or drunk people having an argument outside my window. I don't miss it one bit. The only thing I miss is my 15 minute commute to work by walking. Moving was a bit of a... problem. The day before, I fell off of a horse, you see. I was at my ranch, testing out a new horse to see how well it rode. It was acting a bit anxious. The saddle didn't quite fit. The horse wasn't responding very well. I figured the horse needed to get used to a rider a bit more and that I'd tire it out a bit by galloping around and break it in. So, we did. We galloped down the forested road a bit, went down the field, galloped some more, and did two loops. Then, I brought the horse back to the hitching post. This stupid daschund dog came running and barking at me and the horse, completely oblivious to the sheer difference in size between a 7lb dog and a 700lb horse. Despite that, the horse was even more anxious. So, I turned it around and went over the bridge into the field by the creek. I was going to gallop it a bit more to tire it out. So, off we go again! I see some sticks and logs in the field ahead, so I start steering the horse to the left, except its not listening. We're just running at a good 30mph. Then, at the very last second, the horse sees the debris -- and makes an almost 90 degree left turn at 30 miles per hour. Naturally, this isn't a video game, so the principles of momentum apply, and my body wants to go straight. I stomp really hard on my right stirrup, with all my body weight, to stay on the horse -- except the saddle slides to the bottom of the horse and I go with it. Keep in mind, the horse is still galloping as I'm falling. In a split second decision, I decide that I'm doomed to fall and get hurt, but the smartest thing to do is get my boots out of the stirrups so that I'm not dragged behind the horse. If I don't get my boots out, I will get killed, and that's more important to avoid than getting hurt. I did it. I got my boot out, just in time. Then I land HARD on my right back onto hard dirt. Immediate pain. I'm writhing on the ground in sheer agony, screaming in pain. It's arguably the most pain I'd ever felt in my entire life. I left myself writhe in the dirt for ten seconds and then decide its time to man up. I lay still. What's my damage assessment? My legs work. I have feeling. No broken spinal cord. I have extreme pain in my rib cage and back. I feel swelling already. Breathing is hard. My immediate assessment is that I probably broke a rib and its probably got multiple fractures. Nobody knows where I'm at, so I have to get up. Moving is excruciatingly painful, but I gotta do it. Little by little, I upright myself, then slowly stand up on my two feet. Then I slowly, ever so slowly, hobble my way back to the farm house. It's a long walk. My girlfriend sees me. I tell her what happened. I go sit in a rocking chair for a minute. Then I decide it's time to go to the hospital. The pain is getting worse. I struggle to get into the car. Then, we seem to hit every. single. fucking. pothole. along the way, each one inducing nightmarish pain in my back. We get to the emergency room. I'm brought inside immediately and put on a gurney for evaluation. I'm brought into this machine to get a CAT scan and X-Rays at the same time. It hurts so much to even breathe. Despite that, I'm calm. I'm not in mortal danger. I'll get through this, but it's gonna hurt. Well, the good news is, I don't have any spinal problems and no broken ribs. I do have a bruised right lung, internal bleeding, and as I discover later, the main source of pain was a torn back muscle. The torn muscle was the worst. It felt like every time I moved, someone was stabbing me in the back with a screwdriver and twisting viciously. I was cleared to go home and given pain meds. The whole day I laid on the couch, not daring to move. I needed two people to help me sit up, and that was extreme pain. The hardest part of my day was getting up to go use the bathroom. It literally took me a good 45 minutes to walk down the hall to use the toilet because the pain was so bad. The second day, the pain got even worse. The third day, the pain was slightly less, but still excruciating. We returned to my apartment in Seattle. We had to move out. How is that going to happen when I can't even move? Thankfully, friends and family are the greatest blessing in the world. My brothers, sisters, mom, and friends all came to help us move (and a couple hired hands). The only thing I could do is lay in bed and watch as everyone around me moved furniture. I know I was supposed to be relaxing and getting better, but I just felt so guilty watching everyone else working. Anytime I had dumb ideas about getting up, my back would hastily remind me not to. It took me a full week of laying down to recover enough to the point where I could walk around with minimal pain. I went back to work on Monday. However, my commute was now a bus ride and some short walking. With virtual reality game dev, you frequently have to get up and test something out in room scale VR. It's a bit more physically active development work than you'd think. I couldn't quite do that yet. I took it easy. Then, late evening came. It was time to walk to the bus stop and go home. Now, for those who don't know Seattle, it has some hills. My bus stop was two blocks away, but it required walking up a slight incline. Normally, I'd just power walk it and have no problems. But this time, walking even at a slow pace was just too much for me. A bruised lung left me so faint that I was about to pass out. I literally had to stop and take a breather. Maybe it was too early for me to go back to work if this was my condition? So, I decided to continue resting for another week, doing light duty. By the end of two weeks, I felt nearly completely recovered. It was an amazingly speedy recovery, considering the pain and seriousness of the injuries. I am very lucky. I could have been hurt much more seriously. Now, I am a lot more cautious around horses. I don't need to repeat that life experience. What's funny is how different riding horses are in real life compared to video games. Never, ever do you ever worry about falling off of a horse in a video game. Riding a horse is always like driving a car, it always perfectly does exactly what you want, as if the beast doesn't even have a mind of its own. It's interesting to think about the difference in user experiences between real life and game design and the balances between trade offs. Anyways, long story short, I fell off of a horse and was out of commission for a bit. During the month of May, I started doing some freelance contract work. I built a VR application for Dell, just in time for their annual Dell World event. The film guys in my office went to three different parts of the world and shot some 360 video to highlight the philanthropic programs Dell was doing to make the world a better place. We wanted to create a seamless and easy to use, interactive and immersive VR experience. People would pick up the GearVR, place it on their head, watch a couple videos, learn about the programs, and continue on with the conference, just a little wiser. We nailed it. We completely blew everyones socks off. The beauty of the Unreal Engine, coupled with good design and good assets, made an incredible VR experience. After the conference, they told me about one guy who was acting like a know-it-all, claiming that 360 video was not VR and pre-judging our app as being shit. Then, the skeptic put on our headset and tried out the experience. He's immediately in a stereoscopic world and able to use his gaze to interact with objects in the scene. Sure, the 360 video is projected onto the insides of a sphere, but that doesn't mean that all of the environment has to be projected onto a sphere or be a passive experience Afterwards, he couldn't stop raving about how amazed and wrong he was. I also started doing consulting on the side for a small local VR company here in Seattle. They were having some major problems with shipping on the GearVR platform. The problem is that the Samsung Galaxy S6 phone is notorious for overheating. The Oculus Store won't accept any submissions which cause the S6 to overheat within 15 minutes. Their app was overheating the phone within 5 minutes. So, this was clearly an optimization problem. Their dev team wasn't the very best when it comes to creating high performance systems. What they created is more than acceptable for a PC, but on a phone? Terrible. I spent considerable time testing and optimizing the scene and trying to get the app to run for 15 minutes before overheating. It's a really tedious process, where you have to document what change you made, create a package, deploy it to the phone, run a couple sessions, take an average, and figure out whether your change had any effect on the overall temperature heating rate of the phone. This workflow could easily take a few hours to test a few things. I got tired of this monotonous process, so I started just measuring the rate of temperature increase over time. The goal was to keep the phone temperature below the shut off value for the entire experience. As the temperature of the phone increases, we throttle down the experience quality. As the quality decreases, the temperature delta decreases and we squeeze out more lifetime. It was sort of like a temperature based LOD system. I was kind of proud of it. I'm not sure if anyone else has had to invent something like that. Anyways, I proved that it worked and got the app to run for at least 15 minutes on my test phone. I submitted it to Oculus for review, eagerly waiting for the test results... days go by... and then... REJECTED! Why?? Supposedly, their S6 was overheating within 5 minutes. How is that possible? We have the exact same phone! I'm still a bit baffled. For my own game, it's development has taken somewhat of a back burner. It sells on average, 1 copy a day on Steam. That volume is gradually decreasing. The bottom line is that it barely makes any money. Contracting work pays much, much more. However, Spellbound is my baby and I will continue working on it in between higher paying projects. I still spend a majority of my time working on it though. I have identified a couple key problems and areas to work on. The problems are as follows: 1) The content is too short and incomplete. 2) There is a marketing and advertising problem. Nobody knows about my game. #1 is relatively easy to fix: Just keep working on the game and adding in more content. The challenge is to create more content without spending any money or increasing debts. You want more art? voice acting? sound effects? music? You gotta pay for that... with money you don't have. #2 is the really hard one. How do you get your game in front of more people without spending lots of money? I have come up with a few key strategies: A) I need to identify and develop hardware companies in the VR space and create a cooperative partnership with them. I'll make my game compatible with their hardware, and their hardware will have compatible content. It's a win-win for both of us. Hardware sells content, and content sells hardware. If 2000 people buy a unique hardware peripheral, the next thing they'll do is look for quality content to use with the hardware. I want to make sure that Spellbound is at the top of that list everywhere they look. B) I also need to make my game as "discoverable" as possible. This means that it should be easy for people to stumble onto it. Let's face it. Nobody is going to go into their search bar and directly type in the name of my game and buy it. The only way people know about it is if they accidentally find it. Okay, that's a bad thing to rely on, right? What if... we make it easy for people to stumble onto the game in multiple places? What if we have the game available on multiple online distribution channels? Buy it on Steam! Buy it on Oculus Store! Buy it everywhere! Wherever you buy it, I don't care, so long as I get paid! If I make one sale a day on one channel and that becomes my average across all channels, then I just need to be on 50 channels to make 50 sales a day! (yeah, right) But, that does speak to the value of diversifying and broadening your footprint and availability. C) Make game content so good that people will talk to other people about it. This is extra hard for a lone indie with no budget. I'm convinced that there is only *one* way to do this right. I have to tell the most amazing story ever in the history of stories, and I have to keep the world super small and highly polished. Small, amazing story & polished. That's a tall order. Everyone else will beat me on scope. Everyone else will beat me on quality art assets and uniqueness. Everyone else will probably beat me on tech as well, though using UE4 helps even that playing field. A great story is my only chance. I can write, but is it any good? Can I write an epic story which speaks to the very heart and soul of the player? How exactly do I do that in VR? What's unique about VR that no other medium has? What do I need to discover that nobody else has discovered yet? ... short & scary answer: I don't know yet. I just have to have faith in my abilities, hard work and dedication. In line with my first strategy, I have created a partnership with NullspaceVR. They're creating the Hardlight haptics suit for VR. I got to try it out at their office and get some first impressions. It's pretty cool. They have a vest you wear which has a bunch of rumble packs placed all over your body. The developer can control which rumble packs activate and the intensity and type of the vibration. By selectively controlling the rumble packs, you can create various physical sensations on the players body. In my game, I want players to feel an impact on their body at the precise location a zombie hits them. I think this would heighten the sense of immersion and presence players experience and also work as an additional user interface medium (rather than having graphical damage indicators). The key consideration is that the support for this hardware should be treated as an optional accessory to enhance gameplay rather than a requirement to play -- additional hardware requirements only increase the consumers barrier for entry, and it's already high enough as it is with VR hardware. I have also started refactoring the artificial intelligence system in my game, for the fourth time now. This may be a mistake, but I'm doing it anyways. It's not broken. It works. But it's too scripted. The current systems are just hard coded expert systems and I don't find them very interesting or convincing, and worst of all, if I want to change behavior, I have to rewrite code. So, I've been doing some hard thinking and designing a new approach to AI. Characters now use "abilities". Abilities are a type of polymorphic action which can be assigned to a creature. If I have a zombie and a knight, I can grant both of them the "Melee Attack" ability. They can both activate the ability, but the creature response to the ability differs by creature type. The ability mostly contains meta data, such as ability cooldowns and timings for effect activations, but they can eventually be treated as "nodes" in a graph. So, I grant a creature a long list of abilities (eat, sleep, melee attack, ranged attack, run away, cast spell, etc) and ideally, it will choose the most suitable ability to use in context to its current situation. How do we determine which ability to use in the current situation? We use a weighted graph (similar to an artificial neural network). Okay, but how do we find the graph weights then? I don't want to run thousands of training simulations to get the most appropriate behavior. Instead, what I really, really want to do is just give a creature a bunch of preferences it wants to satisfy and then it chooses the most important preference to satisfy and figures out what action to take to satisfy it. Initially, the weighted graph would probably be all wrong, so we'd have to run through a few training cycles -- but not too many! The secret sauce would be to use the same graph weight for the same creatures, save them to disc so that learning is persistent through various play sessions, and also share the graph weights with some sort of online database which other brains download. That super smart zombie you are fighting? He's smart because he trained against 1000 online players and he shared his training knowledge with all zombies. At this point, ideally, all I would have to do to get different behavior patterns out of wildly different creature classes, is to tweak their innate preferences and reward systems. Zombies are constantly hungry and crave living flesh. Goblins absolutely love gold above everything else. Dwarves just want to forge stuff out of iron. Demons want to own souls like goblins own gold. Bandits just have a lower moral standard than regular people. etc. etc. Slight tweaks to preference parameters would ultimately result in different behavior patterns and it would slowly get replicated universally across all game clients over time. If I can do this, and just sort of create a sandbox game world, will the AI actors live interesting lives? Will every play through be significantly different? I don't know. It's a lot of extra scope to digest. The real question is, does the player give a fuck? Or would a scripted AI be "good enough"? Am I engineering stuff that doesn't increase the bottom line? Or am I creating something ground breaking? It's hard to tell. I need money but I also want to make cool stuff at the same time. Anyways, tomorrow morning I have to fire someone. One of the staff at our ranch has been taking our tools and selling them in town. This is the last straw in a long list of second chances. My younger sister told me something wise: "You get what you tolerate." I can't tolerate theft and the distrust that creates, no matter the sob story. The line has been crossed. I hate firing people, I take no pleasure in it, but it's a necessity for the future success of a business. You know you're ruining someones day/month, but people have to be held accountable for their own actions, good or bad. Running this ranch has been a valuable teacher on the nuances of business and management, but I can't help but feel there are many lessons for me yet to learn. P.S. I am probably the closest to being a cowboy coder right now.
  5. This post has a lot of context behind it. I've watched a lot of indie projects. There's the internet based indie projects, with remote teams and young ambitious people, of which, almost all of them fail. This is the main target demographic for my article, which was triggered by someone yesterday pulling me into his discord channel in an attempt to recruit me into the project. The intended game was going to be some variation of Black and White 2, built by a team of five people. They had a ton of red flags which needed to be corrected, so I went into detail. It wasn't the first time I've told people that their team and project has some major problems, and I started to feel that I was repeating the same things over and over again, so it would be worthwhile to compile a list of do's and don'ts so that I could just link people to it. What have I seen? Waaaaay back in the day, I joined an internet team, lead by some guy in Colorado -- called "runic games" or something. I was 17, their only programmer, who barely grasped C++ at the time. We were going to make a game about "vampyres". A few artists made concept art, lots of ideas were created, and then people started ghosting the project. It failed. Then, I tried many times to start my own games (very young and dumb) by myself and I kept on failing. Mostly because I was lazy, untalented, and burned myself out. I started to watch other variations of the first experience play out over and over again, many from small teams on gamedev.net; I decided I would not touch these types of teams with a ten foot pole because they all failed. I persisted with software development in general. I started getting a bit of professional experience and I had to deliver completed projects for people. There was no half-assing allowed, either do it or go home in shame. This is where I started figuring out the software development life cycle and getting good at the process. More recently, after starting my own indie studio, I've been keeping in touch with fellow indies and watching other start ups in my space. A lot of tragic stories. There was one indie team of five young men in my former building who all worked in the same workspace and actually shipped an HTML5 MMORPG. It works. It was an incredible accomplishment. They deployed their game online. They had an in-app purchase business model. However, they failed to attract any customers. They spent well over $200k and borrowed from friends and family. The lead programmer literally died towards the end of production. Why did they fail? Marketing, sales, and low testing and engagement with customers. The game they made was an MVP, but it just wasn't good enough to attract and retain players. Then there's this local guy who made this dumb game about a monkey. He also shipped, which is rare. But, his game is utter shit and the reviews reflect it. His problem? He couldn't accept constructive criticism and wasn't interested in critical feedback or improvement, so the result was garbage. His standards for quality are abysmal. Polish? What's that? He keeps on trying to make various games, but they are all equally bad and uninspired. He's doomed to keep repeating the same mistakes. Then there are the other start ups which seemingly do everything right, get funded by VC's, make a product, and discover that either they are too early to market, or that there is no market for their product, so they go out of business. This... is something that could have been figured out in planning instead of post production. These kinds of business problems aren't just unique to game developers, it's a problem common across all sectors of business. I've seen 90% of inventors inventing a product, only to find that they made something which nobody wants or needs. They may even spend tens of thousands in marketing and advertising, but that doesn't change the core fact that their invention is useless. Whoops! These inventors are facing the exact same problems that indie game devs face. You can even go to various fairs and look at the booths people have and see their products. Who is successful? Who has customers? Why are they doing well? Who is failing? Why are they failing? Is it the booth agent or the product? The lessons are universally applicable, because ultimately everything is either a product or service. Then there are also the local indies here in seattle who I think are doing everything absolutely right and they will succeed. They won't get wildly rich, but they will succeed. There is a million reasons why some people will succeed and fail, but I think random luck is the least influential variable in all of it. Will my game succeed or fail? I don't know, the verdict is still out. The two biggest challenges for me right now is marketing and building more content. I've made some big mistakes along the way (only revealed by hindsight), but also made some pretty good decisions as well. There are still more decisions to make, some may be mistakes, but as long as I am proactively looking for risks and trying to preemptively mitigate disaster, I can't screw up too bad, right? The lack of this process in most indie projects is what causes them to fail predictably...and its preventable.
  6. .... yes. How did I miss that?! I was looking for this category this morning and couldn't find it and was surprised it was missing. User error on my part, obviously.
  7. I wrote this article on Medium and thought I'd cross post it here: https://medium.com/@Slayemin/your-indie-game-dev-team-will-fail-108d4b663e7e This is based off of my own past personal experiences (and failures) and observations of indie teams. I think a lot of the points are probably common knowledge among experienced game devs, but it's good to share it regardless. If we can steer a few more teams onto the right track and get good games, it's worth the effort Note: I've been procrastinating on monthly updates. Long and short is that I've been busy, distracted, recovered from falling off a horse, etc.
  8. I think there should be an article category for production and management (similar to the forum category under "business").
  9. Sure, feel free to modify away The goal is to spread knowledge and help the industry become better.
  10. Thanks for the warm encouragement for writing an article I was looking through my article history and I found an article I wrote a while back which covers a lot of the same stuff and goes into a bit more depth: It might be worthwhile to consider keeping it updated and adding enhancements over time, or to do a deep dive into a particular topic. It'd be nice to start a community knowledge sharing repo for all things related to VR development -- because there should be no secrets in this industry. Thoughts?
  11. I gave this talk yesterday evening at a VR meetup in Bellevue, Washington. It starts at about 3:00 min and runs for about 50 minutes. I've also included my powerpoint slide deck in case anyone is interested in downloading it and following along. Virtual_Reality_Design_Secrets.pptx
  12. A) You can try to repeat your steps to reproduce the bug. B) You can create a log file which writes any buggy behavior to a file. C) You can create a system to record your game, and then replay it. If you encountered a bug, then replaying your input actions and events should reproduce the conditions which created the bug. D) At a bare minimum, write down what you were doing and the unexpected behavior you experienced.
  13. Yeah, I think realistically, I'm not going to succeed if I don't do any marketing or advertising. Marketing and advertising costs money, and there are a million and one ways to do it wrong and waste your money. So, how do you do marketing and advertising for your product without spending money? Get other people to do it for you! How do you do that? Create business partnerships! Create a product they want to be involved with! (way easier said than done, but high production values is the starting point). I think in my case, it's going to be an uphill slog where I have to fight hard for every single sale, unlike those other lucky game devs who have somehow gotten tons and tons of media attention throughout their development cycle and gotten millions in venture capital funding, followed by a successful release... I'm a bit jelly at how easy they make it look, but I imagine there's a lot happening behind the scenes that few people know about. When it comes to waiting patiently for success, it may never actually happen. But, your patience is determined not by your mental state of mind, but by the patience of your bank account (and maybe wife/girlfriend). In the case of VR, we may need to wait a while for the industry to become mainstream in order for indies to be profitable, but "profits" are less important right now than just surviving and getting market share and making a positive, early impression in the industry.
  14. It's been a tough few months. Spellbound is not really selling very well on Steam. It's to be expected, since the game is both in Early Access mode and has zero marketing behind it. But, it's still a disappointing reality. I'm optimistic that it will eventually change. All I have to do is keep working away at the game, add more content, start marketing and promoting it, and create more interest and attention. The biggest challenge right now is financial. I'm quite broke, but that's not really news for anyone, but it is very limiting. It means I can't hire anyone to help me. It means I can't spend money on marketing and advertising. It means I have to spend my time working on side projects which bring in extra money. Ultimately, it lengthens my timeline to final delivery. My costs have become extremely lean. My operating costs are now $400/month and I have to buy food and pay rent. I have to do everything without spending money because I don't really have money to spend. For the month of April, I have spent most of my efforts on trying to figure out how to make money on the side and how to market and advertise my game. I'm working in an office of film guys and they are offering their clients 360 video services, and will fly around the world to film and make 360 video content. Their target hardware platform is the GearVR, so they recently pinged me to help them produce their content. Easy! The first project was a short 2 minute 360 film for a film producer. He needed it made in time for NAB so that he could give demos and get work. I delivered. He was happy. Now, I just need to invoice him. I'm certain there will be much more work in the future. Dell is also another client. Their project is a bit more involved: They have three different philanthropy programs they want to promote, so I'm creating their application for GearVR as well. What's interesting about this project is that it was originally just going to be a series of 360 videos viewed in GearVR, but now that I'm involved, it has become a much more interactive VR experience. The film making and VR gaming industries are merging together, and this product is a testament to that. I foresaw this over two years ago, but didn't really expect to be one of the people to bring our industries closer together. But, it's exciting. I think this project will raise the bar for everyone else doing 360 videos. I've also been doing a little bit of consulting on the side. A fellow VR company is trying to get their GearVR app submitted to the Oculus Store, but their problem is that the phone overheats within 5 minutes. They asked me to come help them troubleshoot this. So, how do you troubleshoot a nebulous problem like this? With super debugging skills (see my last post). You can't exactly set a break point on a particular line of code or point at one thing and blame it, you have to have a really good, thorough debugging process. Anyways, I helped them out and they're now on the right path to resolving their problem. But I'm not just doing VR consulting to make money. There really isn't enough money to make it worth my time yet, and it comes with opportunity costs. I'm also selling my girlfriends product "The Perfect Wine Opener" at various street fairs, home shows, and events around the pacific northwest. Yeah. I'm a programmer, selling products to complete strangers. And I'm actually very good at it. Like, scary good. Put me in your crappiest show in the crappiest booth, and I will sell the shit out of your wine openers. Two weekends ago, I almost sold out completely and made around $2,000 -- in a weekend! This weekend, I went to an outdoor show, which was completely miserable because it was cold, rainy and windy, and I still sold $1,200 of product. I've had a guy go out to get me a coffee and come back, and I've sold another $100 in the three minutes he was gone. I honestly think that sales is a very wonderful, valuable skill to have. Think about how amazing it would be to be both a skilled salesman and a VR content creator at the same time. Not only do you understand exactly what your customer wants to get out of your experiences, you can also build it. So, it's a bit of a perplexing wonder that Spellbound isn't selling very well, considering how good I am at selling wine openers. I'm treating all of this as a science problem to solve (we engineers are good at these!). I'm going to use the same process I use to debug software to debug my marketing problem: So, why isn't anyone buying my game? What's my hypothesis? How do I test my hypothesis? How do I measure the reaction? What assumptions am I making? Last week, I assumed that if I created a Reddit AMA, I would get a lot of extra traffic to my storefront and I would see a measurable bump in sales. So, I spent the whole afternoon answering questions about VR game development. Surely, people are interested in virtual reality, game development, philosophy, ethics, war, and all of them together, right?! Those were all stupid assumptions I made. Apparently, there wasn't much interest. So, why do some AMA's get 1,500 questions and others like mine get 24 questions and engagement with 7 people? Probably because I'm not a celebrity or really weird/interesting? I have no idea. Regardless, the test results showed that there was absolutely zero change in traffic or sales from my established baseline. My hypothesis was proven wrong. And that's okay! It's 100% acceptable to be wrong! In fact, the faster you can figure out that you're wrong, the faster you can quit doing the wrong things and try different wrong things! Eventually, you'll try something that isn't wrong and you'll do something right! The key is to not get down when something negative happens!!!!!! I guess this is what makes me so good at sales. Every rejection, every objection, is perfectly fine. Just be like a rock in the bottom of a stream and let it roll off of you like water. Learn and move on fast. It's all about having a positive, optimistic attitude, no matter what is happening. Broke? Keep your head up and keep charging forward! Getting shot at? Keep your head down but don't stop smiling -- you're still alive! People quit your team? That's to bad, it's certainly a setback, but you know who won't ever quit your team? Yourself! You'll get new people eventually -- success attracts them. An indomitable spirit, positive attitude and a strong work ethic will steamroll any obstacle in your path between yourself and success. I'm a betting man, and I would still bet on myself. The lack of funds is just a small, temporary problem / challenge, but there are much bigger problems to solve in my future. I've got an industry to define and build. On that front, I have been going through the process of getting Spellbound onto the Oculus Store. It's every bit of a painful process as you'd imagine. First, you have to make your marketing materials and create your storefront. Then you have to submit a build to Oculus and go through a QA review process. I've been rejected three times. The first time, I didn't have an "entitlement check", which means I'm not checking to see if the game is a legitimate purchase. I missed that in the plethora of documentation. Second time around, I ran into this really, really annoying "black screen" bug which only happened on the oculus rift with a packaged build for levels which contained sub levels. This took me over a week to isolate and identify. It was obviously a game breaking bug. The third time I got rejected, it's because my game isn't hitting the required 90 frames per second. This is where I'm currently stuck. My scenes are complex and heavy, and I average around 45-60 frames per second. Once I can consistently hit that magical 90fps mark in all parts of my game, I'll resubmit. It's a tough benchmark to hit while trying not to lose quality in content. But, after I get accepted onto the Oculus Store, I'll have my game available on two different distribution channels. Then I can have no sales on both channels! :D But no, really, it's actually a good thing. It increases my "discoverability" and any additional marketing and advertising I eventually push out, will make my game easier to find and purchase. I think the way this works is that the more successful a game is on a storefront, the higher it "ranks" in the listings and featured sections. The more it is featured, the more eyeballs it gets and the more it is purchased. It turns into a self promoting cycle which snowballs. Naturally, these storefronts will want to continue promoting products which sell very well. It only makes sense, right? There's no incentive to promote garbage which doesn't sell well. If you take 30% from every sale and promote stuff that doesn't sell, you don't make much money. The key is to be able to say, "This will sell well. People who buy it, will like it." Am I there yet? I'm not sure. My biggest problem is that my game doesn't have enough content to make it compelling. But, that's also a temporary problem. I am also very interested in making this into a multiplayer game. But, multiplayer is going to be challenging if there aren't enough players to play with yet. So, I also need to grow my player base to justify multiplayer. Currently, I average about 1-2 concurrent sessions globally, so spending a few months building multiplayer capabilities would be a wasted effort. So, expand the player base, add more content, add multiplayer, make game better, rinse, repeat. In another recent development, I met with the Nullspace VR team last week and tried out their Hardlight VR haptics suit. They've recently had a successful kickstarter and have been getting a lot of positive press recently. They're obviously a hardware company, and as they say, "hardware is hard!". Hardware is another platform to build content for. Anyways, I tried out their suit. It was pretty cool. I felt that the VR demos they gave didn't really do their tech proper justice. I could do way better. But it's cool tech. So, I'm going to add support for their hardware in a future release of Spellbound. When a zombie claws at you, you'll feel it on your body. When you die and they munch your corpse, you'll feel it. When you get hit by a sizzling wraith spell, you'll feel the impact and burn on your body. It'll be amazing. They played Spellbound and really liked it as well, so in a few weeks or months, we're both going to announce another title with official support for their hardware. I think this will help both of our teams. I need the marketing exposure, they need content to support their hardware, and consumers need amazing, immersive VR experiences which takes VR to the next level. Anyways, VR is going to be a big deal in a few years. I hope I have a part in building its future. Right now, I have to make sure I can survive and be a part of it.
  15. 1. What do you like about the current reputation system? I've always thought of it sort of as an anti-troll system and a way to encourage people to make positive contributions to the community. If you see someone with -100 reputation, you can pretty much safely ignore anything they have to say. 2. What do you dislike about the current reputation system? It doesn't necessarily have anything to do with "reputation". I get a point for logging in? 2 points for upvoting other people? Do I lose points for downvoting people? If I wanted to get lots of points, I could just upvote everything I see, and at the same time, probably downvote every post of a particular person. The "reputation points" of a person doesn't necessarily mean that person is recognized by the community as an outstanding member. 3. Do you have any proposals to improve the existing system? Reputation should be considered a reputation based off of the contributions of people. I think we should be able to vote up forum responses which are most close to "correct". How does correctness get determined? A peer review system. The more existing reputation and expertise you have in an area, the more weight your peer review vote carries. If a forum reply gets enough peer consensus votes, it is deemed to be a "correct" answer and the poster receives expertise points. Likewise in reverse: If someone writes a programming question and you reply with an answer which is completely wrong, you lose reputation points. For forum posts, the point gain is somewhat small. But if you write a peer reviewed article and get peer consensus, you should get a lot of points. At the end of the day when I'm reading forum posts or articles, I'm always thinking, "Why should I believe anything this person says? What's their area of expertise? What is supporting their claim? Are they a reliable source of information?" I would hope that the reputation system becomes a system for identifying SME's.