# Design Relics, or permanent passive items

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The game we're currently making is a rogue-lite. This means that we're gonna have some kind of upgrades during gameplay.

We choose to take the "Binding of Isaac" way and went along with passive items. We call them "Relics".

Anyway, here are some renderings:

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• By isu diss
AABB.cpp
int AABB::supportFaceCount() { // there are only three directions for every face of an AABB box. return 3; } XMVECTOR AABB::supportFaceDirection(int i) { // the three axes of an AABB box. along the x, y and z axis. static const XMVECTOR s_aabbAxes[] = { XMVectorSet(1, 0, 0, 0), XMVectorSet(0, 1, 0, 0), XMVectorSet(0, 0, 1, 0) }; return s_aabbAxes[i]; } int AABB::supportEdgeCount() { // there are only three directions for every edges of an AABB box. return 3; } XMVECTOR AABB::supportEdgeDirection(int i) { // every edge go along the x y, or z axis. static const XMVECTOR s_aabbEdges[] = { XMVectorSet(1, 0, 0, 0), XMVectorSet(0, 1, 0, 0), XMVectorSet(0, 0, 1, 0) }; return s_aabbEdges[i]; } void AABB::supportInterval(XMVECTOR direction, float& min, float& max) { XMVECTOR centre = XMVectorSet(Center[0], Center[1], Center[2], 1); // projection of the box centre float p = XMVector3Dot(centre, direction).m128_f32[0]; // projection of the box extents float rx = fabs(direction.m128_f32[0]) * Radius[0]; float ry = fabs(direction.m128_f32[1]) * Radius[1]; float rz = fabs(direction.m128_f32[2]) * Radius[2]; // the projection interval along the direction. float rb = rx + ry + rz; min = p - rb; max = p + rb; } bool ObjectsSeparatedAlongDirection(XMVECTOR& direction, AABB* a, AABB* b) { float mina, maxa; float minb, maxb; a->supportInterval(direction, mina, maxa); b->supportInterval(direction, minb, maxb); return (mina > maxb || minb > maxa); } bool ObjectsIntersected(AABB* a, AABB* b) { // test faces of A for(int i = 0; i < a->supportFaceCount(); i++) { XMVECTOR direction = a->supportFaceDirection(i); if(ObjectsSeparatedAlongDirection(direction, a, b)) return false; } // test faces of B for(int i = 0; i < b->supportFaceCount(); i++) { XMVECTOR direction = b->supportFaceDirection(i); if(ObjectsSeparatedAlongDirection(direction, a, b)) return false; } // test cross product of edges of A against edges of B. for(int i = 0; i < a->supportEdgeCount(); i++) { XMVECTOR edge_a = a->supportEdgeDirection(i); for(int j = 0; j < b->supportEdgeCount(); j++) { XMVECTOR edge_b = b->supportEdgeDirection(j); XMVECTOR direction = XMVector3Cross(edge_a, edge_b); if(ObjectsSeparatedAlongDirection(direction, a, b)) return false; } } return true; }
Got an amount of inspiration and made this game. It's humoristic and satiric, so don't take it too seriously)
Here you play as a priest and your main task is catching the kids. Steam store page:
https://store.steampowered.com/app/915730/Catch_The_Kids_Priest_Simulator_Game/?beta=0
Gameplay trailer:
If you have any suggestions, advice or something else, write here)

• Hi,

I recently read Mat Buckland's Programming Game AI by Example book, I also watched Dave Mark's Utility Based AI GDC videos. And I'm confused about the difference of Goal Driven Agent's and Utility Based Agent's.

In Goal-Driven Agent Behavior section of Programming Game AI by Example, Mat Buckland wrote formulas for deciding which goal to be selected. And as I understand, in Uitlity Based AI characters also selecting goals(actions) based on some formula(curve formulas for example).

Is the Goal-Driven Agent Behavior section of Programming Game AI by Example written wrong or the only difference between Goal Based AI and Utility Based AI is curves for selecting goals(actions)?

Thank you.

• I encountered this problem when releasing D3D12 resources. I didn't use ComPtr so I have to release everything manually. After enabling debug layer, I saw this error:
D3D12 ERROR: ID3D12CommandQueue::<final-release>: A Command Queue (0x000002EBE2F3C7A0:'Unnamed ID3D12CommandQueue Object') is being final-released while still in use by the GPU.  This is invalid and can lead to application instability. [ EXECUTION ERROR #921: OBJECT_DELETED_WHILE_STILL_IN_USE]
I wanted to figure out which queue is it so I enabled debug device and used ReportLiveDeviceObjects trying to identify the queue. But it showed the same error. All my queues had names and ReportLiveDeviceObjects worked on other resources. After googling around, I found this page. It was a similar problem and it seemed it had something to do with finishing the unfinished frames.
Before I made any changes, my clean up code looks like this:
void Cleanup() { // wait for the gpu to finish all frames for (int i = 0; i < FrameBufferCount; ++i) { frameIndex = i; //fenceValue[i]++; //------------------------------------------> FIRST COMMENTED CODE SNIPPET //commandQueue->Signal(fence[i], fenceValue[i]); //------------> SECOND COMMENTED CODE SNIPPET WaitForPreviousFrame(i); } ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // FROM HERE ON, CODES HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THE QUESTION, THEY ARE HERE FOR THE SAKE OF COMPLETENESS ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // close the fence event CloseHandle(fenceEvent); // release gpu resources in the scene mRenderer.Release(); mScene.Release(); // imgui stuff ImGui_ImplDX12_Shutdown(); ImGui_ImplWin32_Shutdown(); ImGui::DestroyContext(); SAFE_RELEASE(g_pd3dSrvDescHeap); // direct input stuff DIKeyboard->Unacquire(); DIMouse->Unacquire(); DirectInput->Release(); // other stuff ... } Obviously it didn't work that's why I googled the problem. After seeing what is proposed on that page, I added the first and the second commented code snippet. The problem was immediately solved. The error above completely disappeared. Then I tried to comment the first code snippet out and only use the second code snippet. It also worked. So I am wondering what happened.
1.Why do I have to signal it? Isn't WaitForPreviousFrame enough?
2.What does that answer on that page mean? What does operating system have anything to do with this?
For you information, the WaitForPreviousFrame function looks like this:
void WaitForPreviousFrame(int frameIndexOverride = -1) { HRESULT hr; // swap the current rtv buffer index so we draw on the correct buffer frameIndex = frameIndexOverride < 0 ? swapChain->GetCurrentBackBufferIndex() : frameIndexOverride; // if the current fence value is still less than "fenceValue", then we know the GPU has not finished executing // the command queue since it has not reached the "commandQueue->Signal(fence, fenceValue)" command if (fence[frameIndex]->GetCompletedValue() < fenceValue[frameIndex]) { // we have the fence create an event which is signaled once the fence's current value is "fenceValue" hr = fence[frameIndex]->SetEventOnCompletion(fenceValue[frameIndex], fenceEvent); if (FAILED(hr)) { Running = false; } // We will wait until the fence has triggered the event that it's current value has reached "fenceValue". once it's value // has reached "fenceValue", we know the command queue has finished executing WaitForSingleObject(fenceEvent, INFINITE); } // increment fenceValue for next frame fenceValue[frameIndex]++; }

• So, I'm trying to solve this problem for months. I have already opened relative threads for this but now that I learned a lot of stuff  I still seek your help for this one. What I learned so far when dealing with texture Uploading and Pixel Reads:
1) Make sure how many channels the source image file has in order to configure the glTexImage2D() to read the data correctly.
2) Make sure that the width * num_OfChannels of the image is multiple of 4, so you won't have problems with the alignment. (OpenGL Common Mistakes, Texture Upload And Pixel Reads)
3) Forcing any kind of texture (R, RG, RGB) to have exactly 4 channels ALWAYS works (But you waste a lot of memory)!!!

Below, I'm going to show you step by step what I tried and what glitches are occurring, NOTICE that even if I'm creating more than one textures I ONLY render the first one a.jpg:
First check out my texture code. As you can see I'm configuring glTexImage2D() to read pixel data based on how many channels they have (I'm only using textures with 3 and 4 channels) and I already made sure that the width * channels for each image is multiple of 4.
#include "texture.h" #include "stb_image/stb_image.h" #include "glcall.h" #include "engine_error.h" #include <math.h> Texture::Texture(std::string path, bool trans, int unit) { //Reverse the pixels. stbi_set_flip_vertically_on_load(1); //Try to load the image. unsigned char *data = stbi_load(path.c_str(), &m_width, &m_height, &m_channels, 0); //Debug. float check = (m_width * m_channels) / 4.0f; printf("file: %20s \tchannels: %d, Divisible by 4: %s, width: %d, height: %d, widthXheight: %d\n", path.c_str(), m_channels, check == ceilf(check) ? "yes" : "no", m_width, m_height, m_width * m_height); /* //The length of the pixes row is multiple of 4. if ( check == ceilf(check) ) { GLCall(glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 4)); } //It's NOT!!!! else { GLCall(glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 1)); } */ //Image loaded successfully. if (data) { //Generate the texture and bind it. GLCall(glGenTextures(1, &m_id)); GLCall(glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_id)); //Not Transparent texture. if (m_channels == 3) { GLCall(glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, m_width, m_height, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data)); } //Transparent texture. else if (m_channels == 4) { GLCall(glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, m_width, m_height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data)); } else { throw EngineError("Unsupported Channels!!!"); } //Texture Filters. GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT)); GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT)); GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST_MIPMAP_NEAREST)); GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)); //Generate mipmaps. GLCall(glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D)); } //Loading Failed. else throw EngineError("The was an error loading image: " + path); //Unbind the texture. GLCall(glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0)); //Free the image data. stbi_image_free(data); } Texture::~Texture() { GLCall(glDeleteTextures(1, &m_id)); } void Texture::Bind(int unit) { GLCall(glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0 + unit)); GLCall(glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_id)); }
Now Check out the Main.cpp File
#include "Renderer.h" #include "camera.h" Camera *camera; //Handle Key Input. void HandleInput(GLFWwindow *window) { //Exit the application with ESCAPE KEY. if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS) glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, 1); //Move Forward. if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_W) == GLFW_PRESS) camera->Move(true); //Move Backward. if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_S) == GLFW_PRESS) camera->Move(false, true); //Move left. if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_A) == GLFW_PRESS) camera->Move(false, false, true); //Move right. if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_D) == GLFW_PRESS) camera->Move(false, false, false, true); } //Mouse Input. void MouseInput(GLFWwindow *window, double x, double y) { camera->UpdateRotation(x, y); } //Mouse Zoom input. void MouseZoom(GLFWwindow *window, double x, double y) { camera->UpdateZoom(x, y); } int main(void) { GLFWwindow* window; /* Initialize the library */ if (!glfwInit()) return -1; //Use openGL version 3.3 Core Profile. glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3); glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE); /* Create a windowed mode window and its OpenGL context */ window = glfwCreateWindow(800, 600, "Hello World", NULL, NULL); if (!window) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } /* Make the window's context current */ glfwMakeContextCurrent(window); //Initialize GLEW. if (glewInit() != GLEW_OK) { glfwTerminate(); return -1; } //Set Callback functions. glfwSetCursorPosCallback(window, MouseInput); glfwSetScrollCallback(window, MouseZoom); //Disable the cursor. glfwSetInputMode(window, GLFW_CURSOR, GLFW_CURSOR_DISABLED); //Enable Depth Test. GLCall(glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST)); //Get the max texture size. GLint size; GLCall(glGetIntegerv(GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE, &size)); std::cout << "Texture Max Size: "<< size << std::endl; camera = new Camera(glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 3.0f)); Renderer *renderer = new Renderer(); Shader *shader = new Shader("Shaders/basic_vertex.glsl", "Shaders/basic_fragment.glsl"); Texture *texture1 = new Texture("Resources/a.jpg", false); Texture *texture2 = new Texture("Resources/container.jpg", false); Texture *texture3 = new Texture("Resources/brick2.jpg", false); Texture *texture4 = new Texture("Resources/brick3.jpg", false); //Forget this texture. //Texture *texture5 = new Texture("Resources/brick4.jpg", false); Texture *texture6 = new Texture("Resources/container2.png", true); /* Loop until the user closes the window */ while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window)) { //Handle input. HandleInput(window); //Clear the screen. renderer->ClearScreen(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); //Render the cube. renderer->Render(texture1, shader, camera); //Update. renderer->Update(window); } //-------------Clean Up-------------// delete camera; delete renderer; delete shader; //forget about textures for now. //-------------Clean Up-------------// glfwTerminate(); return 0; }
I will put the code of the rest classes and the glsl shaders at the end if you want to check them out, but i assure you that they work just fine.
Now if i run the code below I'm getting this:

Now lets see what happens if I'm loading the textures one by one starting from the first one which is the only one i render.

Attempt 1:
Texture *texture1 = new Texture("Resources/a.jpg", false); //Texture *texture2 = new Texture("Resources/container.jpg", false); //Texture *texture3 = new Texture("Resources/brick2.jpg", false); //Texture *texture4 = new Texture("Resources/brick3.jpg", false); //Forget this texture. //Texture *texture5 = new Texture("Resources/brick4.jpg", false); //Texture *texture6 = new Texture("Resources/container2.png", true);

Attempt 2:
Texture *texture1 = new Texture("Resources/a.jpg", false); Texture *texture2 = new Texture("Resources/container.jpg", false); //Texture *texture3 = new Texture("Resources/brick2.jpg", false); //Texture *texture4 = new Texture("Resources/brick3.jpg", false); //Forget this texture. //Texture *texture5 = new Texture("Resources/brick4.jpg", false); //Texture *texture6 = new Texture("Resources/container2.png", true);

Attempt 3:
Texture *texture1 = new Texture("Resources/a.jpg", false); Texture *texture2 = new Texture("Resources/container.jpg", false); Texture *texture3 = new Texture("Resources/brick2.jpg", false); //Texture *texture4 = new Texture("Resources/brick3.jpg", false); //Forget this texture. //Texture *texture5 = new Texture("Resources/brick4.jpg", false); //Texture *texture6 = new Texture("Resources/container2.png", true);

Attempt 4 (Orange Glitch Appears)
Texture *texture1 = new Texture("Resources/a.jpg", false); Texture *texture2 = new Texture("Resources/container.jpg", false); Texture *texture3 = new Texture("Resources/brick2.jpg", false); Texture *texture4 = new Texture("Resources/brick3.jpg", false); //Forget this texture. //Texture *texture5 = new Texture("Resources/brick4.jpg", false); //Texture *texture6 = new Texture("Resources/container2.png", true);

Attempt 5 (Grey Glitch Appears)
Texture *texture1 = new Texture("Resources/a.jpg", false); Texture *texture2 = new Texture("Resources/container.jpg", false); Texture *texture3 = new Texture("Resources/brick2.jpg", false); Texture *texture4 = new Texture("Resources/brick3.jpg", false); //Forget this texture. //Texture *texture5 = new Texture("Resources/brick4.jpg", false); Texture *texture6 = new Texture("Resources/container2.png", true);

If you see it, they only texture which I'm rendering is the first one, so how can the loading of the rest textures affect the rendering, since I'm not using them? (I'm binding the first texture before every draw call, you can check it out in the renderer class). This is so weird I literally can't think anything that causes the problem.

Now check this out. I'm going to run Attempt 5 again but with these changes in the Texture class (I'm going to Force 4 channels no matter what the source file's channels😞
#include "texture.h" #include "stb_image/stb_image.h" #include "glcall.h" #include "engine_error.h" #include <math.h> Texture::Texture(std::string path, bool trans, int unit) { //Reverse the pixels. stbi_set_flip_vertically_on_load(1); //Try to load the image. unsigned char *data = stbi_load(path.c_str(), &m_width, &m_height, &m_channels, 4); //FORCE 4 CHANNELS. //Debug. float check = (m_width * m_channels) / 4.0f; printf("file: %20s \tchannels: %d, Divisible by 4: %s, width: %d, height: %d, widthXheight: %d\n", path.c_str(), m_channels, check == ceilf(check) ? "yes" : "no", m_width, m_height, m_width * m_height); /* //The length of the pixes row is multiple of 4. if ( check == ceilf(check) ) { GLCall(glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 4)); } //It's NOT!!!! else { GLCall(glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 1)); } */ //Image loaded successfully. if (data) { //Generate the texture and bind it. GLCall(glGenTextures(1, &m_id)); GLCall(glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_id)); /* //Not Transparent texture. if (m_channels == 3) { GLCall(glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, m_width, m_height, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data)); } //Transparent texture. else if (m_channels == 4) { GLCall(glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, m_width, m_height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data)); } else { throw EngineError("Unsupported Channels!!!"); } */ GLCall(glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, m_width, m_height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data)); //Texture Filters. GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT)); GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT)); GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST_MIPMAP_NEAREST)); GLCall(glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR)); //Generate mipmaps. GLCall(glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D)); } //Loading Failed. else throw EngineError("The was an error loading image: " + path); //Unbind the texture. GLCall(glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0)); //Free the image data. stbi_image_free(data); } Texture::~Texture() { GLCall(glDeleteTextures(1, &m_id)); } void Texture::Bind(int unit) { GLCall(glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0 + unit)); GLCall(glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, m_id)); }
Rendering is what I expected!
But I still can't understand why this fixes it. In the first version of my texture class, which I don't force 4 channels but instead I'm using the default channels, I'm configuring glTexImage2D the right way based on the source files channels and also I'm SURE that the width * channels of each image file is multiple of 4.But again in the second version of my texture class, which solve's the problem my mind is thinking again that this might be an alignment problem but it's not, I made sure of that.
So what else can cause such a problem? Does anybody knows the answer?

Below you will find the rest of the code:
#version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec3 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec3 aNormal; layout(location = 2) in vec2 aTexCoord; uniform mat4 model; uniform mat4 view; uniform mat4 proj; out vec2 TexCoord; void main() { gl_Position = proj * view * model * vec4(aPos, 1.0); TexCoord = aTexCoord; }
#version 330 core layout(location = 0) in vec3 aPos; layout(location = 1) in vec3 aNormal; layout(location = 2) in vec2 aTexCoord; uniform mat4 model; uniform mat4 view; uniform mat4 proj; out vec2 TexCoord; void main() { gl_Position = proj * view * model * vec4(aPos, 1.0); TexCoord = aTexCoord; }
Renderer Class:
#include "Renderer.h" Renderer::Renderer() { //Vertex Data. float vertices[] = { // positions // normals // texture coords -0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, -0.5f, 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f }; //Generate a VAO and a VBO. GLCall(glGenVertexArrays(1, &m_VAO)); GLCall(glGenBuffers(1, &m_VBO)); //Bind VAO and VBO. GLCall(glBindVertexArray(m_VAO)); GLCall(glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, m_VBO)); //Transfer The Data. GLCall(glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW)); //Positions. GLCall(glEnableVertexAttribArray(0)); GLCall(glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(float) * 8, (void *)0)); //Normals. GLCall(glEnableVertexAttribArray(1)); GLCall(glVertexAttribPointer(1, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(float) * 8, (void *) 12)); //Texture Coordinates. GLCall(glEnableVertexAttribArray(2)); GLCall(glVertexAttribPointer(2, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(float) * 8, (void *) 24)); //Unbind The Buffers. GLCall(glBindVertexArray(0)); GLCall(glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0)); } Renderer::~Renderer() { } void Renderer::ClearScreen(float r, float g, float b) { GLCall(glClearColor(r, g, b, 1.0f)); GLCall(glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT)); } void Renderer::Update(GLFWwindow * window) { glfwSwapBuffers(window); glfwPollEvents(); } void Renderer::Render(Texture *texture, Shader *program, Camera *camera) { //Bind VAO. GLCall(glBindVertexArray(m_VAO)); //Bind The Program. program->Bind(); //Set the unit to be used on the shader. program->SetUniform1i("diffuse", 0); //Bind the texture at unit zero. texture->Bind(0); glm::mat4 model = glm::mat4(1.0f); glm::mat4 view = glm::mat4(1.0f); glm::mat4 proj = glm::mat4(1.0f); //Get The View Matrix. view = camera->GetView(); //Create The Perspective Projection. proj = glm::perspective(glm::radians(camera->m_fov), 800.0f / 600, 0.1f, 100.0f); //Set the transformation uniforms. program->SetUniformMat4f("model", model); program->SetUniformMat4f("view", view); program->SetUniformMat4f("proj", proj); //Draw Call. GLCall(glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 36)); }